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JOURNAL 


OP  THE 


ASIATIC  SOCIETY  OF  BENGAL, 


EDITED    BY 


THE   SECKETARY. 


VOL.  XV. 


•'  It  will  flourish,  if  naturalists,  chemists,  antiquari 
in  different  parts  ot  Asia  will  commit  their  observatic 
Asiatic  Society  at  Calcutta.  It  will  langruish  if  such 
mitted  ;  and  it  will  die  away  if  they  shall  entirely  ceaae,"— Sir  Wm .  Jones. 


CALCUTTA : 

BISHOP'S   COLLEGE    PRESS. 

1846. 

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INDEX  TO  VOL.  XV. 


Page 

Canal  Act  of  the  Emperor  Akbar  with  some  notes  and  remarks  on 
the  History  of  the  Western  Jumna  Canals,  By  Lieut.  Yule,  Engineers, 
First  Assistant  W.  J.  C, 213 

Coast  of  Coromandel,  from  Pennour  to  Pondicherry ;  Notes,  chiefly 
Geological,  on  the.  By  Capt.  Newbold, 204 

Coins  of  Arakan ;  The  Historical.  By  Capt.  A.  P.  Phayre,  Principal 
Assistant  Commissioner,  Arakan, 232 

;  The  Symbolical.     By  Lieut.  T.  Latter, 238 

.  the  Independent  Muhammadan  Sovereigns  of  Bengal, 

by  J.  W.  Laidlay,  Co-Secretary,  323 

Fauna  of  the  Nicobar  Islands ;  Notes  on  the.  By  E.  Blyth,  Curator  of 
the  Museum  of  the  Asiatic  Society, • 367 

Geological  features  of  Zillah  Behar,  Note  on  the.  By  W.  S.  Sherwill, 
B.  N.  I.  Revenue  Surveyor, 55 

Hill  Tribes  on  the  Kuladyne  River ;  a  note  on  some.  By  Lieut.  T.  Latter, 
(67th  N.  I.)  of  the  Arakan  Local  Battalion, 60 

Koompta  on  the  Western  Coast  (S.  India)  by  the  Devamunni  and 
Nundibannama  Passes,  easterly  to  Cumbum,  and  thence  southerly  to 
Chittoor ;  Notes,  chiefly  Geological,  from ;  comprising  a  notice  of  the 
I>iamond  and  Lead  Excavations  of  Buswapur.  By  Capt.  Newbold, . .     380 

Mammalia  inhabiting  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands ;  Catalogue 
of :  Collected  or  Observed  by  Theodore  Cantor,  M,  D.  Bengal  Medi- 
cal Service, i .,• . . .    171—241 

New  or  Little  known  Species  of  Birds,  Notices  and  Descrifttions  of  vari- 
ous.   By  E.  Blyth,  Esq.,  Curator,  Museum  Asiatic  Society, 1 — ^280 

Nicobar  Islands ;  Notice  of  the.     By  the  Rev.  P.  Barbe, 344 

Proceedings  of  the  Asiatic  Society  for  January,  1846,  (79)  i;  for 
February,  (171)  xvii;  March  (241)  xxiii;  for  April  (323)  xxvii ;  for 
May  (397)  xxxm ;  for  June  xti ;  for  July  xlvii ;  for  September  Ixvii. 
— ^Ixxv;  for  October  Ixxix  ;  for  November  Ixxxv ;  for  December  ciii. 

Seiingapatam,  by  the  Hegulla  Pass,  to  Cannanore;  Notes,  chiefly 
Geological,  from.  By  Capt.  Newbold, 315 

Shatool  and  Booran  Passes  over  the  Himalaya,  Diary  of  an  Excursion 
to  the,  in  September  1845.  By  Capt.  Madden,  Bengal  Artillery,. ...       79 

Tibetan  Antelope ;  Description  of  a  new  species  of;  with  plates.  By 
B.  H.  Hodgson,  Esq.  Darjeeling, 334 


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iv  Index. 

Page 
Western  Coast  ofSouth  India ;  Notes,  chiefly  Geological,  on  the.     By 

Capt.  Newbold, ' 224 

Zoology  of  Candahar  and  the  neighbouring  districts ;  Rough  notes  on 
the.  By  Capt.  T.  Hutton  of  the  Invalids,  Mussoori,  with  Notes  by 
Edward  Blyth,  Esq.  Curator,  Museum  Asiatic  Society  (continued 
from  Vol.  XIV.  page  354),    135 

Index  to  Names  of  Contributors. 

Barbe,  Rev.  P.  Notice  of  the  Nicobar  Islands, 344 

Blyth,  Ed.  Esq.  Notices  and  Discriptions  of  various  New  or  Little 
Known  Species  of  Birds, , 1 — ^280 

Notes  on  the  Fauna  of  the  Nicobar  Islands,    367 

Cantor,  Theodore,  M.  D.  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting  the  Mala- 
yan Peninsula  and  Islands, ^ 171— r24l 

Hodgson,  B.  H.  Esq.  Description  of  a  new  Species  of  Tibetan  Ante- 
lope,      334 

Hutton,  Capt.  T.  Rough  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar  and  the 
neighbouring  districts, 135 

Laidlay,  J.  W.  Esq.,  on  the  Coins  of  the  Independant  Muhammadan 
Sovereigns  of  Bengal, 323 

Latter,  Lieut.  T.  A  Note  on  some  Hill  Tribes  on  the  Kuladyne  River, 
Arakan,    60 

■^ The  Symbolical  Coins  of  Arakan,    238 

Madden,  Capt.  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  and  Boorun  Pass- 
es, over  the  Himalaya,  in  Sept.  1845,  . , ,. 79 

Newbold,  Capt.  Notes,  chiefly  Geological,  on  the  coast  of  Coromandel, 
from  Pennaur  to  Pondicherry, 204 

Notes,  chiefly  Geological,  on  the  Western  coast  of  South 

India,   , 224 

— — ^— — —  Notes,  chiefly  Geological,  from  Seringapatam,  by  the 
HeguUa  Pass  to  Cannanore, 315 

Notes,  chiefly  geological,  from  Koompta  on  the  Western 

Coast  (South  India)  by  the  Devamimni  and  Nundibunnama  Passes, 
easterly  to  Cumbum,  and  thence  southerly  to  Chittoor ;  comprising 
a  notice  of  the  Diamond  and  Lead  Excavations  of  Buswapur, 380 

Phayre,  Capt.  A.  P.  The  Historical  Coins  of  Arakan,    232 

Sherwill,  Lieut.  W.  S.  Note  on  the  geological  features  of  the  Zillah 
Bahar, 55 

Yule,  Lieut.  A  Canal  Act  of  the  Emperor  Akbar  with  some  notes  and 
remarks  on  the  History  of  the  Western  Jumna  Canals^ 213 


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JOURNAL 


ASIATIC  SOCIETY. 


Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  or  Little  Known  Species  of 
Birds,     By  £o.  Blyth,  Curator  of  the  Asiatic  Society's  Museum, 

[Continued  from  Vol.  XIV,  p.  602]. 
Buzzards.  Archibuteo  hemiptUopus^  nobis.  Nearly  allied  to  the  Mexican 
Arch,  regalis,  figured  by  Mr.  6.  R.  Gray  in  his  illustrated  work  on  the 
'  G^era  of  Birds' ;  having  the  tarsi,  as  in  that  species,  feathered  to  the 
toes  in  front  and  externally,  bare  and  scutated  behind,  and  reticulated 
for  a  slight  distance  on  either  side,  the  latter  being  hidden  by  the 
feathers.  Length,  of  probably  a  fine  female,  about  twenty-eight  inches, 
the  wing  twenty  and  a  quarter,  and  tail  thirteen  inches;  beak,  from 
point  to  gape,  two  inches ;  and  tarse  exceeding  three  inches.  Colour 
(of  the  only  specimen  examined)  a  rich  deep  fuscous-brown,  slightly 
glossed  with  pink  on  the  upper.parts;  the  inter-scapularies  shading 
laterally  to  fulvescent :  on  the  nape,  the  feathers  are  merely  tipped  with 
dusky-brown,  the  remainder  being  pure  white,  which  shews  very  conspi- 
cuously :  head  mingled  whitish  and  brown,  the  latter  predominating 
on  the  crown,  the  former  on  the  lower  ear-coverts  and  throat :  from  the 
base  of  the  lower  mandible  proceeds  a  large  blackish  moustache :  breast 
fulvescent,  the  feathers  more  or  less  largely  tipped  with  deep  brown ; 
and  the  abdomen,  flanks,  vent,  lower  tail- coverts,  with  the  long  tibial 
and  the  tarsal  plumes,  are  of  an  uniform  rich  very  dark  brown  throughout, 
approaching  to  blackish  :  primaries  dusky,  paler  above  the  emargination 
of  their  outer  webs,  and  the  smaller  primaries  and  the  secondaries  are 
No.  169.     No.  85,  Nbw  Sebibs.  b 


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2  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

obscurely,  though  distinctly,  banded :  internally,  the  large  alars  are  white 
at  base,  as  in  other  Buzzards  :  tail  barred  throughout  with  many  narrowish 
undulating  bands,  alternately  dusky  and  paler,  becoming  successively 
more  obscure  towards  the  base,  and  the  subterminal  dusky  band 
broadish ;  beneath,  the  tail  is  albescent  to  near  its  base,  and  the  stems 
of. the  caudal  feathers  are  very  white,  both  above  and  below.  Beak 
dusky  horn-coloured,  yellowish  laterally  at  base  of  mandibles,  and  with 
apparently  a  livid  wax-coloured  cere  :  the  toes  also,  and  hind  portion  of 
the  tarsi,  livid  waxy ;  and  the  talons  horny-black.  A  very  splendid 
species,  from  Darjeeling. 

Another  fine  Buzzard,  the  Buteo  aquilinus,  Hodgson,  nobis,  J,  A.  S. 
(March)  1845,  p.  176,  has  since  been  described  by  Mr.  Hodgson  by 
the  name  B.^leucocephalus,  in  Proc,  ZooL  Soc,  (April)  1845,  p.  21, 
where  he  speaks  of  it  as  "  peculiar  to  the  Gachar  and  Tibet."  I  repeat 
my  former  suggestion,  that  it  is  probably  the  Falco  asiaticus  of  Latham, 
described  to  inhabit  China. 

A  third  was  described  by  Mr.  Hodgson,  in  the  '  Bengal  Sporting 
Magazine,'  for  1836,  p.  182,  by  the  name  Circus  plutnipes,  which  he  has 
since  altered  to  Buteo  plumipes,  Proc.  Zool,  Soc.  1845,  p.  37,  though 
retaining  his  opinion  of  its  near  affinity  to  Circus* 

A  fourth  is  the  B.  canescens,  Hodgson,  (vide  J,  A.  S,  XII,  308,)  which 
is  decidedly  the  '  Nasal  Falcon'  of  Latham ;  and  Mr.  Jerdon  now  iden- 
tifies with  it  his  B.  longipes,  and  I  much  suspect  that  B.  rufiventer, 
Jerdon,  is  merely  a  small  male  of  the  same.  Also,  I  think  that  B.  pec^ 
toralis,  Vieillot,  will  prove  to  be  no  other,  in  which  case  this  last  speci- 
fic name  will  have  to  be  retained.  I  have  procured  specimens  of  this 
bird  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Kishenaghur  and  Moorshedabad*  in  Lower 
Bengal,  and  have  picked  up  an  undoubted  feather  of  it  in  a  mangoe  tope 
much  nearer  to  Calcutta ;  but  in  the  vicinity  of  Calcutta  it  must  be 
very  rare,  if  it  occurs  at  all ;  preferring  a  more  open  country. 

*  Mr.  Hodgson  has  recently  written  me  word  that  the  Buteo  plutnipes^  loc.  cit.^  **  is 
a  Circus  osculant  to  Buteo,  as  B.  aquilinus  (v.  leucocephalus )  is  a  Buteo  osculant  to 
AquUa.  The  latter  is  not  a  typical  Buteo  or  ^rcAi&u^eo, "^witness  its  reticulate  tarse, 
.&c.  &c.  This  species  is  inserted  incorrectly  in  the  *  Proceedings  of  the  Zoological 
Society.'  instead  ofplumipes  belonging  **  to  Buteo  proper  and  not  to  Circus,"  it  should 
have  been  *  belongs  not  to  Buteo  but  to  Circus.*— This  species  1  have  never  seen, 
but  must  confess  to  theoretical  doubts  of  its  truly  connecting  Circus  with  Buteo:  the 
latter  genus  and  Aquila,  on  the  other  hand,  are  very  closely  allied,  in  fact  but  slight 
modifications  of  the  same  immediate  subtype ;  and  species  of  intermediate  character 
might  have  been  looked  for. 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  3 

B,  pygmteus,  nobis,  J,  A,  3,  1845»  p.  177,  is  a  fifth  decided  species, 
from  the  Tenasserim  provinces. 

To  the  genus  Spizaetus  of  Vieillot,  Mr.  G.  R.  Gray  refers  Nisa^tus  of 
Mr.  Hodgson  as  a  synonyme  (as  I  formerly  did,  in  J.  A,  S.  XI,  456, 
and  XII,  305) ;  thus  bringing  together  certain  species  of  the  Old  World 
and  of  the  New,  concerning  which  suspicion  at  least  of  respective  generic 
diversity  had  been  entertained.  Morphnus  of  Cuvier,  however,  which  had 
generally  been  placed  as  synonymous  with  Spizaetus,  is  confined  by  Mr. 
Gray  to  certain  naked-legged  species  of  South  America,  as  M,  urubi- 
tinga  and  its  affines ;  and,  finally,  Limna^tus,  Vigors,  is  referred  by  the 
same  systematist  to  Spizaetus,  though  to  judge  from  Dr.  Horsfield's 
figure  and  description  of  L.  unicolor  (its  type),  he  would  scarcely  seem 
justified  in  doing  so. 

Upon  a  former  occasion  (ante,  p.  176),  I  indicated  the  four  Indian 
species  of  undoubted  Spizaetus  (vel  Nisaetus),  after  describing  what  I 
conceived  to  be  a  new  species  of  the  form  from  Malacca,  by  the  name 
NisaStus  alboniger,*  This  last,  however,  proves  to  be  decidedly  the 
true  Falco  caligatus  of  Rafiies,  (as  was  first  pointed  out  to  me  by  my 
friend  Dr.  Cantor,)  and  will  therefore  now  range  as  Sp,  caligatus, 
(Rafiies)  :  consequently,  it  remains  to  determine  what  specific  name 
the  common  Bengal  species,  which  I  formerly  conceived  to  be  cali- 
gatus,  should  retain;  and  this  will  probably  be  nipalensis,  (Hodgson,) 
since  considerable  doubt  must  attach  at  present  to  the  identification 
of  it  with  the  Javanese  Falco  niveus  of  Temminck.  The  species  in 
question  is  the  Bauj  Eagle  and  Nerwied  Eagle  of  Latham,  but  does  not 
appear  to  have  received  a  distinctive  systematic  name  prior  to  that 
bestowed  by  Mr.  Hodgson,  and  which  should  refer  exclusively^  to  his 
supposed  crestless  variety  of  the  species,  which  usually  presents  a  mere 
rudiment  of  an  occipital  crest,  very  rarely  further  developed ;  though  I 
have  obtained  one  middle-aged  specimen  (out  of  several  dozens,)  with  a 
crest  two  inches  long.f  This  bird  would  appear  to  be  very  rare  in  the 
Himalaya,  while  in  the  plains  of  Lower  Bengal  it  is  extremely  numer- 
ous. I  lately  saw  one  specimen  in  a  large  collection  from  Darjeeling : 
but  Mr.  Hodgson's  supposed  crested  variety  of  the  species,  subsequently 

*  Also  described  under  this  name  by  Lord  Arthur  Hay,  Madr*  Journ.  No  XXXI, 
145. 

t  More  recently,  also,  another  and  younger  specimen,  with  a  slight  crest,  though  still 
very  unusually  developed  for  the  species. 


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4  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

termed  by  him  N.  paliidus,  and  which  I  refer  to  Falco  indicns  cirtatus 
of  Ray  (v.  F,  cirratus,  Shaw),  seems  to  be  exclusively  a  hill  bird,  as  are 
also  our  other  crested  species,  Sp,  pukher  and  8p,  Kieneri. 

The  variation  in  development  of  crest  here  noticed  of  Sp.  nipaknsis, 
is  both  curious  and  instructive :  a  tendency  to  such  prolongation  of  the 
central  occipital  plumes  being  observable  in  various  other  F^lconidte, 
as  especiaUy  in  HieraStus  (Kaup,  v.  AquUa,)  pennmtus,  and  slightly  in 
Buteo  caneseens ;  while  in  the  Indian  Pemis,  which  is  currently  regarded 
as  a  peculiar  species  by  the  name  P.  cristata,  the  crest  is  very  com- 
monly reduced  to  a  mere  rudiment  (which  might  remain  unnoticed  if 
not  looked  for),  while  in  other  specimens  the  feathers  composmg  it  are 
prolonged  an  inch  beyond  those  they  immediately  impend.  Hence  I 
have  some  suspicion  whether  the  species  is  really  distinct  from  P. 
apivora ;  and  I  also  doubt  whether  more  than  a  single  species  of  this 
very  variable  l»rd  has  been  yet  discovered.  All  those  which  are  men* 
tioned  by  Mr.  G.  R.  Gray,  I  would  thus  provisionally  reduce  to  one, 
with  the  exception  of  my  Lophastur  Jerdani,  (J.  A.  8,  XI,  464,)  which 
is  erroneously  referred  by  Mr.  Gray  to  this  genus ;  it  being  strictly 
an  aberrant  Baza,  and  perhaps  identical  with  B.  nmgnirostris  of  the 
Philippine  Islands,  mentioned  by  Mr.  G.  R.  Ghray,  though  I  suspect  as 
yet  undescribed.*  While  on  this  group,  I  may  further  remark  that 
Buteo  cristatus,  Vieillot,  has  been  currently  regarded  as  a  synonyme  of 
Baza  lophotes ;  but,  as  described  in  the  Diet.  Class. ^  where  moreover 
Australia  is  assigned  as  its  habitat,  it  can  neither  be  B.  iophotes  nor 
B,  subcristata  figured  in  Goukl's  '  Birds  of  Austndia' ;  and  if  not  a  *'  Bus9 
Bondr4e  Hupp4e"  as  he  terms  it  (or  Honey  Buzzard),  it  is  not  impro- 
bably the  young  of  Aquila  ?  morphnoides,  Gould,  exhibiting  a  coloration 
analogous  to  that  of  the  immature  plumage  of  its  nearly  allied  congener, 
Hiera^tus  pennatus,  and  in  such  case  ranking  as  H,  cri9$atus,  (Vieillot). 

*  I  had  scarcely  written  the  above,  when  the  Society  received  a  second  fine  collection 
of  Scandinavian  objects  of  Natural  History  from  the  University  of  Christiania.  A 
specimen  of  Pemia  aipwora  is  included,  and  I  find  the  species  is  distinct  from  P* 
eristata  :  the  great  variation  of  plumage  is  the  same  in  both,  and  the  varieties  corres- 
pond; but  in  P.  apivora^  in  addition  to  there  not  being  the  slightest  tendency  to  the 
formation  of  an  occipital  crest,  the  beak  is  conspicuously  smaller,  and  the  toes  are 
much  shorter.  Thus,  in  two  specimens  of  exactly  the  same  general  dimensions,  the 
middle  toe  of  P.  apwora^  from  its  separation  from  the  next  to  the  insertion  of  the 
talons,  measures  an  inch  and  a  half;  while  in  P*  crisiata  it  measures  an  inch  and 
seven-eighths,  with  the  rest  of  the  foot  in  proportion.  The  reticulate  flcutatioB  pf  the 
leg  and  foot  is  also  much  mora  prominent  than  in  P.  apivora. 


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1846.]  or  LiHlt  Known  Specu$  of  Birds.  5 

Among  the  true  Hawks,  we  have  a  similar  occipital  crest  in  Aatur 
trwirfmtuSi  (Tern.,)  to  whkh  may  be  referred  A.  miicui,  Hodgson,  (Beng. 
Sp,  Mag,  1S36,  p.  177.)  it  being  also  the  supposed  A,  palvmbarims  of 
Mr.  Jerdon's  Catalogue.  The  Society  has  lately  received  fine  specimens 
of  this  Goshawk  from  Y^  (Tenasserim),  formu:^  part  of  a  valuable  collec- 
tion from  that  province,  presented  by  the  Rev.  J.  Barbe,  R.  C.  M.**" 

Of  Indian  true  Afuila,  as  Mr.  G.  R.  Gray  now  adopts  the  genus, 
as  many  as  nine  species  exist,  wluch  are  as  follow  :«^1.  Tohna^tutf 
Bonellit  the  Niea^us  grundtM,  Hodgson,  and '  Genoese  Eagle'  of  I<atham : 
peculiar  to  hilly  regions.'*^2,  Aq.  ehrysaetot:  Himalaya,  and  perhaps 
Col.  Sykes's  Dukhun  bird,  though  Mr.  Jerdon's  supposed  'Golden 
Eagle'  of  South  India,  refers  to  die  next  species.*— 3,  Aq.  mogUnik^ 
imperutlis,  and  heliaca^  Auct.  India  gena«lly,  chiefly  however  the 
mountains.  Of  this  robustly  formed  Eagle,  there  are  two  phases 
of  plumage.  One  is  liie  dark  brown,  with  pale  head  and  nuchal  plumes, 
bkcki^  forehead  and  throat,  and  often  a  great  white  patch  on 
the  shoulder:  the  other  has  pale  central  stripes  to  the  feathers  of  the 
back,  which  are  much  broader  on  tiiose  of  the  neck  and  under-parts, 
where  they  have  merely  dark  lateral  margins,  and  the  wing  also  is  more 
(MT  less  spotted ;  in  the  latter  plumage,  the  feathers  of  the  back  and 
especially  those  of  the  breast  and  under*part8  are  considerably  more 
lengUiened,  attenuated  and  pomted,  than  in  the  other ;  uid  the  dress 
certainly  does  not  appear  to  be  juvenile,  •  but  analogous  rather  to  the 
^K>tted  garb  of  Aq,  ntevia.  To  judge  from  Hardwicke  and  Gray's 
figure,  it  might  be  thought  the  immature  plumage  of  Aq,  bt/asdata,  but 
such  is  not  the  case. — 4,  Aq.  bifasciata.  Gray,  v.  nipalensis,  Hodgson, 
As.  Res.  XVIII*  pt.  II,  p.  13.  Eqind  to  the  last  in  size,  but  less 
robust ;  and  ocdour  a  dead  brown,  with  the  secondaries  and  great  ruige 

*  Dr.  M*CleIUad  has  lately  favoured  me  with  pennission  to  look  over  his  drawings 
of  Assamese  animals ;  among  which  is  one  of  his  Spizaelus  ruJUinctus,  Proc.  Zool. 
Soc.  18S9,  p.  153,  which  I  consider  merely  to  represent  the  adult  female  of  Astur 
irwirgatus. 

t  This  group  comprises  T.  BonelH  of  Southern  Europe  and  Asia,  and  I  believe  North 
Africa;  and  T.  helUcosus,  v.  armiger,  (Shaw,)  of  South  Africa.  Mr.  Hodgson  thinks 
tiiat  his  name  Nieaetus  shoold  now  stand  for  this  form ;  but  as  he  has  figured  nipalen^ 
sis  as  the  *'  type  of  the  new  genus  Nisa'iius,**  J.  A.  S.  Y.  227,  and  subsequently  charac* 
terized  that  form  as  short* winged,  VI,  361,  and  elsewhere  spoken  of  ^am2i«  as  «*an 
aberrant  species,"  1  am  compelled  in  this  case  to  dispute  his  claim  to  the  sponsorship^ 
however  unwillingly. 


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6  Notices  and  Descripiiotts  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

of  coverts  tipped  with  fulyou8-white»  forming  two  conspicuous  bars  on 
the  wing ;  lower  tail-coverts  also  fulvous-white,  and  tail  tipped  with  the 
same  :  wing  twenty-two  inches.  A  rare  species,  inhabiting  mountain- 
ous territory,  and  chiefly  the  Himalaya.  Gapt.  Phayre  has  favoured  the 
Society  with  a  very  fine  specimen  from  Arracan. — 5,  Aq,  ncevia,  (Om,)  ; 
'  Spotted  Eagle/  *  Rough- footed  Eagle/  and  '  Brown-backed  Eagle,  Var. 
A',  of  Latham.  A  beautiful  and  very  variable  species  in  its  colouring, 
allied  in  form  to  the  last,  but  smaller ;  and  larger,  but  less  robust,  than 
the  next.  Fine  adult  males  are  richly  empurpled  brown,  with  fulvous- 
white  terminal  stripes,  more  or  less  developed,  on  the  interscapularies, 
scapularies,  and  smaller  wing- coverts ;  larger  and  pure  white  spots  on  the 
greater  coverts,  and  two  white  bars  tipping  the  secondaries  and  largest 
coverts,  as  in  Aq»  Tfi/asciata ;  tibial  plumes  similarly  spotted,  the  under 
tail-coverts  and  generally  the  short  tarsal  plumes  white,  and  the  abdomen 
streaked  with  fulvous ;  cere,  orbits,  and  toes,  beautiful  yellow :  wing 
generally  about  twenty  inches.  Others  have  the  streaks  of  the  upper 
parts  much  more  developed,  but  the  white  dingy  and  subdued,  and 
the  dark  colour  generally  paler :  such  are  mostly  females ;  and 
others  again,  especially  of  the  latter  sex,  are  dull  brown  throughout 
(inclusive  of  the  lower  tail- coverts),  with  sometimes  paler  head  and 
neck-hackles,  the  latter  being  however  generally,  though  still  not 
always,  tipped  paler.  This  Eagle  is  very  common  in  the  Bengal  Soon- 
derbuns,  and  I  have  seen  it  also  from  the  Himalaya,  and  from  Central 
India. — 6,  Aq,fulvescens,  fusca,  and  punctata.  Gray  and  Hardwicke  :  Aq. 
vindhiana,  Franklin.  Smaller  and  more  robust  than  the  last,  a  miniature 
of  Aq.  mogilnik  ;  wing  eighteen  or  nineteen  inches,  rarely  twenty.  Some 
(females  ?)  are  uniformly  deep  fulvous-brown  throughout :  others  light 
fulvous,  brightest  upon  the  head  and  throat,  obscured  and  dingy  on  the 
back  and  scapularies,  and  whitish  below,  with  dark  shafts  and  bases  of 
feathers ;  these  appear  to  be  the  young :  but  the  most  characteristic 
plumage  (that  of  the  adult  male  ?)  is  tawney  or  fulvous-brown,  more 
fulvous  on  the  neck-hackles,  which  are  tipped  paler;  head  and  throat 
dusky,  the  coronal  feathers  tipped  paler  ;  wings,  breast,  and  lower-parts, 
deep  fuscous,  the  breast  slightly  speckled — and  the  belly  and  wings 
spotted  and  streaked — with  light  tawny-brown;  wing-bars,  and  tail- 
tip,  as  in  the  two  preceding  species.  Common  in  the  plains  of  Upper 
India,  and  along  the  banks  of  the  Ganges  above  Monghyr,  also  in  the 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  7 

peninsula ;  but  I  have  never  seen  it  from  the  Himalaya,  nor  from  the 
Soonderbuna,  where  Aq,  ncsvia  is  so  abundant. — 7,  Aq,  hastata,*  Morphnus 
hastatfis.  Lesson :  SpizaHus  punetatus,  Jerdon,  Supp,  This  so  much  resem- 
bles Aq,  netvia,  that  it  requires  some  practice  to  distinguish  the  two  species 
always,  wilii  certainty  ;  and  the  same  may  be  said  of  Aq,  ntevid  and  Aq, 
/ulvescens ;  but  the  last  named  species  could  never  be  confounded  with 
the  present  one.  It  is  altogether  a  more  feeble  bird  than  Aq,  nama^  with 
smaller  bill  and  feet,  and  proportionally  somewhat  longer  tarsi,  but 
which  appear  considerably  more  so  from  their  slendemess.  Plumage 
variable ;  but  colour  always  a  dead  brown,  as  in  Aq,  hifasciata ;  the  neck- 
hackles  smaller  than  in  the  other  species.  The  finest  adult  male 
which  I  have  procured  has  the  coronal  feathers  lanceolate,  and  edged 
paler ;  a  sort  of  supercilium  formed  by  a  range  of  feathers  with  small 
whitish  tips ;  the  nuchal  hackles  also  tipped  whitish,  and  the  feathers  of 
the  lower  neck  have  each  a  terminal  white  speck  ;  three  distinct  ranges 
of  white  terminal  spots  on  the  wings  ;  the  tertiaries  broadly  whitish- 
tipped  ;  the  breast  and  flanks  beautifully  striped  with  a  whitish  medial 
streak  to  each  feather,  those  of  the  belly  having  a  furthier  central  dark 
one ;  and  the  lower  tail-coverts  and  tarsal  plumes  are  pale  and  mottled. 
Another  adult  male  has  the  spots  generally  much  less  developed,  but  is 
otherwise  nearly  similar.  Females  are  commonly  darker  brown,  with  no 
spots,  except  occasionally  some  on  the  smaller  wing- coverts,  and  especi- 
ally about  the  bend  of  the  wing.  The  young  are  lighter  brown,  with 
sometimes,  traces  of  streaks  on  the  pectoral  and  abdominal  feathers ;  and 
the  interscapularies  and  tertiaries  are  dark,  contrasting  strongly  with  the 
whitish  inner  scapularies  adjoining. — 8,  HieraStus  pennatus,  (Br.)  Kaup ; 
SpizaStus  milvoides,  Jerdon  :  F,  lagopus,  Bengal  variety,  Latham.  This 
form  chiefly  deviates  from  the  robust  typical  Eagles  in  its  small  size» 
and  proportionally  small  and  Buzzard- like  beak ;  abo  in  shewing  a  ten- 
dency to  exhibit  an  occipital  crest;  in  which  respect,  as  also  in  the 
whiteness  of  the  under-parts  in  the  young  bird,  it  approximates  the 
SpizaHi,  H,  pennaius  has  invariably  a  white  shoulder-spot  at  all  ages,  and 
almost  as  constantly  a  white  forehead.  It  is  extensively  distributed 
over  the  country. — 9,  Ictinaetus  malaiensis,  (Reinwardt)  Jerdon ; 
Aquila,  Heteropus,  and  Neopus,  pemiger,  Hodgson :  SpizaHusf?  ovivorus, 
Jerdon,  Supp,  Remarkable  for  its  very  long  wings  ;  its  blackish  colour 
throughout,  varied  with  white  bands  under  the  tail ;  and  for  the  extraor- 
dinary disproportion  of  its  front  toes  and  claws,  of  which  the  inner  is 


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8  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

particularly  large,  and  the  outer  singularly  email.   Peculiar  to  mountain 
regions.     This  bird  conducts  in  some  respects  to  Arekibuteo^ 

These  several  Eagles  exhibit  variation  of  habit,  as  of  form.  The 
Ictinaetua  is  pre«eminently  a  nest-robber,  and  feeds  much  on  eggs :  vide 
J.  A,  S.  XII,  128 ;  where  also  is  a  notice  of  the  nest-plundenng  pro- 
pensities of  Aq.  kastata,  under  the  supposition  of  the  latter  species  being 
Limna'ettu  unieohr.  The  more  powerful  of  the  tribe  do  not  di^lain  to 
feed  on  carrion;  and  Mr.  Elliot  remarks,  of  Ag,/ulv0$C0ns,'^**The 
Wokhah  is  very  troublesome  in  hawking  after  the  sun  becomes  hot, 
mistaking  the  jesses  for  some  kind  of  prey,  and  pouncing  on  the  Falcon 
to  seize  it.  I  have  6nce  or  twice  nearly  lost  ShMkeens"  (F.  psregrinator,) 
he  adds,  *'  in  consequence,  these  flyi|ig  to  great  distances  for  fear  of  the 
Wokhab"  This  is  probably,  therefore,  the  Jimach  mentioned  by  Bu- 
chanan Hamilton,  (in  Montgomery  Martin's  compilation  from  his  MSS* 
I,  505).  "  The  only  pursuit  worth  notice  which  I  saw  in  several  days* 
hawking,"  observes  the  author,  "  was  from  a  large  bird  of  prey  named 
Jimach,  which  attacked  a  very  strong  Falcon  as  it  was  hovering  over 
a  bush  into  which  it  had  driven  a  Partridge.  The  moment  the  Falcon 
espied  the  Jimach  it  gave  a  scream,  and  flew  off  with  the  utmost 
velocity,  while  the  Jimach  eagerly  pursued.  They  were  instantly 
followed  by  the  whole  party,  foot,  horses,  and  elephants,  perhaps  300 
persons,  shouting  and  firing  with  all  their  might,  and  the  Falcon  was 
saved,  but  not  without  severe  wounds,  the  Jimach  having  struck  her  to 
the  ground.  I  have  never  been  able,"  adds  Buchanan,  "  to  procure  a 
Jimach ;  but  it  appears  to  be  a  small  Eagle,  and  is  said  to  live  entirely 
on  other  birds  of  prey."  Aq.fulvescens,  however,  is  a  very  indiscriminate 
feeder,  preying  on  rats,  lizards,  snakes,  insects,  and  sometimes  even 
carrion ;  besides  hares,  and  in  fact  whatever,  living  or  dead,  it  happens 
to  meet  with :  still  the  fact  of  its  attacking  Falcons,  or  indeed  of  any 
bird  of  prey  attacking  another,  except  for  combat,  or  as  when  a  tame 
Falcon  is  flown  at  a  Kite,  (of  Hawks  thus  **  picking  out  Hawks'  een,") 
is,  I  apprehend,  little  known  to  the  majority  of  naturalists.  Lastly, 
Hieraetus  pennatw  is  a  noted  robber  of  the  dove-cot  and  poultry-yard ; 
whose  depredations,  as  Mr.  Jerdon  remarks,  are  probably  often  mistaken 
for  those  of  the  Kite. 

Ephialies  spilocephalua,  nobis,  n,  s.  ?  Noctua  auribarbis  (P),  Hodgson, 
mentioned  in  J.  A,  8.  VI,  369  :  Athene  badia,  (?),  Hodgson,  enumerated 
in  Mr.  G.  R.  Oray's  list  of  the  Raptorial  birds  in  the  British  Museum. 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds,  9 

Thia  little  Owl  is  certainly  an  Ephialtes  (vei  Scops^  Aact.,  though  it 
appears  this  latter  name  was  first  appropriated  to  the  Crowned  Cranes)* 
and  probably  a  young  bird,  from  the  loose  and  floccose  character  ofits 
plumage ;  but  the  aigrettes  are  not  easily  made  out  in  the  only  speci- 
men examined,  though  I  believe  that  I  have  distinctly  traced  them.  Its 
size  is  that  of  Eph,  lettia,  but  the  bill,  feet,  and  talons,  are  eonsiderably 
smaller.  Length  about  nine  inches,  of  wing  six,  and  tail  three  and  a 
quarter ;  bill,  in  greatest  vertical  depth,  seven- sixteenths  of  an  inch ; 
feathered  tarse  an  inch  and  one-eighth ;  length  of  middle  toe  and  claw 
but  an  inch,  the  claws  slender,  delicate,  and  of  a  whitish  hue ;  beak  pale 
yellowish,  or  yellowish- white.  The  plumage  of  the  head  is  very  full 
and  puffy,  the  feathers  loose  and  light;  each  of  them  having  two 
pale-coloured  spots,  set  off  with  blackish,  and  the  rest  of  the  feather 
a  dull  light  bay  or  tawney,  a  little  pencilled :  facial  disk  fulvescent. 
Upper- parts  uniform  dull  tawney,  pencilled  with  blackish;  and  the  ordi- 
nary white  spots  occur  on  the  outer  scapularies :  the  primaries  have  also 
a  series  of  three  white  bands  on  the  unemarginated  portion  of  their 
outer  webs  (the  emargination  being  very- slight) :  the  secondaries  and 
tertiaries  are  principally  bay  on  their  outer  webs,  with  imperfect  blackish 
bands ;  and  the  tail  is  barred  with  the  same  colours  in  about  equal 
proportions,  the  central  feathers  having  six  tawney-rufous  bands.  Under« 
parts  paler  than  those  above,  minutely  speckled  with  dusky,  and 
with  some  larger  whitish  spots  set  off  with  blackish  :  lower  tail- coverts 
white,  a  little  barred,  except  the  longest  which  are  distinctly  so ;  the 
tarsal  plumes  tawney-rufous,  with  dusky  bars.     From  Darjeeling.* 

Symiumnivicolum,  Hodgson,  XIV,  185.  Since  describing  this  species, 
I  have  seen  several  fine  specimens.  One,  from  near  Simla,  presented  by 
L.  C.  Stewart,  Esq.,  now  of  H.  M.  50th  Ft.,  has  the  wing  twelve  inches 
and  a  half:  colour  dusky  above,  mottled  with  larger  spots  of  fulvous* 
white  than  in  that  formerly  described ;  but  the  under- parts  are  much 
the  same.    Two  males  and  a  female,  the  former  with  wing  eleven  inches. 


*  Id  the  *  Madras  Journal,'  No.  XXXI,  120,  Mr.  Jerdon  describes  a  Scops 
CBpMaUesJ  griseus,  which  s  lettioides^  Jerdon,  nobis,  J,  A.  S.  XIV,  182.  Dr. 
Stewart  has  recently  favored  the  Society  with  a  specimen,  from  near  Futtehpore, 
OD  the  route  from  Allahabad  to  Gawnpore^  which  tends  to  indicate  the  speoifical  iden- 
tity of  Eph.  lettia  and  Bph.  lettioides^ 

C 


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10  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

the  latter  twelve  and  three-quarters,  from  Darjeeling,  are  dusky,  with 
the  light  mottlings  much  deeper  fulvous,  and  there  is  a  considerable 
admixture  of  pure  white  below  the  facial  disk.  Not  improbably  these 
were  younger  than  the  others.* 

In  XIV,  188,  I  suggested  that  Bueeros  hicolor,  Eyton,  is  probably  the 
B,  malaharicus  apud  Raffles,  and  B,  albirosiris  apud  Horsfield ;  but  I  have 
since  seen  several  specimens  of  a  Malayan  species  intermediate  to  those 
two,  combining  the  bill  and  casque  of  B.  albirosiris  with  the  size  and 
white  outer  tail-feathers  of  B.  pica  (vel  malaharicus)  :  this.  Lord  Arthur 
Hay  considers  to  be  B.  vioiaceus,  Waglerf;  and  the  Society  lately 
received  a  young  bird  of  the  species  in  question  from  Penang.  The 
large  head  and  casque  referred  to  B,  albirosiris  in  XII,  995,  I  now 
consider  to  belong  to  the  allied  Penang  species.  The  Society  has 
lately  received  specimens  of  true  B*  albirosiris  from  the  Tenasserim  pro- 
vince of  Y6,  undistinguishable  from  the  bird  of  Bengal,  Nepal,  Assam, 
and  Arracan :  we  had  previously  a  Tenasserim  specimen  of  the  young 
of  B.  albirosiris,  presented  on  a  former  occasion  by  Mr.  Barbe. 

*  The  Norwegian  collection  has  supplied  us  With  three  fine  specimens  of  S,  aluco^ 
all  of  the  non*rafou8  variety,  and  very  different  from  the  one  we  previously  possessed. 
S.  nivicolum  is  very  nearly  allied,  and  the  under>parts  of  some  specimens  of  the  two 
species  are  undistinguishable  :  but  the  dusky  ground-tint  is  much  more  predominant 
on  the  upper-parts  of  S,  nivicolum,  to  an  extent  that  the  two  could  scarcely  be  con- 
founded. 

Here  it  may  be  remarked  that  the  common  Ninox  scutellatus,  which  occurs  in  most 
collections  from  Malacca,  has,  in  addition  to  its  various  other  synonymes«  been  re- 
cently designated  Athene  malaccensis  by  Mr.  Eyton,  An.  and  Mag,  N,  H,  1845,  p. 
228:  and  in  the  same  paper,— Crtmper  gularis,  (Horsfield),  is  termed  Pycnonotus 
ru/icaudatus;^Ixidia  cyaniventris,  nobis,  ssMalacopteron  aureum ;^Timalia  peC" 
toralis,  nobis,  ^Malacopteron  squamatum  ;^T.  striata,  nobis,  —Brackypteryx  ma* 
culatus;—T.  erythronotus,  nobis,=-Br.  nigrogularis ;^T.  erytkroptera,  nobi8,=^r. 
acutirostris  ;^Muscipeta  plumosa,  nobis,  (of  which  it  seems  I  described  the  female 
only f)=^Phihntoma  castaneum,  which  must  accordingly  be  altered  to  Ph*  plumO' 
Mim;— and  a  state  of  plumage  of  the  bird  1  described  as  Hemicercus  cancretus  (XI, 
195,)  is  described  by  the  name  Dendrocopus  sordidus,  Mr.  Ey ton's  Ixos  metallicus 
would  seem  to  be  nearly  allied,  except  in  sise,  to  the  species  which  I  designated  Bra* 
chypodius  melanocephalus,  XIV,  176. 

It  is  to  be  regretted  that  Capt.  Charleton  did  not  permit  me  to  look  over  his  collec- 
tion of  Malayan  birds,  when  he  had  them  in  Calcutta;  for  all  these  useless  synomymes 
would  then  have  been  avoided.  I  offered  to  have  them  labelled  for  him. 

t  Described  by  his  lordship  in  the  Madras  Journ.  No.  XXXI,  p.  148:  and  follow- 
ing this  are  descriptions  of  B.  comaius,  B.  mahyanus,  and  17.  Elhoti,  which  last  is  B, 
bicolor,  Eyton,  apud  nos,  and,  as  I  still  think,  rightly  identified  with  the  latter. 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  1 1 

Hoopoes.  This  group  is  treated  of  in  XIV,  189.  I  haye  now  to  add 
that  the  Tenasserim  Hoopoe  equals  Upupa  epops  in  size,  but  is  consider- 
ably more  rufous,  and  conspicuously  so  on  the  crest,  which  resembles 
that  of  U.  minor  of  S.  Africa :  one  specimen  is  also  very  rufous  at  the 
shoulder  of  the  wing,  and  another  moderately  so;  bill  of  each  two 
inches  and  a  half  to  forehead;  and  wing  fire  and  a  half  to  five  and 
three-quarters. 

Haleyonida.—Todiramphus  varius;  Halcyon  varia,  Eyton,  P.  Z.  S, 
1839>  p.  101.  What  I  take  to  be  the  adult  male,  (and  perhaps  the 
adult  of  either  sex,)  df  this  species,  is  a  beautiful  bird,  the  colouring  of 
which  serves  to  connect  Todiramphus  (as  exemplified  by  T,  collaris  and 
T.  sacer,)  with  Halcyon  atricapillus  (v.  albiventer  of  Scopoli,  a  name 
too  inappropriate  to  be  retained) ;  but  the  beak  is  strictly  that  of  Todiram- 
phus.  Length  about  nine  inches,  or  nearly  so ;  of  wing  four  inches, 
and  tail  two  and  three-eighths ;  bill  to  forehead  (in  rather  the  larger  of 
two  specimens,)  an  inch  and  three-quarters ;  and  the  gape  two  and  a 
quarter ;  taise  fiye-eighths  of  an  inch.  Cap  green,  rufescent  on  forehead, 
and  margined  posteriorly  with  verditer ;  a  broad  black  stripe  commences 
at  the  lores,  and  meets  its  opposite  behind ;  above  this  is  a  slight  rufous 
supercilium,  and  below  it  a  broad  rufous  streak  continued  to  the  nape, 
and  comprising  the  lower  ear-coverts ;  below  this  again,  is  a  very  large 
rich  purplish-blue  moustache,  commencing  at  the  base  of  the  lower 
mandible :  the  nape  and  breast  are  brilliant  ferruginous,  paling  on  the 
throat  and  belly,  and  the  mantle,  wings,  and  tail,  are  deep  purplish- 
blue,  each  feather  touched  with  ultramarine-blue  on  the  wings,  while 
the  rump  and  Upper  tail-coverts  are  vivid  verditer :  bordering  the  ferru- 
gii|ou8  of  the  nape  is  a  band  of  deep  black.  Bill  dusky  above,  the  rest 
apparently  bright  yellow ;  and  legs  probably  coral-red.    From  Malacca. 

In  XIV,  1 90, 1  described  a  new  Kingfisher  from  Darjeeling,  by  the  name 
Alcedo  grandis;  which  otherwise  resembling  A,  ispida,  is  as  much 
larger  than  that  bird,  as  A,  bengalensis  is  smaller :  A.  ispida  is  common 
in  Afghanistan.  Another  closely  allied  species,  which  perhaps  has  not 
yet  been  distinguished  from  A,  bengalensis,  inhabits  the  Moluccas,  and 
which  I  may  provisionally  call  A,  moluccensis:  this  differs  from  A^, 
bengalensis  in  having  a  vertically  much  deeper  bill,  and  from  all  its  allied 
species  in  having  the  ear-coverts  not  rufous,  but  deep  indigo-blue ;  the 
mottled  feathers  of  the  crown  and  neck,  moustache,  and  wings,  are  also 


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12  Notices  and  Descriptions  0/ various  New  [No.  169< 

more  of  a  Prussian  blue  than  in  A,  grandis,  ispida,  and  hengalensis:  wing 
three  inches;  depth  of  bill  about  three-eighths  of  an  inch.  Another 
closely  allied  species  is  the  A,  meninting,  Horsf.»  v.  asiatica  of  Swain- 
son's  Illustrations,  which  has  the  crown,  neck,  and  wings,  mottled  indigo 
blue,  scarcely  any  moustache,  the  back  and  upper  tail- coverts  ultrama- 
rine, and  the  breast  and  flanks  deeper  and  richer  ferruginous  than  in  the 
others. — A,  biru,  Horsf.,  is  another  beautiful  little  Malayan  Kingfisher, 
of  a  predominating  light  verditer-blue  above  and  across  the  breast,  but 
the  marking  of  its  under-parts  allies  it  to  certain  African  Kingfishers,  as 
A.  setnitorquatus,  and  another  which  I  have  been  unable  to  determine. 

Bucconida  (Barbets).     There  are  three,  if  not  four,  species  of  Indian 
Barbets,  having  the  general  plumage  of  B.  caniceps,  Franklin,  the  dis- 
tinctions of  which  may  be  advantageously  pointed  out. — 1.  B,  lineatus, 
Vieillot,  apud  Diet,  Class, ;  described  to  inhabit  Sumatra.    Length  about 
ten  inches,  the  wing  five  to  five  and  a  quarter.     Upper-parts  green, 
weaker  on  the  flanks,  and  still  paler  and  more  yellowish  on  the  vent 
and  lower  tail-coverts,  spreading  over  the  abdominal  region  in  some: 
head,  neck,  throat,  and  breast,  whitish,  confined  on  the  crown  to  an  ill 
defined  medial  streak  on  each  feather,  the  rest  being  dusky;  on  the 
nape,  these  streaks  are  contracted  and  better  defined,  often  upon  a  green 
ground,  and  they  gradually  disappear  on  the   back  ;   throat  spotless 
whitish ;  the  sides  of  the  neck  and  breast  having  each  feather  laterally 
margined  with  dusky-brown,  the  whitish  however  much  predominating. 
Common  in  some  parts  of  Bengal,  and  in  Nepal,  extending  westward  to 
the  Deyrah  Doon;  also  in  Assam,  Sylhet,  Arracan,  and  the  Tenasserim  pro- 
vinces, whence  it  probably  extends  into  Sumatra. — 2.  B,  caniceps,  Frank- 
lin ;  B,  lineatus,  apud  Tickell.     Rather  smaller,  the  wing  measuring 
from  four  inches  and  a  half  to  four  and  seven- eighths,  though  rarely 
exceeding  four  and  three-quarters.     The  general  plumage  also  similar ; 
but  the  head,  throat,  and  breast,  much  darker ;  the  throat  dusky-brown 
instead  of  whitish ;  and  pectoral  feathers  with  merely  a  narrow,  ill 
defined,  pale  central  streak,  often  scarcely  present ;  lower  breast  paler : 
the  back  commonly  more  streaked  with  whitish  than  in  B,  lineatus : 
and,  what  constitutes  a  ready  distinction  of  B,  caniceps,  the  wing-coverts 
aud  tertiaries  have  each  a  terminal  whitish  speck,  of  which  there  is 
never  the  slightest  trace  in  the  other.    This  species  inhabits  the  penin. 
sula  generally,  and  Upper  India,  meeting  B,  lineatus  in  the  Doon ;  but 


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i846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  13 

I  have  not  seen  it  from  Nepal,  Bengal,  or  «ny  of  the  eastern  countries 
which  are  tenanted  by  B.  lineatus. — 3.  B,  viridis,  Gmelin.  Much  smaller 
than  the  preceding :  the  crown  spotless  dusky-brown ;  mere  traces  of  the 
lineation  on  the  neck,  and  scarcely  any  on  the  breast ;  the  throat  and 
breast  paler  than  in  B,  caniceps ;  and  no  whitish  specks  on  the  wings. 
Inhabits  the  Indian  peninsula,  and  chiefly,  I  believe,  to  the  southward.-— 
4  ?  B.  zeylanicus,  Gmelin,  founded  on  the  "  Yellow- checked  Barbet"  of 
Brown's  Illustrations.  This  is  described  (but  not  figured)  to  have  the 
*'  coverts  of  wings  green,  with  small  white  spots  in  the  middle  of  each 
feather  :"  hence,  Mr.  Jerdon  has  referred  to  it  the  B.  caniceps;  but  as 
the  figure  is  stated  to  be  "  more  than  two- thirds  of  the  size  of  the  living 
bird/'  whereas  it  is  but  one-third  of  the  linear  dimensions  of  B, 
caniceps,  and  but  half  that  of  B,  viridis,  it  probably  represents  a  distinct 
species,  approaching  the  last  in  size,  and  with  the  wing- specks  of 
B.  caniceps. 

Of  the  other  Indian  Barbets,  two  are  confined  to  the  Himalaya,  B. 
yrandis,  Gm.,  and  B.  Franklinii,  nobis.  /.  A.  8„  XI,  167.  B.  indicus 
(vel  philippensis)  is  common  throughout  the  country,  also  in  the 
Tenasserim  Provinces,  and  Sir  Stamford  Raffles  includes  it  in  his  list 
of  Sumatran  birds ;  but  I  have  never  seen  it  from  Arracan.  B,  asiaticus 
(the  Trogon  asiaticus  of  Latham  and  Gmelin),  vel  cyanocoUis,  Vieillot^ 
and  cyanops,  Cuvier,  abounds  in  the  Sub- Himalayan  region,  in  Nepal, 
Bengal,  Assam,  and  Sylhet,  but  becomes  comparatively  rare  in  Arracan, 
and  also  in  the  Indian  peninsula.  B.  barbiculus,  Cuv.,  or  a  species  which 
agrees  sufficiently  with  the  description  of  this  in  the  Diet,  Class.,  inha* 
bits  Malabar  ;  though  barbiculus  is  said  to  be  from  the  Moluccas.  I  add  a 
description  of  an  Indian  specimen,  sent  on  loan  by  Mr.  Jerdon.  Length 
five  inches ;  of  wing  three  and  one-eighth  ;  and  tail  an  inch  and  three- 
eighths  ;  bill  to  forehead  five-eighths ;  and  tarse  three-quarters  of  an  inch. 
General  colour  deep  green;  the  forehead,  around  the  eyes,  and  the 
throat,  crimson,  the  last  margined  with  yellow;  occiput  and  cheeks 
pale  blue.  In  Arracan,  there  is  further  the  B.  australis,  Horsfield,  v. 
gularis,  Tem. ;  but  the  crimson  of  the  cheeks,  sincipita,  and  moustaches* 
seems  invariably  to  be  much  less  brilliant  than  in  Malacca  specimens. 

Five  species  occur  commonly  in  collections  from  Malacca,  (besides  the 
Caloramphus  Lathami,  v.  Megalorhynchus  spinosus  of  Eyton,  which  is  there 
common) :  viz.  B.  ckrysopogon,  Tem,; — B.  versicolor.  Raffles.; — B.  armiU 


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14  Notices  and  Descriptions  0/ various  New  [No.  169, 

laris.  Tern. ;— J5.  quadricolor,  Eyton  ; — and  B,  australis,  Horsf. : — a  B,  ^ 
trimaculatus.  Gray,  is  also  mentioned  by  Mr.  Eyton  from  the  same  locality ; 
and  without  having  a  specimen  of  his  B,  quadricolor,  P,  Z,  S,  1839,  p. 
105,  for  present  comparison,  I  rather  suspect  its  identity  with  B,  mysticO" 
phanes,  Tem.,  and  with  B,  Rafflesii,  Lesson,  Rev,  ZooL  de  la  Soc.  Cuv,* 
1839,  p.  139.  The  following  description  is  from  specimens  in  Lord  A. 
Hay's  collection.  Length  about  nine  inches ;  of  wing  three  and  three* 
quarters ;  and  tail  two  and  a  quarter :  bill  to  forehead  an  inch  and  three- 
eighths  ;  and  tarse  an  inch.  Colour  green,  with  an  emerald  margin  to  the* 
feathers  of  the  nape ;  forehead  bright  yellow ;  crown,  throat,  lores,  and  a 
spot  on  the  side  of  the  breast,  crimson ;  beneath  the  eye,  and  middle  of 
fore- neck,  also  crimson ;  sides  of  the  crown,  above  and  posterior  to  the 
bare  ocular  region,  black ;  and  a  yellowish  tinge  towards  the  base  of  the 
lower  mandible:  emarginated  portion  of  primaries  edged  with  dull 
yellow ;  and  tail  bluish  underneath :  bill,  legs,  and  the  bristles  at  base  of 
bill,  black.  A  presumed  female  has  the  crown,  lores,  and  spot  at  side  of 
breast,  crimson,  but  less  defined  than  in  the  (presumed)  male ;  throat 
mingled  green  and  yellowish,  passing  to  bluish  on  the  fore-neck ;  fore- 
head bluish,  with  yellow  shafts  to  feathers,  and  some  blue  beneath  the 
eye  and  at  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible ;  the  latter  is  for  the  most 
part  white.     Length  of  wing,  three  inches  and  three-quarters. 

Picida.  Woodpeckers.  Typical  Pious,  apud  G.  R.  Gray  :  Dendrocopus 
of  Swainson.  I  attempted  a  synopsis  of  the  Indian  species  of  this 
group,  in  XIV,  1 96  et  seq. ;  since  the  publication  of  which,  the  Society 
has  been  favoured  by  the  Natural  History  Society  of  Batavia  with  a  very 
interesting  collection  from  Java  and  the  Moluccas,  which  has  enabled 
me  to  compare  various  Indian  species  with  their  Malayan  represen* 
tatives.  Among  them  is  the  little  Picus  moluccensis,  which,  though 
closely  approaching  to  the  Indian  species  referred  to  the  same, 
yet  exhibits  some  differences  upon  minute  comparison.  Both  are 
certainly  distinct  from  P.  canicapillus  of  Arracan.  As  compared  with  the 
Indian  species,  that  of  Java  has  rather  larger  bill  and  feet ;  the  crown 
is  darker-coloured,  passing  to  blackish,  or  deeply  infuscated,  on  the 
occiput  and  median  line  of  nape ;  the  wings  are  shorter,  measuring  two 
inches  and  seven- eighths,  while  in  the  Indian  species  they  are  three  and 
one  sixteenth ;  and,  lastly,  there  is  a  diffierence  in  the  barring  of  the 
tail-feathers,  and  in  the  form  of  the  tips  of  the  more  outer  ones,  which 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  15 

in  the  Indian  bird  are  more  rounded,  or  somewhat  truncated,  with  a 
slight  emargination  at  the  tip  of  the  shaft,  while  in  the  Javanese  bird 
they  attenuate  and  are  obtusely  pointed ;  the  white  bars  also  assume 
more  the  appearance  of  transverse  bands  in  the  Javanese  species,  and 
of  separated  round  spots  in  that  of  India ;  while  the  outermost  feather 
is  in  the  former  tipped  with  white,  and  the  penultimate  has  an  all  but 
terminal  white  bar,  both  these  feathers  in  the  Indian  bird  being  broadly 
black-tipped,  with  a  more  interrupted  white  bar  above.  Should  these 
'differences  prove  constantly  distinctive,  Mr.  Jerdon  proposes  the  name 
Hardwickii  for  that  of  Southern  India,*  and  which  Dr.  Stewart  has  re* 
cently  obtained  near  Cawnpore,  a  vicinity  in  which  it  was  also  procured 
by  Gen.  Hardwicke. 

With  a  few  Australian  birds,  I  lately  purchased  a  Woodpecker,  allied 
to  P.  Macei,  which  I  have  not  been  able  to  determine.  There  is  no 
season  to  suppose  it  inhabits  Australia,  where  not  a  single  Woodpecker 
has  yet  been  discovered ;  and  while  the  known  Australian  species  in 
this  small  collection  (including  Eudynamys  australis,  Sw.,  quite  distinct 
from  the  Indian  Coel,)  were  brought  as  skins,  the  Woodpecker  alone  was 
mounted  and  wired.  General  aspect  that  of  P.  Macei  ;  but  with  merely  a 
faint  tinge  of  red  on  the  lower  tail-coverts,  and  that  of  the  crown  is  also 
much  less  developed,  but  slightly  tipping  the  feathers,  which  elsewhere 
are  black  (there  is  an  appearance,  however,  of  the  crimson  having  been 
much  abraded  on  the  crown  of  this  particular  specimen) :  all  the  tail* 
feathers  are  barred  with  white,  the  middle  pair  on  each  web  alternately , 
and  the  rump  is  confusedly  rayed  with  white  and  dusky  black :  breast 
spotted  with  linear  streaks  ;  and  the  flanks  and  belly  marked  with 
obscure  transverse  rays.  Length  nearly  seven  inches ;  of  tail  two  and 
a  quarter ;  (wings  imperfect  in  the  specimen  ;)  bill  to  forehead  (through 
the  feathers)  barely  seven-eighths  of  an  inch.  If  new,  P.  pectoralis^ 
nobis.  Hab. ? 

Sub-genus  Gecinus,  The  Picus  affinis.  Raffles,  is  identified  with 
P.  dimidiatus,  Tem..  in  the  Zoological  Appendix  to  Lady  Raffles's  '  Life  of 
Sir  St.  Raffles,  p.  668 ;  and  Gecinus  viridanus,  nobis,  is  certainly  ano- 
ther synonyme  of  the  same.  This  bird  seems  common  throughout  the 
eastern  coast  of  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  as  in  Arracan  and  the  Tenasserim 

«  Madras  Journal,  No.  XXXI,  138. 


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16  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

provinces ;  in  which  latter  range  of  territory  C  occipitalis,  (Vig.,)  v. 
barbatus,  (Gray,)  undistinguishable  from  the  Himalayan  bird,  appears 
likewise  to  be  of  plentiful  occurrence. 

G,  chlorigaster,  Jerdon,  Madr.  Joum.  No.  XXXI,  138 :  Picus  mentalis 
apud  Jerdon,  Catal,  Though  closely  allied  to  G.  chloropus,  Vieillot,  v. 
nipalensis.  Gray,  with  which  I  formerly  identified  it,  this  Woodpecker 
proves  on  comparison  to  be  a  distinct  species.  It  is  rather  smaller  than 
G.  chloropus,  and  readily  distinguishable  by  the  crimson  of  its  whole 
occiput,  which  is  transversely  separated  from  the  dark  green  of  the 
crown,  and  forms  a  pointed  crest  behind,  which  completely  overhangs 
the  silky  yellow  feathers  of  the  nape :  in  G,  chloropus,  this  yellow  nuchal 
crest  is  much  more  developed,  and  the  crimson  is  confined  to  the  sides  of 
the  occiput,  the  central  portion  being  green  continued  from  the  forehead, 
and  the  partly  red  and  partly  green  occipital  crest  is  not  prolonged  to 
the  length  of  the  yellow  feathers  beneath  it.  G,  chloropus  has  the  colours 
generally  brighter  and  more  contrasted  than  G,  chlorigaster :  the  dusky 
green  of  the  neck  and  breast  contrasts  with  the  brighter  green  of  the 
upper-parts ;  there  is  a  greater  admixture  of  white  about  the  throat  and 
ear-coverts,  which  last  are  uniform  dark  green  in  G,  chlorigaster;  and  the 
loral  feathers  are  conspicuously  white,  with  a  black  streak  above,  this 
white  being  scarcely  observable  in  G.  chlorigaster  :  the  mottling  of  the 
flanks  is  also  of  a  different  pattern.  Length  of  wing  four  inches  and 
three-quarters;  in  P.  chloropus,  five  inches  to  five  and  a  quarter. 
Inhabits  Southern  India. 

In  XIV,  193, 1  distinguished  three  species  of  the  three-toed  Wood* 
peckers  forming  the  division  Tiga  of  Kaup ;  and  in  a  note  to  p.  551,  I 
mentioned  the  existence  of  a  splendid  fourth  species  from  Malacca.  The 
latter  proves  to  be  the  P.  Rafflesii,  Vigors,  of  the  '  Appendix  to  Sir  St» 
Raffles's  Life'  by  Lady  Raffles,  p.  669.  I  took  the  following  description 
of  a  female,  in  the  collection  of  Captain  Thomas,  of  the  39th  Regt.  B.  N.  L 
Length  a  foot ;  of  wing  five  inches  and  three-quarters,  and  of  middle 
tail-feathers  four  and  three-quarters:  bill  to  gape  an  inch  and  five- 
eighths.  Colour  dull  uniform  golden-green  above;  the  crown,  much 
lengthened  occipital  feathers,  primaries  and  their  coverts,  and  tail,  dusky 
black,  with  whitish  tips  to  the  primaries ;  forehead  ruddy  orange ;  throat 
and  moustaches,  pale  yellowish-buff ;  and  lower  parts  of  a  dingy,  ruddy, 
somewhat  dusky,  greenish*  brown,  with  some  transverse  whitish  spots 


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1846]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  17 

oa  the  flanks;  ear- coverts  blackish,  bordered  aboye  and  below  with  a 
white  streak,  and  bounded  posteriorly  by  a  white  patch ;  and  below  the 
inferior  white  line  and  patch  is  another  broad  streak  of  black.  Bill 
dusky-greenish  towards  base  of  lower  mandible ;  and  the  legs  appear  to 
have  been  green.  The  male  (describing  from  memory,  assisted  by  the  latin 
definition  cited,)  resembles  the  female,  except  in  having  the  whole  crown  . 
and  the  much  lengthened  occipital  feathers,  very  brilliant  crimson.*  This 
beautiful  species  obviously  connects  the  subdivision  Tiga  (v.  Chrysonotus, 
Swainson,)  with  Gecinus  (v.  Chrysoptilus,  Sw.) :  indeed,  were  it  not  for 
the  absence  of  the  fourth  toe,  I  should  scarcely  have  hesitated  in  refer- 
ring it  to  Gecimts,  regarding  it,  however,  as  a  link  between  that  division 
on  the  one  hand,  and  Brachyptemus  and  Tiga,  on  the  other.  In 
the  Appendix  to  Lady  Raffles'  work  cited,  P.  Rafflesii  is  stated  to 
be  of  the  size  of  P.  tiga ;  which  latter  (as  here  referred  to)  I  believe 
to  be  my  T.  intermedia,  which  is  common  in  the  Tenasserim  Pro- 
vinces, and  that  it  is  the  Sumatran  P.  tiga  of  Raffles ;  while  the  Malacca 
species  is  of  the  same  small  size  as  that  of  Java,  lately  received  by 
the  Society,  (the  females  of  which  have  the  head  differently  spotted 
from  those  of  T.  intermedia,)  and  to  which  I  have  appropriated  the 
name  Tiga  tridactgla,f 

With  regard  to  the  species  of  Brachyptemus,  (p.  550  and  note),  Mr. 
Jerdon  informs  me  that  the  common  species  of  Southern  India  is 
identical  with  true  Aurantius  fv.  hengalensis),  of  which  I  sent  specimens 
for  comparison  ;  and  the  same  gentleman  has  favoured  the  Society  with 
an  example  of  his  P.  (Microptemus)  badius  of  Southern  India,  which 
Lord  A.  Hay  considered  (p.  551)  to  be  distinct  from  both  its  Bengal  and 
Malayan  representatives :  it  is,  indeed,  intermediate  to  the  other  two,  both 
in  size  and  colouring ;  and  combines  the  infuscated  crown  of  M,  phcsoceps 
with  the  dark  throat  pf  M.  badius  (verus),  its  tail-bars  being  also  closer 
than  in  the  others,  amounting  to  six  in  number  on  the  middle  feathers, 
additional  to  the  dusky  tips,  whereas  the  other  species  have  only  five. 
Mr.  Jerdon  designates  it  M,  gularis.t      The  range  of  M,  plusoceps  ex- 

*  Correct ;  and  the  colours  also  generfklly  somewhat  brighter. 

t  In  the  same  Appendix,  I  find  described  a  Phoemcophaus  caniceps,  which  is  the 
young  ofRhinoriha  chlorophaa;  ^IHcoeum  croceaventresssD.  trigonostigma,  ( Scopoli), 
V.  catUiUansi  Chkropsis  zost&ropss:=Phyllomis  Sonneratii,  foem.;— and  Vinago  gi- 
ganteuM,  which  there  can  be  little  doubt  refers  to  Treron  Capellei. 
X  Madr.  Jour.  No.  XXXI,  191. 

D 


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18  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

tends  southward  to  the  Tenasserim  Provinces,  and  one  female  from 
thence  has  the  wing  fully  five  inches  long ;  that  of  M,  gularis  measures 
four  inches  and  three-quarters.* 

Cuculida,  The  oriental  species  of  true  Cuculus  are  still  far  from  heing 
definitively  understood.  First,  there  is  the  deep-coloured  hird,  otherwise 
resembling  C.  fugas  «f  India,  described  as  C  nisicolor,  Hodgson,  in 
XII,  943,  but  which  I  renounced  as  a  species  in  XIV,  204.  A  Ma- 
lacca specimen  in  Lord  A.  Hay's  collection,  however,  renders  this  again 
doubtful,  and  it  will  perhaps  prove  to  be  the  veritable  C/ugax  of  the 
Malay  countriea.f  Then,  I  suspect  that  I  have  confounded  three  species 
under  C.  micropterus,  Gould :  viz. — 1,  C.  saturatus,  Hodgson,  (XII, 
942,)  the  supposed  old  birds,  with  upper-parts  "uniform  pure  dark 
ashy,"  mentioned  in  my  description  of  C.  micropterus,  in  XI,  903 ;  and 
these  seem  also  to  have  the  under-parts  more  closely  barred  than  in  true 
C.  micropterus,  and  are  altogether  more  complete  miniatures  of  C.  eano- 
rus,  having  the  dimensions  of  C.  micropterus.  It  inhabits  the  Hima- 
laya. (This  must  be  regarded  as  a  doubtful  species,  however,  as  yet.) — 
2,  C.  micropterus  verus,  with  a  larger  bill  than  in  C,  canorus,  the  under- 
parts  more  distantly  barred,  the  upper-parts  of  a  bronzed  ash-brown, 
and  not  pure  dark  ashy,  the  irides  pale  dusky,  and  the  orbits  and  feet 
light  wax- yellow :  the  Bokuttdeko  of  the  natives.  Inhabits  India  generally, 
but  is  more  numerous  in  the  hills. — 3,  C  affinis,  A.  Hay.  Decidedly  a 
good  species,  resembling  C  canorus  in  size,  and  C.  micropterus  in  form 
and  colouring ;  length  of  wing  eight  inches  and  a  half,  or  an  inch  more 
than  in  C.  micropterus.  Common  in  Malacca,  and  not  improbably 
the  Javanese  Variety  of  C.  canorus  of  Dr.  Horsfield's  list.  In  addition  to 
these,  we  have  C  sparverioides,  of  the  same  minimum  group  as  C.  fugas 
and  C.  nisicolor ;  and  also  C  canorus,  and  the  little  C.  poliocephalus  (v, 
himalayanus.  Vigors),  pertaining  to  the  same  minimum  group  as  the 
other  species  mentioned.  I  kept  for  about  a  year  a  pair  of  C.  canorus 
(indicus),  for  a  long  while  in  the  same  cage :  upon  separating  them,  the 


*  P.  ceyhnus,  Forst,  (v,  P.  neglectus,  Wagler,^  is  a  species  obtained  in  Ceylon  by 
Lord  A.  Hay. 

t  Since  writing  the  above,  I  have  seen  Mr.  Jerdon's  statement  to  the  same  effect, 
Madr.  Jour,  No.  XXXI,  140.  Mr.  J.  thinks  that  the  common  Indian  species  should 
be  termed  C.  Lathami,  Gray.  I  may  add  that  his  specimen  of  C.  Sonneratii  which 
he  refers  to,  is  perfectly  identical  in  species  with  others  from  Malacca. 


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1846.]  or  Little  Knwon  Species  of  Birds.  19 

male  soon  began  to  utter  his  cry,  cuckoo,  generally  of  a  morning  and 
evening,  ten  or  twenty  times  successively.  The  note  was  certainly 
harsher  and  less  musical  than  that  of  the  English  bird,  whether  heard 
near  or  at  a  distance.  It  is  very  desirable  that  observers  who  have  the 
opportiinity,  should  strive  to  elucidate  this  very  difficult  little  group  of 
Cuckoos :  it  is  probable  that  attention  to  their  notes  would  essentially 
assist  the  study  of  them ;  and  to  naturalists  located  in  the  hilly  parts 
of  the  country,  we  must  chiefly  look  for  conclusive  information  on  the 
subject. 

Simoies,  nobis,  it.  g.  Nearly  allied  to  restricted  Cuculus,  but  differing 
in  the  great  breadth  and  depression  of  the  beak,  which  considerably 
resembles  that  of  Casmarhynchius,  Tern.,  in  general  outline,  being 
however  flatter,  especially  underneath,  where  the  rami  are  united  for 
their  terminal  half  or  more,  measuring  from  the  gape ;  the  nostrils 
being  also  formed  as  in  other  Cuculi ;  and  the  tip  of  the  upper  mandible 
entire,  or  unemarginated.     Rest  as  in  ordinary  Cuckoos. 

8.  ttlbivertex,  nobis.  Glossy  black,  with  a  broad  white  vertical 
medial  band  from  the  forehead  to  the  occiput.  Some  white  feathers 
also  on  the  throat ;  and  slight  whitish  tips  to  the  outer  tail-feathers. 
In  immature  plumage,  the  black  is  less  intense,  and  the  feathers  are 
looser  in  texture ;  but  there  are  no  cross-bars.  Bill  black,  paler  below ; 
and  the  interior  of  the  mouth  wholly  yellow :  legs  dark  brown,  the 
tarsi  half-feathered  externally.  Length  about  fourteen  inches;  of 
wing  six  and  a  half,  or  seven  inches ;  and  tail  the  same :  bill  to  gape  an 
inch  and  three-eighths,  and  half  an  inch  broad  at  the  nostrils :  tarse 
seven-eighths  of  an  inch.  From  Borneo  (I  have  reason  to  believe) ; 
being  sent  with  other  birds  from  that  island  b^  Mr.  Jerdon. 

Taccocua  ajffms,  nobis.  Three  species  of  this  division  are  distin- 
guished in  Vol.  XIV,  p.  200;  and  subsequent  observation  has  con- 
firmed the  propriety  of  the  separation :  but  I  find  that  the  Sirkeer 
of  the  Rajmahl  and  Monghyr  hills  requires  further  to  be  distinguished 
from  that  of  the  Cawnpore  district,  higher  up  the  Ganges  in  the 
WNW.  direction.  Dr.  Stewart  has  favoured  the  Society  with  a 
Rajmahl  specimen,  which  he  justly  remarks  can  be  reconciled  with 
neither  of  my  descriptions.  It  combines  the  size  of  T,  sirkee  with  the 
colouring  of  T.  in/uscata ;  but  has  the  bill  rather  more  abruptly  curved 
over  than  in  either,  and  coloured  as  in  all  its  congeners.     Wing  six 


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20  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

inches  ;  middle  tail-feathers  nine  inches ;  and  tarse  an  inch  and  a  half. 
The  deeper  shade  of  colour  of  this  hird  distinguishes  it  from  T,  sirkee, 
to  which  it  approximates  most  nearly,  as  also  the  decided  brownish  hue, 
concolourous  with  the  back,  of  its  tibial  plumes,  which  in  the  other  are 
highly  rufescent ;  and  a  further  marked  distinction  from  T.  sirkee  con- 
sists in  the  hue  of  the  pectoral  region,  which  has  no  rufescent  tinge  in 
the  specimen  before  me  of  T.  affims,  while  in  T.  sirkee,  the  ferruginooa 
tinge  of  the  abdomen  suffuses  the  breast  and  throat,  passing  insensibly, 
with  no  decided  line  of  demarcation.  The  abdominal  plumage  of  this 
bird  is  of  a  less  dark  tinge  than  in  T.  in/uscata ;  but  the  general  co- 
louring is  much  the  same  as  in  that  species,  from  which  the  more  slen- 
der legs  and  vertically  deeper  and  more  abruptly  curved  bill  help  to 
distinguish  it.    A  further  description  is  quite  needless. 

Centropus  bicoior.  Lesson ;  C.  eelehensis,  probably  of  Temminck.  A 
description  of  this  species  will  be  acceptable  to  British  students  of  orni- 
thology. Length  of  wing  seven  inches,  of  middle  tail-feathers  a  foot,  the 
outermost  shorter  by  one-half;  bill  large,  measuring  to  gape  an  inch  and 
three-quarters  in  a  straight  line  ;  long  hind-claw  seven-eighths  of  an  inch. 
Colour  of  wings  and  tail,  a  peculiar  dull  vinous-ruddy,  nearly  the  same  on 
the  fianks,  vent,  and  lower  tail- coverts,  and  with  a  ferruginous  tinge  on 
the  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts :  head,  neck,  throat,  and  breast,  dull 
isabelline,  paler  towards  the  throat,  and  browner  on  the  crown  and  back ; 
wing-coverts  tinged  with  the  same  brown;  and  all  passing  backwards 
into  the  vinaceous  hue  of  the  great  alars  and  tail.  Bill  blackish,  with 
homy- white  tip  :  legs  apparently  plumbeous.  Plumage  not  very  spinous, 
\X»  general  character  and  colouring  being  much  that  of  the  Sirkeers  (TaC' 
cocuaj.     Inhabits  the  Celebes  and  the  Moluccas. 

CaprimulgidcB.  The  Indian  and  Malayan  species  of  true  Caprimulgus 
resolve  into  three  different  subgroups,  each  characterized  by  a  particular 
style  of  marking :  viz. — 1,  the  C.  macrourus  group,  comprising  C.  albo- 
notatus,  C.  macrourus,  C.  mahrattensis,  and  C.  asiaticus,  which  last  differs 
from  the  three  others  in  having  unfeathered  tarsi ;  these  have  the  two  outer 
tail-feathers  on  each  side  broadly  tipped  with  white,  which  in  the  females 
is  sullied,  more  or  less  reduced  in  quantity,  and  sometimes  altogether 
wanting: — 2,  the  C  indicus  group,  with  a  terminal  or  subterminal 
white  spot  on  all  but  the  middle  pair  of  tail-feathers,  rarely  seen,  and 
the  white  then  much  reduced  in  quantity,  in  the  females; — probably 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  21 

three  species,  at  present  not  well  determined  (vide  XIV,  208*) : — 3, 
the  C.  monticolus  group,  of  which  the  males  have  their  two  outer  tail- 
feathers  wholly  white  to  near  the  tips :  also  apparently  three  species, — C 
monticolus, — another  allied  to  this  in  Scinde, — and  C.  affinis,  Horsf.,  of 
the  Malay  countries,  which  last  merely  differs  from  C,  monticolus  in  its 
smaller  size,  and  the  greater  admixture  of  black  on  the  upper-parts, 
more  especially  upon  the  crown.  Length  of  wing  six  inches  and  a  half, — 
that  of  C.  monticolus  being  an  inch  more, — and  the  rest  in  proportion. 
The  Scindian  species  (?)  is  figured  in  one  of  Sir  A.  Burnes'  drawings,  as 
mentioned  in  Vol.  XIV,  note  to  p.  547.  It  would  appear  to  be  still  more 
uniformly  coloured  in  the  drawing  than  C.  monticolus,  of  a  light  fulves- 
cent-grey  or  sandy  hue,  with  dark  pencillings,  but  no  scapulary  pale 
streak  nor  white  mark  crossing  the  breast ;  tail  closed,  but  its  middle 
feathers  (which  alone  are  seen  in  the  drawing)  have  narrower  cross 
lines  than  in  C.  monticolus ;  the  lower  parts  are  represented  somewhat 
paler  than  the  upper,  as  is  also  the  inner  anterior  margin  of  the  wing 
(towards  the  body).  Length  of  wing  six  inches  and  a  quarter  (not 
*'  nine  inches  and  a  quarter,"  as  formerly  misprinted).  Should  this  be 
verified  as  a  distinct  species,  it  might  bear  the  name  C.  arenarius,  in 
allusion  to  the  sandy  soil  which  its  colour  would  certainly  denote  that 
it  frequented,  and  which  is  a  very  prevalent  hue  of  the  birds  and  other 
animals  from  Sdnde,  as  M.  Temminck  has  remarked  of  those  from 
Egypt.t 

Cypselida.  Macropteryx  coronatus ;  Hirundo  coronata,  Tickell,  J, 
A.  8.  II,  580.  This  has  hitherto  been  undistinguished  from  M.  klecko 
(Horsf.,)  V.  longipennis,  (Tem.,)  of  the  Malay  countries,  which  in  India 
is  represented  by  the  present  species.     The  two  are,  however,  obviously 


*  The  true  C  indicus  extends  its  range  to  Malacca.  It  is  not  rare  in  the  Calcutta 
Botanic  Garden. — C  monticolus  I  lately  observed  in  a  patch  of  open  jungle,  surrounded 
by  cultivated  fields.— C.  pukher,  A.  Hay,  Madr,  Joum.  No.  XXXI,  p,  l6I,»Z«yn- 
cornis  Temminckii,  Gould.  The  Society  has  specimens  of  this  bird  from  Malacca  and 
Java. 

t  The  Norwegian  collection  before  referred  to,  contains  a  female  of  C.  europaus  ; 
and  the  resemblance  of  this  to  some  speciniens  of  C.  indicus  is  extremely  close :  but 
the  latter  may  always  be  distinguished  by  having  the  tarsi  wholly  feathered ;  by  the 
abdominal  region  being  much  less  rayed ;  and  the  males  by  having  a  white  spot  on  four 
of  the  primaries,  and  upon  the  four  outer  tail-feathers  on  each  side.  The  Society  has 
also  a  Tenasserim  specimen  of  undoubted  C.  macrourus,  which  very  much  resembles 
both  C.  indicus  and  C.  europaus;  but  may  be  distinguished  from  the  latter  by  having 
the  tarse  wholly  feathered,  and  by  the  white  basal  portion  of  its  rictal  bristles. 


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22  Noticet  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

distinct  upon  comparison  of  specimens.  M.  coronatus  has  the  tail 
much  more  deeply  forked,  and  its  outermost  feathers  are  much  more 
attenuated,  heing  commonly  prolonged  two  inches  heyond  the  extremi- 
ties of  the  next  pair,  and  an  inch  and  a  half  heyond  the  tips  of  the 
wings ;  whereas  in  M.  kiecho,  the  tail  does  not  reach  to  the  tips  of  the 
wings,  and  hoth  alars  and  caudals  are  considerably  broader  than  in  the 
Indian  species.  The  colour  of  the  upper-parts  is  also  much  greyer  in 
the  latter,  with  but  a  faint  tinge  of  green,  instead  of  being  brightly 
glossed  with  green ;  and  the  chin  and  sides  of  the  throat  of  the  male, 
besides  the  ear-coverts,  are  ferruginous.  Colour  greyish  above,  darker 
in  the  male,  and  glossed  with  purplish-green  ;  the  tertiaries  more  or  less 
pale,  but  never  albescent- grey  as  in  Af.  kiecho:  lower-parts  ashy,  with 
a  slight  green  gloss,  and  passing  to  white  on  the  belly  and  lower  tail- 
coverts.  Crest  as  in  the  other  species,  and  structure  in  all  respects 
typical.  Length  eight  inches,  by  thirteen  in  alar  expanse ;  of  wing  six 
and  a  quarter ;  and  of  outermost  tail-feather  five  and  a  quarter.  Com- 
mon in  Central  and  Southern  India,  and  most  probably  the  only  species 
met  with  in  the  country. 

We  have  accordingly  now  four  species  pf  this  beautiful  genus,  which 
appears  to  be  peculiar  to  India  and  the  Malay  countries : — viz.  M,  corO' 
natus, — Af.  kiecho, — ^the  very  beautiful  M.  comaius,  (Tem.,) — and  M, 
mystaceus,  (Lesson,)  of  which  last  I  have  seen  neither  figure  nor  des- 
cription :  the  three  others  are  in  the  Society's  Museum. 

Collocalia,  O.  R.  Gray.  Several  specimens  from  the  Nioobar  Islands 
differ  a  little  from  C.  fuciphaga  of  Java,  in  having  more  white  under- 
neath, the  crown  and  back  darker  and  tinged  with  blue  more  than  green» 
and  the  wing  somewhat  longer,  and  straighter  or  less  sickle- shaped. 
These  characters  obtain,  both  in  the  old  and  young ;  but  separation  of 
them  seems  hardly  justifiable.  In  specimens  recent,  or  preserved  in 
spirit,  the  outer  toe  is  as  opposable  as  in  other  Swifts.* 

*  Since  the  first  portion  of  the  present  paper  was  printed  off,  the  Society  has  been 
favoured  by  Gapt.  Lewis  with  numerous  specimens,  of  various  classes,  collected  in  the 
Nicobars,  and  comprising  several  interesting  novelties.  In  the  class  of  birds,  the  most 
remarkable  discovery  is  that  of  a  species  of  Megapodius,  having  the  same  extraordinary 
habits  as  Mr.  Gould's  Af.  iumtUus  of  Australia:  there  is  also  a  new  Macropygia^ 
more  nearly  resembling  M.  phasianeUa  of  Australia,  than  Af.  amboinensis  of  Java 
and  the  Moluccas;  specimens  of  a  new  Treron,  previously  however  brought  from  thence; 
also  of  a  new  Heron,  which  likewise  inhabits  Arracan ;  and  some  Insessores  which  I 
shall  describe  in  their  respective  places  in  the  present  paper  :  but  the  following  species 
can  only  be  introduced  here,  instead  of  in  p.  U,  passim. 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  23 

Corvida.  The  Indian  true  Corvi,  though  so  particularly  numerous 
in  individuals,  are  referable  to  but  three  species  (that  I  know  of),  and 
of  these  the  Raven  (C.  eorax,  Lin.)  is  confined  to  the  north-western 
Himalaya  and  its  vicinity,  being  unknown  at  Daijeeling,  and  equally  so 


Todtramphus  occipitalis  nobis.  Nearly  allied  to  7*.  coUaris  and  T,  sacsr^  but  es- 
pecially distinguisbed  by  its  strongly  marked  rufescent  supercilia,  wbicb  are  continued 
quite  round  tbe  occiput,  forming  a  narrow  band  ;  beneatb  tbis  is  a  broader  black  band, 
continued  from  tbe  ear-coverts;  and tben  a  still  broader  fuUescent-wbite  collar,  as  in 
tbe  allied  species :  immediately  bordering  the  last,  tbe  back  is  more  infuscated  than 
in  the  other,  and  tbe  crown  is  likewise  very  dark,  with  some  rufous  lateral  edges  to 
tbe  frontal  feathers  :  under-parts  white,  a  little  tinged  with  fulvescent,  but  less  so  than 
in  T.  sacer;  and  the  back,  wings,  and  tail,  are  much,  as  in  T.  coUaria:  bill  black 
above,  and  the  tip  of  the  iQwer  mandible ;  the  rest  of  the  latter  white :  legs  brownish. 
Length  of  wing  four  inches  and  a  quarter ;  tail  three  inches ;  and  bill  to  gape  two  and  a 
quarter.  Young  rather  smaller,  with  dusky  margins  to  the  pectoral  feathers ;  and  the 
beak  shorter,  with  a  white  and  hooked  extreme  tip.  It  may  be  remarked  that  in  T, 
coUaris  and  T.  sacer^  there  is  a  much  less  developed  white  occipital  band  concealed 
beneath  the  surface  of  the  feathers,  but  which  shews  conspicuotisly  when  the  coronal 
plumes  are  a  little  raised. 

The  following  two  species  of  PaUsornis  appear  also  to  be  quite  new. 

P.  canicepSf  nobis.  This  is  a  very  strongly  marked  species;  but  I  can  now 
merely  indicate  rather  than  describe  it,  as  but  one  specimen  was  obtained  (alive,  from 
a  native),  which  had  lost  its  tail,  and  the  wing-primaries  were  also  mutilated.  The 
size  approaches  that  of  P,  Alexandria  which  at  once  distinguishes  it  from  all  other 
known  species  of  the  group.  General  colour  vivid  yellowish-green,  with  the  winglet 
and  base  of  the  secondaries  indigo*blue,  and  the  medial  portion  of  the  seconda- 
ries inclining  to  emerald-green;  primaries  black,  the  longest  of  them  tinged  with 
indigo  towards  their  base:  cap  grey;  a  broad  frontal  band  continued  to  the  eyes, 
(this  mark  corresponding  with  that  of  P.  pondicerianus^  but  very  much  broader,) 
and  likewise  a  broad  black  moustache,  with  some  black  feathers  also  on  the  throat : 
above  this  moustache,  between  it  and  the  frontal  band,  the  feathers  are  of  the  same 
grey  as  those  of  the  crown.  The  beak  has  the  upper  mandible  coral-red,  with  a  white 
tip;  and  the  lower  mandible  black:  the  form  of  the  bill  is  both  narrower  and  less 
deep  than  in  P.  Alexandria  and  angulates  above  towards  the  base. 

P.  erythrogenySy  nobis.  Allied  to  P.  malaccensis;  but  readily  distinguished  by 
the  blossom -red  hue  of  the  cheeks  not  being  continued  round  the  nape,  and  by  its 
larger  size,  and  differently  shaped  tail.  Length  of  wing  seven  inches  and  a  quarter, 
and  of  tail  ten  inches;  the  middle  pair  of  tail-feathers  exceeding  the  next  by  three 
inches  and  three-quarters.  General  colour  bright-green,  more  yellowish  below, 
and  tinged  in  the  male  with  hoary  greyish-blue  on  the  nape  and  back ;  winglet 
and  primaries  blue,  the  latter  margined  and  broadly  tipped  with  green ;  middle  tail- 
feathers  also  blue,  margined  with  green  for  the  basal  half,  and  the  rest  of  the  tail- 
feathers  chiefly  or  wholly  green  above,  and  all  of  them  dull  yellow  below;  the  cap  is 
not  of  a  distinct  emerald-green,  as  in  P.  malaccensis,  but  uniformly  coloured  with  tbe 
back  (save  where  the  latter  is  tinged  with  grey  in  the  male) ;  there  is  a  well  defined 
narrowish  black  streak  from  the  nostril  to  the  eye,  and  the  same  black  moustache  as  in 
P.  malaccensis;  and  the  lores,  cheeks,  and  ear-coverts,  (only,)  are  blossom-red.  Upper 
mandible  coral-red,  with  a  white  tip;  the  lower  one  black.    The  female  merely  differs 


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24  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

throughout  India  generally.*  The  common  Indian  Black  Crow  (C.  cui- 
minatus,  Sykes.f  is  often  erroneously  termed  'Raven'  by  Europeans, 
and  as  often  confounded  with  the  European  C,  corone :  it  is  eminently  a 
"  Carrion  Crow"  in  its  habits,  and  especially  frequents  the  vicinity  of  the 
great  rivers,  being  less  confined  than  the  next  species  to  the  immediate 
neighbourhood  of  human  habitations.  The  common  Indian  Crow  (C  splen- 
dens,  Vieillot,)  has  sometimes  been  mistaken  for  the  Jackdaw  (C.  mone^ 
duh),  and  sometimes  for  the  Hooded  Crow  (C.  comix),  of  Europe; 
as  in  the  'Proceedings  of  the  Zoological  Society'  for  1839,  p.  163, 
where  the  specification  of  the  '*  Rook"  and  "  Carrion  Crow"  both  refer, 
as  I  believe,  to  C.  eulminatus,  and  the  Raven  is  also  there  mentioned  as 
an  inhabitant  of  Assam  (a  statement  which  it  would  be  satisfactory  to 
have  verified).  C.  eulminatus  is  the  Common  Crow  of  Arracan ;  the 
C.  splendens  being  only  known  in  the  northern  part  of  that  province,  as 
about  Akyab,  (according  to  Capt.  Phayre,) — and  to  the  southward,  upon 
the  eastern  side  of  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  I  am  told  that  it  is  the  species  of 
the  Tenasserim  Provinces.  Proceeding  further  southward,  a  very  distinct 
species  of  black  Crow  (C.  macrorhynchos,  Vieillot.)  abounds  towards 
the  Straits  of  Malacca,  which  is  probably  the  Sumatran  C.  corax  apud 
Raffles ;  and  the  Javanese  C  enca,  (Horsf.),  is  distinct  again,  as  I 
am  informed.  I  have  also  been  told  that  C,  macrorhynckos  is  a  much 
shyer  bird  than  C.  eulminatus,  with  a  very  different  caw ;  and  the  elon- 
gation of  the  beak,  remarkable  in  C  macrorhynckos,  would  seem  to  be 
still  further  carried  out  in  C.  enca,  insomuch  that  the  latter  species  was 
ranged  by  Dr.  Horsfield  as  a  Chough  {Fregilus),  Professor  Temminck 
states  that  the  European  Raven,  Carrion  Crow,  Hooded  Crow,  and 

in  having  the  crown,  nape,  and  back,  quite  uniform  green,  without  the  hoary-blue 
tinge  conspicuous  in  the  male;  and  the  upper  mandible  is  more  or  less  black,  like  the 
lower  one. 

in  P.  pondicerianus,  the  upper  mandible  of  the  female  is  usually  black,  but  often 
more  or  less  mingled  with  red ;  that  of  the  male  being  always  bright  coral-red :  and 
the  same  is  probably  the  case  with  both  the  foregoing  new  species,  as  well  as  with  P, 
malaccensis.  The  young  female  of  P.  pondicerianus  has  recently  been  described  by 
Mr.  Fraser,  by  the  name  P,  modestus.  This  latter  species  is  common  in  Bengal, 
Assam,  and  along  the  eastern  side  of  the  Bay  to  the  Malay  countries  generally;  but  is 
very  doubtful  as  an  inhabitant  of  Pondicherry,  or  any  other  part  of  the  Indian 
Peninsula. 

*  It  is  common  at  Feroxepore,  at  least  during  the  cold  season. 

t  In  the  Diet,  Class,  d*  Hist.  Nat,,  this  bird  is  erroneously  referred  to  C.  mc^or  of 
Levaillant 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  25 

Rook,  occur  in  Japan*  ;  but  Mr.  Gould  has  diatinguished  the  so  called 
*'  Rook"  of  Ckusm  by  the  name  C.  pastinator  (P.  Z.  S.  1845.  p.  1) ; 
and  another  species  inhabiting  China  and  Chinese  Tartary,  is  the  C 
dmaicus,  Pallas,  which  should  be  looked  for  by  our  trans- Himalayan 
travellers.  Mr.  Oould  has  also  recently  distinguished  the  common  Aus- 
tralian black  Crow  by  the  name  C  coronoides. 

The  Red-legged  Chough  (Fregilus  graadus,)  and  Alpine  Chocard 
(Pyrrhocorax  acinus,)  are  both  well  known  tenants  of  the  bare  Hima- 
layan crags,  and  appear  to  be  identical  in  species  with  their  European 
brethren.  Captain  Hutton  mentions  the  former  as  a  winter  visitant  in 
Afghanistan ;  and  also  that  the  Raven  {Corvus  corax,)  and  the  Rook 
(C,  frugiiegus,)  occur  in  that  country,  the  former  in  summer,  the  latter 
in  winter.t 

Of  the  Nutcrackers  (Nueifruga,)  but  three  species  have  been  ascer- 
tained ;  N,  hemispila  of  the  Himalaya,  N,  caryocatactes  of  Europe, 
and  N,  columbianus  of  North  America  (the  Corvus  columbianus,  Wilson, 
first  properly  classified  by  the  Prince  of  Canino).  These  birds  are 
peculiar  to  the  pine-forests,  and  the  Himalayan  species  appears  to  be 
particularly  abundant. 

Magpies.  Pica,  Ray.  The  only  species  of  true  black  and  white 
Magpie  proper  to  Indian  Zoology,  is  the  P.  bottanensis.  Ad.  Deless.,  v. 
megaloptera,  nobis,  J,  A,  8„  XI,  193.  It  is  remarkable  for  its  great 
size,  very  large  wings,  and  tail  of  moderate  length.  Inhabits  the  more 
eastern  Himalaya. 

The  other  species  of  this  genus,  which  I  at  present  know  of,  are  as 
follow: — 

2.  P,  media,  nobis,  J.  A.  S.,  XIII,  393.  The  next  in  point  of  size. 
From  the  Chilian  Andes. 

3.  P.  caudata,  Ray.    The  common  European  Magpie.    This  appears 

*  Some  of  the  Japanese  birds  referred  by  M.  Temminck  to  European  species,  are 
certainly  quite  distinct ;  e.  g.,  the  Jay.  which  differs  from  Garrulus  glandarius  in 
having  the  space  between  the  eye  and  mousUche  filled  up  with  black  (1  think  the 
same  as  in  the  Syrian  Jay,  G,  atricapillus,  Geoff.,  which  has  additionally  a  black  cap) ; 
also  the  Japanese  Robin,  which  has  a  rufous  tail ;  and  the  Bullfinch,  of  which  the  male 
has  a  pale  abdomen  and  lower  breast,  and  both  sexes  are  without  the  red  mark  on  the 
outer  margin  of  the  smallest  tertiary,  which  is  constant  in  the  European  species,  and 
in  P.  nipalensis  becomes  deep  shining  crimson ;  the  female  is  also  of  a  different  shade 
of  colour  from  that  of  its  European  congener. 

t  Calcutta  Joum.  Nat.  Hist,  1,  558. 


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26  Ni)tive8  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

to  be  the  species  of  Afghanistan,  though  I  have  never  had  the  opportu- 
nity of  comparing  an  Afghan  with  an  European  specimen.  One  I 
examined  some  time  ago,  from  that  country,  had  the  wing  seven  inches 
and  three-quarters  long ;  tail  eleven  inches ;  bill  to  frontal  fbathors  an  indi 
and  a  quarter ;  and  tarse  an  inch  and  three-quarters.  Mr.  Yarrell  gives  ^ 
wing  of  the  English -bird  as  seven  inches  and  a  quarter,  and  Mr.  Jenyns 
as  seven  inches  and  eight  lines:  that  of  a  Britislr  specimen  in  the 
Society's  Museum  (probably  a  finale,)  has  it  but  seven  inches.  I  fully 
believe  that  the  Afghan  Magpie  is  identical  with  the  British  i^cies.*  It 
has  also  been  generally  considered  identical  with  that  of  China  and 
Japan,  and  with  the  ordinary  species  of  Western  North  America. 
Mr.  Gould,  however,  has  recently  described  the  Chinese  Magpie  as 
distinct;  but  it  would  seem  that  the  European  is  one  of  three  species 
inhabiting  the  North  American  continent,  all  ditiPerent  from  P,  media 
of  South  America.  For  the  identity  of  the  North  American  species 
found  westward  of  the  Rocky  MounCains^  with  that  of  Europe,  we 
have  the  authority  of  Mr.  Swainson ;  though  he  also  regards  the  Chinese 
Magpie  as  the  same :  remarking-^"  We  have  been  able  to  compare  En- 
glish and  Arctic  [American]  specimens,  with  one  from  the  interior  of 
China,  and  we  cannot  perceive  the  slightest  difference  wlmtever  to  build 
even  the  character  of  a  variety,  much  less  of  a  species.  The  tails  of  the 
Arctic  specimens  are  very  beautiful."  Fauna  Amepicana''berealis,  II, 
292.  Perhaps,  therefore,  there  may  be  two  species  of  Magpie  in 
China,  one  of  them  identical  with  that  of  Europe.  .  ' 

4.  P,  sericea,  Gould,  Proc.  ZooL  8oc.  1845,  p.  2.  From  Amoy. 
*'  Closely  allied  to  the  common  Magpie,  but  diflfers  in  the  wings,- being 
blue  instead  of  green,  in  the  rather  less  extent  of  the  white,  and  in  hav- 
ing a  longer  bill  and  much  longer  tarsus ;  the  latter  measuring  two 
inches  and  a  quarter." 

5.  P.  hudsonia,  (Sabine),  'Appendix'  to  the  Narrative  of  Franklin's 
first  Polar  Expedition,  p.  671.  The  Magpie  of  Hudson's  Bay.  "  Of 
less  size  m  all  its  parts  than  the  European  Magpie,  except  in  its  tail, 
which  exceeds  that  of  its  congener  in  length  ;  but  the  most  remarkable 
and  obvious  difference  consists  in  a  loose  tuft  of  greyish  and  white  feathers 
on  the  back :  *  *  *  tail  from  eleven  and  a  half  to  twelve  inches  long." 

*  A  Norwegian  specimen  just  arrived,  has  the  wing  fully  eight  inches,  and  the  rest 
as  in  the  Afghan  specimen  above  noticed. 


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1846.]  or  UUle  Knawn  Sfitcies  of  Birds.  27 

&|<»8t  of  the  Magpies  have  more  or  lesa  greyish  over  the  rump,  and  the 
absence  of  this  is  one  distinguishing  character  of  F.  battantnsis, 

6.  P,  Nuttalli,  Audttbon« '  Ornitbologieal  Biography/  This  species 
is  at  once  kndWn  by  its  yellow  bill.     From  Western  North  America. 

7.  P. ?  The  small  species  noticed  in  /.  A.  8,  XIII,  398, 

which  is  considerably  inferior  in  size  to  the  European  Magpie,  and  has 
the  tail  glossed  as  in  P.  Nuttaili.  I  certainly  do  not  think  that  it  eould 
have  been  P.  h^dsonia,  and  am  unaware  of  its  habitat.  The  only  spe- 
cimen I  hare  seen  was  an  unmounted  skin  in  the  collection  of  the  Zoolo- 
gical Society. 

Ptilorhinus,  Ruppell.  The  Blue  Magpies.  Mr.  O.  R.  Gray,  in  his 
recent  enumeration  of  the  species  of  this  group^  gives  only  four ;  three 
of  these  being  American,  and  the  fourth  Asiatic.  I  find,  however,  that 
several  nearly  allied  Asiatic  speeies,  as  many  as  five  apparently,  require 
to  be  diaeriminated. 

1.  Pa.  9metm$;  Cuculus  smensit,  Lin.,  founded  on  the  StM^km  of 
Boffoa :  Certms  erythrorkfnchos,  Latham,  founded  on  le  Geai  do  la  Chine 
d  bee  raufe  of  Bufibn ;  also  Coraciae  melanocepkaia,  Latham.  This 
Chinese  Inrd,  aoo^i^g  to  Levpullant's  figure  and  deseription,  has 
too  much  white  upon  its  craum  for  the  common  Himalayan  species, 
figured  as  Pica  ^thr^rkifneka  in  Gould's  '  Century' ;  and  as  the 
other  oriental  species  of  this  group  differ  espeeially  in  thia  particular,  and 
u  LevaiUant  exaniiaed  ''  at  lenst  six  specimens"  of  his  Pie  Bfeae,  I  think 
we  may  confide  in  his  eoourscF  ^^  J9g9id&  the  marking  in  question.  He 
ezpresfily  states  that  the  forehead,  cheeks,  throat,  and  the  firont  and  sides 
of  the  ne^,  are  of  a  decided  black ;  fhe  whole  tep  qftke  head  is  covered 
with  Uuish*grey  feathers^  which  are  long  and  broad,  and  form  a  kind 
of  pendent  cre^ :  but  he  is  4<mbtlea»  wrong  in  correcting  Bufion  res- 
peet^g  the  colourmg  of  the  beak,  the  original  bright  coral-red  of  which 
had  faded  i^  the  specimens  which  he  saw  and  drew  from* 

2.  P«.  oceipiialis,  nobis :  Pica  erythrorh^ncha,  apud  Vigors  and  Gould. 
Bill  eor^l-ii^ ;  a  lar^^  oval  white  patch  oonQned  to  the  occiput,  and 
pointed  posteriorly^  wi|Ji  terminal  white  spots  on  the  hinder  corona^ 
feathers  immediately  impending  it.  The  common  species  of  Nepal  and 
to  the  NW.,  as  at  Mussoorie,  &c. 

3.  P»,  magnirostrie,  nobis.  Resembles  the  last,  but  is  still  more  richly 
coloured,  especially  on  the  wings  ^  the  bill  much  larger  than  in  the 


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2B  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

others ;  and  a  great  naked  space  sarrounding  the  eyes ;  the  legs  and 
claws  also  are  large  and  strong.  Length  of  bill  to  gape,  an  inch  and 
three-quarters,  that  of  Ps.  occipitalis  barely  exceeding  an  inch  and  a 
half;  and  its  depth  and  strength  also  considerably  greater!  Inhabits  the 
Ya-ma-dong  mountains,  separating  Arracan  from  Pegu. 

4.  Ps,  albicapillus,  nobis.  This  is  evidently  distinct,  though  I  only 
know  it  in  its  immature  garb,  which  differs  from  that  of  Ps.  occipitalis 
in  having  the  entire  cap  white ;  the  extreme  frontal  feathers,  and  those 
impending  the  nostrib,  being  alone  black.  From  the  neighbourhood  of 
Simla.  The  Chinese  species  would  seem  to  be  intermediate  to  this  and 
Ps,  occipitalis* 

5.  Ps.  flavirostris,  nobis.  General  plumage  of  a  much  duller  colour 
than  in  the  others ;  the  bill  of  the  recent  specimen  bright  yellow, 
instead  of  deep  coral-red ;  and  the  white  of  the  occiput  reduced  to  a 
narrowish  transverse  band,  with  a  broad  collar  of  black  below  it,  sur- 
rounding the  hind- neck,  and  never  any  white  tips  to  the  feathers  imme- 
diately above  it ;  legs  and  toes  small  and  slender.  This  is  the  most 
distinct  from  the  rest  of  all  the  species  here  indicated ;  and  it  is  the 
first  which  I  distinguished  from  Ps»  occipitalis,  though  I  waited  to 
obtain  the  young  of  the  latter  before  attempting  to  describe  it  as  a 
separate  race.  It  is  the  common  species  of  Daijeeling,  and  the  only 
one  I  have  seen  from  that  locality ;  but  I  have  now  seen  many  speci. 
mens  from  thence,  all  true  to  their  distinctive  characters.  Upon  shewing 
the  three  Himalayan  races  to  Mr.  Hodgson,  fPs.  albicapillus,  Ps.  occi- 
pitalis, and  Ps.  flavirostris y)  that  gentleman  informed  me  that  he  had 
long  ago  distinguished  them,  and  that  he  had  exhibited  coloured  draw« 
ings  of  the  heads  of  each  at  a  meeting  of  the  Zoological  Society  in 
London.  It  is  probable  that  natur^ists  in  Europe  will  not  at  once  be 
prepared  to  accept  the  distinctions  that  have  been  here  indicated,  but 
I  am  content  to  await  their  future  decree,  when  they  shall  have  obtain- 
ed the  requisite  data  to  judge  from;  as  in  the  matter  also  of  the 
Hoonuman  Monkeys,  (XIII.  470,)  concerning  which  Mr,  Ghray,  I  per- 
ceive, regards  as  varieties  merely  of  the  same  species,  the  very  distinct 

*  Lord  A.  Hay  writes  me  word,  that  he  has  recently  obtained  this  white*capped 
species  at  Simla :  it  being  the  only  specimen  of  the  genus  which  his  lordship  did  there 
meet  with;  though  Ps.  occipitalis  abounds  at  Mussoorie,  and  as  Capt.  Button  informs 
me,  is  very  terrene  in  its  habits,  feeding  almost  entirely  on  the  ground. 


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1846.]  or  LittU  Known  Species  of  Birds.  29 

races  which  I  still  insist  upon  are  different  species,  if  any  meaning 
is  to  be  attached  to  the  latter  term.  With  sufficiently  perfect  sped- 
mens  to  form  an  opinion  upon,  I  own  I  cannot  conceive  how  any  other 
conclusion  can  be  arrived  at,  in  the  latter  instance,  than  that  upon  which 
Mr.  Elliot  and  myself  are  agreed. 

Cissa,  Boie :  Corapica,  Lesson :  Chhrismna^  Swainson.  Here,  again, 
I  think  that  three  species  require  to  be  distinguished.  1,  Cissa  sinensis, 
(6m.),  founded  on  Buffon's  plate,  of  which  a  copy  has  been  obligingly 
sent  me  by  Mr.  Jerdon.  This  would  seem  to  be  distinguished  from  C. 
venatariust  (Gray,)  of  the  Himalaya,  Assam,  Sylhet*  and  the  Tenasserim 
Provinces,  by  having  much  less  black  behind  the  eye;  and  it  would 
appear  also  to  have  the  wing  entirely  blackish,  except  the  tips  of  the 
tertiaries  which  are  white  :  and  as  the  upper*parts  are  represented  more 
green  than  blue,  the  inference  is,  that  the  hue  of  Buffon's  specimen  had 
not  faded. — 2,  C  venatoHus,  (Ghray  );— and  3,  C.  thalassinay  (Texn.) — C. 
venatarius,  when  newly  moulted,  is  of  a  lovely  green,  with  the  wings 
bright  sanguine-red ;  and  the  bill  and  legs  deep  coral :  but  whether  alive, 
(wild,  or  in  confinement,)  or  mounted  as  a  stuffed  specimen  and  exposed 
to  the  light,  the  green  soon  changes  to  verdigris^blue,  and  the  red  of 
the  wings  to  dull  ashy :  at  this  time  of  writing,  a  specimen  in  the 
Museum  which  was  of  the  finest  green  and  red  when  set  up,  has  com- 
pletely faded  on  the  side  exposed  to  a  moderate  light,  and  retained  its 
pristine  colours  on  the  other  side;  and  I  am  obliged  to  keep  another 
specimen  protected  from  the  light,  to  shew  the  gireat  beauty  of  the 
species  in  its  unchanged  verdure,  I  have  had  many  of  these  birds  alive, 
which  combine  in  their  manners  the  traits  of  the  Jay  and  Shrike ;  they 
are  very  amusing  birds,  soon  become  tame  and  quite  fearless,  are  very 
imitative,  sing  lustily  a  loud  and  screeching  strain  of  their  own,  with 
much  gesticulation,  and  are  highly  carnivorous  in  their  appetite.  The 
8hrike-like  habit,  in  confinement,  of  placing  a  bit  of  food  in  each  interval 
betwixt  the  bars  of  their  prison,  is  in  no  species  more  strongly  exempli- 
fied then  in  Cissa  venatorius. 

The  genera  Psilorhinus  and  Cissa,  with  Cyanacorax  of  South  Ame- 
rica, form  a  little  group  by  themselves*;   and  I  consider  that  Mr. 
Strickland  was  quite  justified  in  separating  from  the  last  the  blue  Jays  of 
*  Corvus  cyanuSt  Pallas,  exemplifies  another  form  that  should  rank  with  them. 


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30  Notices  and  Deseffs^tUmi  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

North  America,  whieh  constitute  bis  Oyanocittat  An,  and  Mag,  Nat,  Hist, 
1645,  p.  260 ;  but  as  Corvua  cristatus,  Liu.,  is  the  type  of  Mr.  Swain- 
son's  Cfannrus,  I  conceiye  that  this  must  take  precedence  of  CyangdUa, 
Strickland. 

Crypsirina,  Vieillot :  Phrenotrix,  Horsfield :  Dendroeitta»  Gould.  Some 
attempt  was  made  at  oolktiog  the  Indian  species  of  this  group  of  Mag- 
pies, in  XII,  932.  I  now  add  another  species,  and  shall  endeavour  to 
assort  the  synonymes. 

L  Cr.  rt/c ;  Corvus  n^,  Seopoli,  Lath.,  founded  on  la  Pie  roasse 
die  la  Chine  of  Sonnerat,  badly  ^ured  by  LevaUlant :  also  Cataews  vaga* 
knnda^  Latham ;  and  perhaps  Pica  ru/iventris,  VieiUot,  Shaw's  Zoology. 
XIV,  73.     India  generally. 

2.  Cr.  pallida,  nobis.  Distinguished  from  the  last  by  its  oonatder- 
ably  amalier  size  and  paler  colouring.  Length  about  fifteen  inches,  of 
which  the  middle  tail-featiiers  measure  eight  and  three*quarters,  the 
outermost  four  inches  and  five-eighths  less ;  wing  five  inches  and  a  half; 
bill  to  gape  nearly  an  inch  and  a  quarter ;  tarse  an  inch  and  one-eighth. 
Plumage  as  in  CV.  rufa^  but  altogether  mueh  paler :  the  back  and  sca- 
pularies  ijBabelline  with  a  shade  of  dusky,  but  devoid  of  any  decided 
rufous  tinge  ;  rump  paler,  the  belly  and  lower  tail-cov^rts  pure  isabel- 
line,  or  buflPy  oream*eolour.  The  hue  of  the  lower-parts  approaches 
that  of  the  young  of  Cr,  rufa ;  but  the  much  firmer  structure  of  the 
plumage,  indicative  of  maturity,  at  once  distinguishes  it  from  the  latt^. 
Hab^  Western  Himalaya.  This  species,  and  the  young  of  Peilar^ 
hinus  albicapiUus,  were  obtained  in  a  junall  ooUection  from  that  part, 
purchased  in  Gdcutta  by  Prof.  Behn,  of  Kiel  University,  who  first 
called  my  attention  to  the  distinctness  of  each  of  them  horn  its  near 
congener,  and  kindly  permitted  me  to  draw  up  descriptions  for  publica- 
tion.* ^ 

3.  Cr.  sinensis.-f — 4.  Cr,  leucogastra, — d,  Cr,  rufigastra  (nan  vidij, 
vide  XII,  933.*— And  6.  the  Cr,  altirqetris  will,  I  suspect,  prove  to  be  the 
same  as  Cr,  frontalis,  from  the  description  of  which  it  deviates  only  in 

*  Both  would  seem  to  be  rare.  Capt  HuUon  never  met  with  Ps,  albicapiUus, 
during  the  long  time  that  he  has  collected  in  the  W.  Himalaya;  and  Capt.  Boys  has 
only  once  obtained  Cr.  pallida,  many  years  ago. 

f  Very  doubtful  as  an  inhabitant  of  Southern  India.  Jerdon. 


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1846.]  w  LiUh  Known  Specie^  of  Birds.  31 

haying  the  vertejp  black  like  the  forehead,  not  grey  like  the  occiput.''' 
Hab.  Daijeelhig,  and  the  momtains  of  Assam.  This  last  species  has 
the  beak  compressed  so  as  to  resemble  that  of  a  CaUaaay  Forster  (o. 
Giaueopis,  QmJ),  to  which  genus  M.  Temminck  has  referred  certain 
other  C9fp8irin4e,  as  nko  the  Tnnnarus  hucopienu,  (Tern.),  Lesson. 

Of  the  two  Himalayan  species  of  Onrruius,  or  true  Jay,  Mr.  O.  R.  Qray 
arranges  the  synonymes  as  follow:-^!,  Q,  amatus,  Oray»  Hardwicke's 
///.  Ind,  ZooL ;  O.  hiipeeuiaria.  Vigors  and  Qould.«-^2,  G,  fulartg,  Gray, 
Hardw.,  ///.  Ind.  ZooL;  G.  lonoeolatw.  Vigors  and  Gould;  and  G. 
Vigorni,  Gray,  Hardw.,  ///.  Ind.  Zoo/.~The  G.  siriatuo.  Vigors  and 
Gonld,  though  extremely  Jay<*like  in  form,  pertains  to  a  different  series 
of  birds ;  and  Mr.  G.  R.  Gray  ranges  it  under  Jktmagra  of  Lesson, 
which  he  considers  synonymous  with  his  own  Keropia,  G,  guhcans  is  the 
great  Kemaon  Shrike  of  M'Clelland's '  Gkology,  &c.  of  Kemaon,'  p.  244. 

After  the  CorvidA,  might  be  arranged  the  Purndiseida;  to  which 
family  I  s|ispect  the  curious  AmMralian  genera  P^inorhynchms  and 
Chlamidera  should  be  referred.  Then  the  great  family  of  Stumida,  com- 
mencing nHth  an  Australian  sub-family,  which  comprises  the  genera 
Strepera,  Gymnorhimi,  Cractieus,  Vanga,  Noomorpha^  and  Graiiinn,  Then 
the  great  series  of  Old  Worid  Stumidmy  forming  the  sub-family  Stuminm ; 
from  which  perhaps  that  of  Lamprotominte  might  be  separated,  though 
it  is  not  easy  to  trace  the  line  of  demarcation  of  this  group.  I  described 
apart  the  two  Indian  Graeula  in  XII,  178  (l>isj;  but  Lord  Arthur  Hay 
has  since  distinguished  the  Malayan  Graekle  from  that  of  Bengal,  &c., 
which  necessitates  a  revision  of  the  synonymes  of  all  three  species. 

1 .  Gr,  religioaa,  Lin.  (apud  Lord  A.  Hay) :  Gr,  indica^  Cuvi^ ;  Pa$* 
tor  ntusi^mst  Tem. ;  MaimUus  javanua,  Lesson,  apud  Jerdon,  J,  A.  8.  XII. 
178  (h%&)  ;  Lessor  Mina  of  Edwards,  quoted  by  Latham  and  Gmelin  as 
Gr.  reiijiosa,  L.,  var.  A,  (the  Greater  Mina  of  Edwards  being  quoted  by 
die^  as  var.  B.),     Inhabits  Southern  India.        ' 

2.  Gr.  javanensis,   Osbeek :    Greater  Mina   of  Edwards ;   and  no 

doubt  Sturmts  indicus   Bontii  of  Ray  and  WiUughby ;   probably  also 

Mainatus  major,  firisson.     This,  the  common  Malayan  Graekle,  differs 

*  Dr.  fifcOlelland's  coloured  drftwiog  of  Or,  frontalis  aocovds  with  the  description : 
having  the  forehead  broadly  black,  paieing  laterally  over  each  eye  to  beneath  the 
vertex,  as  in  Cr.  sinensis,  and  leaving  the  vertex  greyish-white,  continuous  with 
that  of  the  occiput  and  nape ;  whereas  in  Cr.  altirostris,  the  black  anterior  portion 
comprehends  the  vertex,  as  in  Cr»  leucogastra. 


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32  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

from  that  of  Nepal,  Bengal,  Assam,  Arracan,  and  the  Tenasserim 
Provinces,  (the  common  Hill  Mynah  of  the  Calcutta  dealers,)  in  its 
rather  larger  size,  as  regards  linear  dimensions,  but  much  more  robust 
conformation,  with  much  larger  occipital  lappets,  &c.  The  closed  beak 
measures  eleven* sixteenths  of  an  inch  in  vertical  depth,  whereas  in  the 
Bengal  species  it  does  not  commonly  attain  to  half  an  inch ;  the  feet 
are  also  much  thicker  and  stronger,  with  far  more  powerful  toes  and 
claws,  the  tarse  measuring  an  inch  aiid  three-eighths,  and  middle  toe 
and  claw  nearly  one  and  seven-eighths ;  while  in  the  Bengal  species  the 
former  measurement  is  one  and  a  quarter,  or  less,  and  the  latter  about  one 
and  five-eighths ;  wing  respectively  seven  inches,  and  six  and  a  half  or 
less ;  and  tail  the  same  in  both.  All  the  specimens  I  have  seen  have 
been  from  Malacca"':  of  a  number  received  from  the  Tenasserim  Province 
of  Y^,  not  one  could  be  mistaken  for  this  Malayan  bird.  Edwards'  state- 
ment that  his  "  Greater  Minor,  or  Mina,  for  bigness,  equals  a  Jackdaw 
or  Magpie,"  is  intelligible  of  the  present  species,  but  scarcely  so  of  the 
next. 

3.  Gr,  intermedia,  A.  Hay,  probably  the  Mainate  of  Buffbn,  and 
perhaps  Mainatus  sumatranus,  Lesson :  Gr,  reliffiosa,  apud  nos, 
J.  A.  S,  XII,  178  fbisj.  The  range  of  this  species  has  already  been 
indicated.  It  is  always  less  robust,  with  a  less  powerful  beak,  and 
smaller  occipital  lappets,  than  in  Gr.  javanensis.f 

Ampeliceps  coronatus,  nobis,  J.  A.  8.  XI,  194.  In  XII,  985»  I 
indicated  a  grand  defect  in  the  specimen  originally  described,  and  noticed 
the  near  affinity  of  this  genus  to  the  preceding  one.  Our  indefatigable 
contributor  Mr.  Barbe  has  now  supplied  us  with  fine  specimens  of  both 
sexes,  of  which  the  beak  essentially  resembles  that  of  Gracula,  but  is 
smaller  and  shorter,  and  of  a  dark  greenish  colour  with  yellowish  tip 
and  along  the  tomise  (in  the  scarcely  dry  specimens).  There  is  a 
tolerably  large  naked  space  surrounding  the  eye.  which  appears  to  have 
been  yellow ;  but  the  orbits  are  black,;  and  there  are  no  short  velvety 
feathers  on  the  sinciput,  or  nude  skin  beneath  and  occipital  lappets, 

*  It  likewise  inhabits  the  N isobar  Islands  and  Penang.  In  this  species,  the  oc- 
cipital lappets  are  generally  united  at  base,  but  sometimes  only  approximated ;  in  Gr, 
intermedia  they  are  smaller  and  more  distant  apart. 

t  In  the  *  Madras  Journal',  No.  XXXI,  p.  154  et  seq»t  Lord  A.  Hay  terms  these 
three  birds  Gr.  religiosa,javanay  and  indica  (nee  intermedia). 


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1346.]  or  Liitle  Known  Species  of  Birdt.  33 

as  in  Graeula;  thoagh  in  other  respects  the  form  is  barely  separable. 
The  presumed  female  differs  from  the  male  in  having  less  yellow  on  the 
crown  and  throat :  in  the  male,  the  whole  crown,  lores,  throat,  extending 
laterally  to  the  naked  skin  beneath  the  eyes,  are  bright  yellow ;  where- 
as in  tiie  females,  the  lores,  and  a  considerable  space  both  above  and 
below  the  nude  orbital  skin,  are  black.  The  rest  of  the  plnmage  is 
exactly  as  in  the  Oraeuke,  with  yellow  instead  of  white  barring  the 
primaries.  Inhabits  the  Tenasserim  Provinces.  This  is  an  exceedingly 
pretty  Mynah,  and  I  doubt  not  would  be  much  esteemed  as  a  cage 
favourite. 

The  other  Mynahs  were  treated  of  in  XIII,  361  et  eeq.:  and  the 
common  arboreal  Bengal  species  there  referred,  and  also  by  authors  gene* 
rally,  to  AeridMeret  cristatellus,  (L.),  of  China,  proves  to  be  distinct, 
and  apparently  referable  to  Pastor  griseus,  Horsf.,  of  Java,  which  that 
naturalist  imagined  to  be  the  same  as  the  cristatellus.  To  Lord  Arthur 
Hay,  I  am  indebted  for  the  loan  of  a  Chinese  specimen  of  true  Acr. 
cristaieUus,  the  young  of  which  I  described  as  Acr,  fuliginosus  in  XIII, 
362.  I  now  supply  descriptions  of  each,  which  will  suffice  to  shew 
their  differences. 

Aer,  cristatellus,  (Lin.) ;  figured  by  Bdwards,  pi.  XIX  :  Acr,  faHgi" 
nosus,  nobis  (the  young).  Length  about  eleven  inches :  of  wing  five 
inches  and  a  half;  and  tail  three  and  three-eighths ;  bill  to  gape  an  inch 
and  three-eighths  ;  and  tarsi  an  inch  and  a  half.  Colour  throughout 
greyish-black,  with  a  bronzed  gloss  on  the  upper  parts ;  tail-feathers, 
except  the  middle  pair,  and  the  lower  tail*coverts,  tipped  with  white ; 
base  of  the  primaries,  and  greater  portion  of  their  coverts,  also  white, 
forming  a  broad  band  on  the  under  surface  of  the  wing ;  erect  frontal 
feathers  above  three-quarters  of  an  inch  high,  in  the  specimen  under 
examination :  the  bill  appears  to  have  been  yellow,  with  the  base  of 
the  lower  mandible  carrot-red;  and  the  legs  arie  also  yellow.  The 
young  is  browner,  with  the  white  patch  at  the  base  of  the  primaries 
much  more  developed :  but  there  is  no  white  at  the  tip  of  the  tail,  or  of 
its  under-coverts ;  and  the  frontal  crest  is  barely  indicated. 

Aer,  griseus,  (Horsfield) :  Pastor  cristaUoOes,  Hodgson.  Smaller 
and  paler,  with  the  under- parts  of  a  much  lighter  asK- colour,  paling 
and  in  some  specimens  passing  to  vinaceous- white  on  the  abdomen,  and 
always  to  pure  white  on  the  lower  tail-coverts :  the  tail-feathers  are 


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34  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  160. 

much  more  deeply  tipped  with  white  than  in  Acr,  eristatellusr;  there 
is  a  similar  white  wing-patch ;  and  the  frontal  crest  is  commonly  under 
half  an  inch  in  height.  Terminal  half  of  the  bill  orange-yellow,  the 
remainder  with  the  inside  of  the  mouth  deep  black  :  legs  orange-yellow  : 
irides  bright  yellow.  Length  nine  inches  and  a  half,  by  fifteen  inches  ; 
wing  five  inches  ;  and  tail  three  inches  :  bill  to  gape  an  inch  and  a  quar- 
ter ;  and  tarse  one  and  three-eighths.  The  young  are  browner  than 
those  of  Act,  cristatellus,  and  are  at  once  distinguished  by  having  the 
throat  whitish,  more  or  less  pure,  and  the  middle  of  the  belly  and 
lower  tail-coverts  white.  This  bird  takes  much  the  same  range  as 
Graeula  intermedia,  only  that  it  is  not  confined  like  that  species  to 
the  hill  country :  it  is  common  along  the  eastern  coast  of  the  Bay  of 
Bengal,  to  the  Tenasserim  Provinces  at  least ;  and  it  appears  to  be  Dr. 
Horsfield's  Javanese  Pastor  griseus* 

Also  very  closely  allied  to  the  latter,  is  the  Acr.fuscus  of  the  Indian 
Peninsula,  which  is  distinguished  from  Acr.  griseus  by  its  smaller  size, 
browner  colouring,  white  abdominal  region,  and  greyish-white  irides. 
Wing  four  inches  and  three-quarters. 

The  Acr.  ginginianus,  one  of  the  commonest  birds  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
great  rivers  of  Upper  India  which  have  high  banks,  does  not  occur  so 
low  down  the  Hoogly  as  Calcutta,  but  abounds  as  soon  as  the  banks 
of  the  Hoogly  become  of  sufficient  height  for  it  to  burrow  in  with 
tolerable  security ;  and  on  ascending  the  river  makes  its  appearance 
soon  after  the  common  Indian  Bank  Swallow  {Hirundo  sinensis,  Ghray). 
Mr.  Hodgson  well  named  this  species  Pastor  gregicolus,  for  it  con- 
stantly associates  with  the  herds  of  cattle  on  open  pastures  ;  and  popu- 
lous communities  of  them  perforate  deep  holes  in  the  perpendicular 
banks  of  rivers,  in  which  they  repose  and  breed.  This  bird  is  the  Tar- 
dus suratensis,  var.  A,  of  Latham ;  his  T.  suratensis  being  no  other 
then  Pastor  roseus :  it  is  also  the  Gung-Salik  (*  Ganges  Mynah')  of  the 
Bengalees,  and  should  be  compared  with  the  African  Martin  gris^de-fer 
of  Levaillant,  upon  which  is  founded  Graeula  grisea,  Daudin,  and 
Cossyphus  griseus  of  Dumeril. 

Sturnia  erytkropygia,  nobis,  n.  s.  This  beautiful  species  would  seem  to 
be  nearly  allied  to  the  Javanese  St,  tricolor,  (Horsfield),  v.  melanoptera, 

*  I  think  that  I  have  seen  it  from  Malacca,  but  am  not  quite  sure.  A  gentleman 
from  Java  considered  it  to  be,  decidedly,  the  species  common  in  that  island.' 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Specie$  of  Birds.  35 

(Waglcr).  Head,  neck,  and  lower-parts,  pure  silky-white ;  the  wings 
wholly  shining  black ;  the  scapularies  and  interscapularies  pale  satiny- 
brown  ;  the  rump,  vent,  upper  and  lower  tail-coverts,  deep  ferruginous.; 
and  the  tail  black,  with  more  than  half  of  its  outermost  feather  ferru- 
giQous,  and  the  rest  successiyely  less  deeply  tipped  with  ferruginous  to 
the  middle  pair :  bill  yellow,  with  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible  livid 
blue ;  and  legs  (apparently)  orpiment-yellow.  Length  approaching  to 
nine  inches  ;  of  wing  four  inches  and  a  quarter  to  four  and  a  half ;  and 
tail  three  and  a  quarter  to  three  and  a  half ;  bill  to  gape  nearly  an  inch 
and  a  quarter ;  and  tarse  an  inch.     Fron^  the  Nicobar  Islands. 

To  the  same  genus,  Stumia  of  Lesson,  must  be  referred  the  Pastor 
wuUayensis,  Eyton,  P.  Z,  S.  1839,  p.  103 ;  but  as  an  aberrant  species,  with 
the  bill  short,  and  approximating  that  of  Caiomw,— more  slender,  however, 
Ihan  in  that  genus,  and  having  the  outline  of  its  upper  mandible  less  curv- 
ed. Length  about  seven  inches  and  a  quarter,  of  wing  four  and  one-eighth, 
and  tail  two  and  a  quarter ;  bill  to  gape  seven-eighths,  and  tarse  an 
inch.  Head,  neck,  and  under-parts,  of  a  silky  subdued  whitish  or  drab- 
white  ;  whiter  on  the  belly  and  lower  tail-coverts,  and  tinged  with  pur- 
plish on  the  crown  and  nape :  an  occipital  spot,  the  interscapularies,  prox- 
imate scapularies,  shoulder  of  the  wing,  and  rump,  black  with  a  rich 
purple  shine ;  outer  scapularies,  and  the  second  range  of  wing-coverts, 
subdued  white ;  as  also  an  elongated  central  terminal  spot  on  some  of 
the  greater  wing-coverts,  and  more  or  less  developed  on  the  tips  of  the 
tertiaries ;  rest  of  the  wing,  and  the  tail,  glossy  green-black,  with  some 
admixture  of  purple ;  the  secondaries  shaped  at  tip  and  margined  with 
deep  black,  as  in  Stumus  vulgaris ;  the  outermost  tail-feather  having 
a  whitish-brown  exterior  web,  and  most  of  the  upper  tail-coverts  are 
of  the  same  dull  pale  brown  colour  :  bill  dusky,  whitish  towards  base  of 
lower  mandible  ;  and  the  legs  apparently  plumbeous.  What  appear  to 
be  the  females  have  a  large  triangular  drab-coloured  spot  at  the  base 
of  the  secondaries,  and  the  exterior  half  of  the  outer  webs  of  the  pri- 
maries are  of  the  same  hue  ;  a  trace  of  this  appears  also  on  the  wings 
of  some  (presumed)  males.  The  young  are  brown  above,  paler  be- 
neath, passing  to  whitish  on  the  belly  and  lower  tail«  coverts  ;  the  back 
and  scapularies  are  darkest ;  and  there  is  a  blackish  occipital  spot  in 
place  of  the  shining  black  spot  of  the  adult :  the  wings  are  marked 
nearly  as  in  the  adult,  but  are  much  less  bright ;  the  secondaries  brown 


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86  Noiiees  and  Deseriptums  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

with  pale  outer  margin ;  and  the  bill  pale,  with  dusky  on  its  terminal 
half.    Common  at  Malacca.* 

Calomia  affinis,  A.  Hay.  This  differs  from  the  Malayan  C.  cantor  in 
its  larger  size.  Wing  four  inches  to  four  and  a  quarter,  instead  of 
three  and  a  half  to  three  and  fiye-eighths :  and  tail  three  inches  to  three 
and  a  quarter,  instead  of  two  inches  and  a  half ;  tarse  seren-eighths^ 
instead  of  three-quarters  of  an  inch ;  and  bill  about  the  same  in  both : 
plumage  of  the  two  species  absolutely  similar  at  all  ages»  and  glossed 
as  brightly  in  fine  specimens  of  either.  C.  affinis  inhabits  Tipperah, 
Arracan,  Tenasserim  (?},  and  the  Nicobar  Islands :  while  C.  cantor  is 
eommon  at  Malacca. 

Pastor  tsmporalis,  (Tem.,  noticed  in  Vol.  XIII,  note  to  p.  366,)  proves 
to  be  from  China,  and  will  rank  in  Stumoptutor,  Hodgson.  Lord  Arthur 
Hay  has  favoured  the  Society  with  a  specimen  from  Hong  Kong :  and  his 
lordship  first  called  my  attention  to  the  dbtinction  of  size  between 
CtUomis  cantor  and  C.  t^hUs,  Here,  too,  may  be  noticed  that  I  no  longer 
regard  Stumus  indicus,  Hodg.,  as  distinct  from  St.  vulgaris, 

Fringiilida,  sub-fam.  Estreldina,  In  Vol.  XIII,  949,  I  endeavoured 
to  give  a  list  of  the  Indian  Mooniahs,  &c.,  which  was  partly  corrected  in 
XIV,  d54.    I  now  offer  a  revised  list  of  them. 

1.  J.  malaeca,  (Lin.):  Cdccothraustesjavensis,  Brisson:  White-breasted 
Indian  Sparrow  of  Edwards.     Hab.  Peninsular  India. 

2.  A.  sinensis:  Coccothraustes  sinensis,  Biiaaoni  Logia  nuilacca,  var. 
J,  Latham ;  Mania  rubronigra,  Hodgson ;  Lenehura  melanocephaia, 
Horsfield :  Chinese  Sparrow  of  Edwards.    Bengal,  Nepal,  Assam,  Arracan. 

3.  A.  maja :  Loxia  maja^  (nee  FringUla  maja,)  Lin. :  Loxia  leucoce" 
phala,  Raffles.  As  a  rare  Bengal  species,  this  rests  on  the  authority  of  a 
most  correct  observer,  Mr.  Frith.  It  is  common  in  the  Malay  countries, 

4.  A,  peetoralis,  Jerdon.     South  India. 

5.  A.  molucca,  (L.)  :  Mwda  acnticauda,  Hodgson.    Nepal,  Malacca. 

6.  A,  striata,  (L.)  :  Fringilla  leuconota,  Tem.  South  India,  Arracan. 
Such  at  least  is  the  range  of  the  Indian  species,  which  Mr.  Jerdon 
thinks  is  distinct  from  its  Malaj^an  representative :  the  latter  I  have  not 
seen ;  but,  if  different,  it  will  retain  the  name  and  synonyme  here  applied 
to  the  Indian  bird. 

*  Pastor  ckmensis,  (L.),  u  figured  in  the  PL  Bnl,,  to  judge  from  a  copy  of  that 
figure  sent  me  by  Mr.  Jerdon,  would  seem  to  be  an  aberrant  species  of  Stumia, 
having  some  affinity  for  St.  sericea  and  St,  malayensis. 


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1846.]  or  LiUU  Known  Species  of  Birds.  37 

7.  A.  tindulata,  (Lath.)  :  also  Lona  punctularia,  yar.  A,  Lath. ; 
Jtftmui  limeoventer,  Hodgaon.  Lidia  generally.  From  the  nearly  allied 
Malayan  species — L.  pMnctularia,  (L.)»  ▼.  nisoria,  (Tem.), — this  Indian 
bird  is  distingnished  by  having  its  upper  tail-coyerts  ochreous,  and  tail 
tinged  with  the  same;  whereas  A,  puactularia  (vera)  has  the  tail  ashy, 
and  its  coverts  barred  dusky-ash  and  white.  Mr.  Jerdon  first  informed 
me  of  their  distinctness. 

8.  A,  malabariea,  (L.)  :  Lonchura  cheet,  Sykes ;  Loma  hieohr,  Tickell 
(nee  Latham).  India  generally ;  common  in  Bengal.  L.  malabariea  apud 
Latham,  is  the  young  of  A,  sinensis;  and  his  L.  bicolor  is  evidently  the 
immature  plumage  of  some  other  species. 

The  Estrelda  formosa,  (Lath,)  as  I  am  informed  by  Capt.  Wrough- 
ton,  occurs  in  immense  flocks  in  the  high  lands  where  the  Nerbudda 
takes  its  rise. 

FrinffiUidiB,*  Several  of  the  species  described  in  my '  Synopsis  of  Indian 
Fringillida,' J.  A.  S.  XIII,  944  etseq,  (1844),  have  since  been  described 
by  Mr.  Hodgson  in  the  '  Proceedings  of  the  Zoological  Society'  for  April, 
1845.  Pyrrhuloides  epauletta  is  there  termed  Pyrrhoplectes  epauletta. 
The  generic  name  Propyrrhula  is  transferred  to  Pyrrhospiza  of  my 
synopsis,  and  Pr.  punicsa  described  as  Pr,  ruheculoides,  Carpodacus 
(v,  Erythrospiza,  Bonap.)  erythrinus,  is  designated  Pyrrkolinota  rose- 
ata;  and  C  rodochrous  and  C.  rodopeplus  are  styled  Propasser. — I 
lately  saw  fine  specimens  of  Pyrrhospiza  punicea  from  the  Boorendoo 
Pass ;  and  with  them  a  new  species  of  restricted  FringiUa,  from  Huttoo 
mountain,  near  Simla,  in  the  collection  of  Capt.  Thomas,  89th  Regiment 
Bengal  Native  Infantry.  Pyrrhospiza  is  but  slightly  removed  fropi  typi- 
cal Fringilla,  which  group  it  connects  with  the  various  roseate  Finches ; 
and  will  most  probably  contain  the  Fr.  sanguinea  of  Gould :  and  another 
nearly  allied  form  is  Leucosticte,  Swainson,  figured  in  the  Fauna  Ame- 
ricana-borealis,  to  which  may  seemingly  be  referred  Mr.  Hodgson's 

*  It  may  be  remarked  here  that  Passer  nunUanus  is  the  common  Sparrow  of  Ja^a, 
from  which  iiland  it  was  long  ago  mentioned  to  have  been  received,  in  the  Diet.  Class. 
1  had  before  traced  it  to  Arracan  and  Malacca,  and  suggested  its  being  the  Siamese 
Sparrow  of  Crswfnrd.  It  is  common  In  China  and  Japan,  also  in  the  Himalaya,  and 
in  Afghanistan,  extending  westward  to  the  British  Islands. 

Of  the  common  Indian  Sparrow  (P.  indicus  of  Jardine  and  Selby,  and  *  Black- 
breasted  Finch'  of  Latham),  I  find  that  some  males,  especially  in  breeding  aspect  of 
plumage,  are  fully  as  rufous  as  represented,  and  the  under- parts  of  both  sexes  are 
always  whitish :  but  the  sise  accords  with  that  of  the  ordinary  European  Sparrow,  to 
which  it  is  so  very  closely  allied. 


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38  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

Fringillauda;  and  his  Procarduelis  is  also  not  far  removed.  A  new 
species  of  Leucosticte  has  lately  been  figured  by  Mr.  Gould,  in  the 
'Zoology  of  the  Voyage  of  the  Sulphur/  by  the  hybrid  name  griseogenys, 
under  which  it  is  described  in  P.  Z,  S.  1843,  p.  104.  The  new  Finch 
may  be  thus  described — 

Fringilla  erythrophrys,  nobis.  Length  of  male  about  seven  inches ;  wing 
three  and  seven-eighths ;  and  tail  two  and  five-eighths ;  bill  to  gape 
above  five-eighths,  and  tarse  three-quarters  of  an  inch.  Female 
rather  smaller.  Colour  of  male  ruddy«brown  above,  darkest  on  the  tail- 
coverts  ;  below  dull  bufiy-red,  mingled  with  weak  crimson  on  the  chin 
and  throat,  also  on  the  forehead,  and  this  red  passing  as  a  broad  streak 
over  the  eye,  and  becoming  deeper  crimson  posteriorly  :  fine  specimens 
in  summer  dress  have  probably  the  whole  under-parts,  with  th^ 
forehead  and  eye-streak,  crimson,  and  the  back  deeply  tinged  with 
the  same :  the  crown,  ear-coverts,  wings  and  tail,  are  black,  not  very 
deep,  with  the  three  outer  tail-feathers  chiefly  white  towards  the 
tip.  and  with  dark  outer  webs  to  near  the  end;  and  the  other  tail- 
feathers  are  white-tipped,  except  the  middle  pair:  wings  marked  with 
white,  the  greater  coverts  of  the  primaries  having  their  terminal  half  white, 
those  of  the  secondaries  broadly  tipped  with  the  same,  as  are  also 
the  outer  webs  of  the  tertiaries,  and  (successively  more  slightly)  those  of 
the  secondaries  and  primaries.  Bill  yellow,  and  legs  light* coloured. 
The  female  is  plain  brown,  paler  and  tinged  with  yellowish  below,  darker 
and  a  little  tinged  with  yellowish  on  the  crown,  and  having  a  bright 
saffron  eye>streak,  and  duller  saffron-coloured  or  ochreous  forehead; 
the  wings  and  tail  are  marked  as  in  the  male,  but  the  white  is  less 
developed;  and  the  back  is  yellowish- brown.  This  is  a  true  restricted 
Fringilla,  of  the  form  of  Fr.  monti/ringilla,  &c. ;  but  having  obvious 
affinities  for  the  red  Finches  (Carpodacus,  &c.),  and  shewing  also  a 
marked  relationship  for  Coccothraustes,  and  even  for  Carduelis,* 

*  Lord  A.  Hay  informs  me  of  what  he  suspects  to  be  a  new  Finch,  and  terms 
Fringilla  ruhrifrons,  procured  during  his  sojourn  at  Simla.  **  Size  very  small ;  and 
colour  olive-green,  striate  and  mingled  with  dirty  yellow :  forehead  red."  The  parti- 
cular subdivision  of  Finches  is  not  stated. 

There  is  also  a  very  curious-looking,  diminutive,  Finch-like  species,  figured  among 
Dr.  McClelland's  drawings  of  Assamese  birds.  The  size  and  plumage  are  very  Wren' 
like  ;  with  a  bill  approaching  in  form  that  of  a  Chaffinch :  colouring  deep  isabelline  or 
buff,  with  dusky  rays  on  the  wings  and  tail,  and  the  primaries  edged  with  white.  The 
immediate  affinities  are  by  no  means  obvious. 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  39 

Emberisa  da,  Lin.  (mentioned  in  Royle's  list) :  E.  barbata,  Scopoli ; 
E,  lotharingiea,  Qm,  Length  six  inches  and  a  half :  of  wing  three  inches ; 
and  tail  two  and  three-quarters.  Upper^parts  mfescent-brown,  brighter 
on  the  tail-coverts»  and  marked,  except  on  the  latter,  with  a  black  central 
streak  to  each  feather :  crown  dosky,  with  some  inconspicuous  rufous 
edges  to  the  feathers,  a  pale  medial  coronal  line,  and  a  broad  whitish 
superdlium ;  a  black  line  passes  beneath  the  latter  through  the  eye,  and 
partly  surrounds  the  pale  ear-coverts,  and  another  black  streak  proceeds 
downward  from  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible ;  the  chin,  throat,  and 
breast,  are  dingy  grey,  with  slight  dusky  spots  in  front  of  the  neck ; 
and  the  rest  of  the  lower-parts  are  uniform  light  ruddy-brown,  with 
traces  of  dark  streaks  on  the  flanks:  wings  dusky,  the  feathers  mar- 
gined with  the  rufescent-brown  of  the  back;  and  the  two  outermost  tail- 
feathers  on  each  side  are  chiefly  white,  except  on  their  narrow  outer  webs. 
Bill  pale  plumbeous,  and  legs  light-coloured.  Also  procured  in  the  vici- 
nity of  Simla  by  Capt.  Thomas,  who  has  obligingly  presented  it  to 
the  Society.*  According  to  Messrs.  Dickson  and  Ross,  this  bird  is  com- 
mon in  the  vicinity  of  Erzeroum,  being  found  near  mill-streams,  and  in 
burying  grounds.    P.  Z.  8.  1839,  p.  132. 

Mr.  Hodgson,  in  Proc,  Zool,  8oc,  1845,  p.  35,  states  that,  in  Nepal, — 
"  We  have  four  species  of  Emberiza,  three  of  which  are  the  erythroptera, 
chlorocephala,  and  aureola,  of  authors  ;  and  the  fourth,"  he  adds,  *'  is,  I 
think,  new, — Emberiza  oinops,  mihi, — a  new  subgenus,  Ocyris,  mihi." 
Of  these  four,  the  first  now  bears  the  name  Lathami,  Ghray f ;  the  second 
is,  beyond  doubt,  my  melanops,  J.  A.  S.  XIV,  554,  which  was  recog- 
nized by  Mr,  Hodgson  when  in  Calcutta,  as  a  species  familiar  to  him, 
and  it  is  quite  distinct  from  E,  hortulana  (v.  chlorocephala,)  of  Europe]: ; 

*  I  have  since  been  informed  that  it  is  there  common.  Lord  A.  Hay  procured  many 
specimens ;  and  mentions  abo  another  species  **  closely  allied  to  it,  but  differing  in 
having  a  large  liver-brown  spot  on  the  cheek,  and  in  some  other  particulars."  The 
liver-brown  spot  in  question  is  possessed  by  B,/ucata  and  by  B,  pusiUa  (fj. 

t  Lord  A.  Hay  possesses  this  bird  from  Hong  Kong;  and  Mr.  Jerdon  considers  it  to 
be  the  Moineau  de  Macao  of  Buffon,  **  and  if  so  it  will  bear  the  prior,  but  certainly  in- 
appropriate, name  of  melanictera,  Vieillot." 

X  Since  the  above  was  penned,  the  Norwegian  collection  has  supplied  us  with  a 
specimen  of  the  European  Ortolan,  B,  hortulana :  its  upper-parts  are  nearly  as  in  B. 
mekmopt,  but  the  face  and  abdominal  region  are  wholly  different;  the  latter  is  nearly 
of  the  same  rufous  tint  as  in  B.  da,  but  mingled  with  yellowish ;  while  in  B.  melanops 
the  abdominal  region  is  pure  light  yellow,  with  dusky  streaks  on  the  flanks. 


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40  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

the  third,  E.  aureola,  is  common  also  in  Tipperah  and  Arracan ;  and  the 
fourth,  I  greatly  suspect,  is  E,  pusUla,  Pallas,  and  certainly  the  same 
as  that  described  from  a  female  specimen  in  XIII,  958,  by  the  name  JS. 
sordida,  Hodgson.  I  add  the  description  of  a  male,  which  I  lately 
saw  from  Daijeeling. 

E.  pusilla  (?),  Pallas.  Length  about  five  inches  and  a  half,  wing 
two  inches  and  three-eighths,  and  outermost  tail-feather  two  and  a 
quarter ;  the  tail  forked  to  the  depth  of  five-sixteenths  of  an  inch :  bill 
to  forehead  three-eighths,  and  tarse  above  five-eighths,  of  an  inch; 
Upper-parts  streaky,  the  feathers  black-centred,  set  off  with  rufous,  and 
this  margined  with  greyish-brown ;  the  rufous  colour  more  developed  on 
the  scapularies  and  rump :  crown,  lores,  and  ear-coverts,  rufous ;  super-^ 
cilium  and  chin  pale  rufescent,  and  above  the  superciUum  is  a  broad 
black  streak,  the  feathers  of  which  are  slightly  rufous-edged :  wings 
dusky,  the  feathers  externally  margined  with  ruddy*olive,  and  tipped 
paler:  tail  having  a  broad  oblique  white  streak  on  the  outermost 
feather,  and  a  narrow  one  on  the  penultimate :  lower- parts  whitish,  with 
a  dusky  line  on  each  side  of  the  throat,  and  streaks  of  the  same  on  the 
breast  and  flanks.  Bill  horn-coloured,  and  legs  pale.  This  species  is 
somewhat  allied  to  E./ucata,  Pallas.* 

Alaudina.  Alauda  raytal,  Buch.  Ham.,  nobis,  ^XIII,  962.  This  bird 
abounds  on  the  white  sand-dunes  of  the  Hooghly,  where  the  stream,  un- 
checked by  the  tide,  deposits  only  fine  sand,  and  the  alluvial  country 
round  (from  this  cause)  is  everywhere  light  and  arenaceous  :  this  Sand 
Lark  being  scarcely  ever  seen  except  on  the  flat  deposits  of  white  sand 
within  each  bend  of  the  stream ;  but  there  they  are  very  numerous^ 
and  (as  usual)  their  colour  approximates  that  of  the  surface.  Fine 
specimens  measure  five  inches  and  five-eighths,  by  ten  inches ;  wing 
three  and  a  quarter ;  and  tail  two  inches :  bill  to  gape  five*eighths, 
and   tarse  three-quarters   of   an  inch  ;    toes   short,    the    hind -claw 

*  Loxia  Jlavicans,  var.  ^.,  Latham,  =^Bmh,  icterica^  Evenh. :  his  Emb»  luteola  is 
perhaps  the  female  of  E,  melanocephala,  but  agrees  with  that  of  B.  aureola :  his 
*  Goura  Finch*  is  B,  Lathami  (w.  fnelanictera  f)  i  his  FrmgiUa  biUyraeea,  L.,  is 
CHthagra  chrysopogon^  Sw.  (*  Birds  of  W.  Africa'),  which  is  occasionally  brought 
alive  to  India  from  the  Mauritius,  and  kept  as  a  cage-bird :  FringUla  stuHa,  Ind. 
Tar.,  is  doubtless  Gymnoris  JiavicoUis :  and  his  Loxia  totta  and  madagaseariensis  of 
India,=sCarpo<lactf«  erythrinuSy  as  was  long  ago  pointed  out  by  Mr.  Jerdon. 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birde.  4  i 

barely  exceeding  a  quarter  of  an  inch.*  Irides  very  dark  brown  ;  bill 
wkitiBh,  with  a  slight  tinge  of  doaky  above ;  and  legs  albesoent>oome- 
ouB,  the  toes  pale  dusky-brown.  The  young  have  a  very  whitish  ap- 
pearance, from  the  downy  character  of  their  feathers ;  and  all  the  usual 
mottlings  of  young  Larks  are  exhibited  by  them,  though  less  oonspi- 
CQoualy  than  in  most  other  Larks.  A,  rayial  is  not  much  of  a  mu- 
sician ;  but  often  ventures  on  short  snatches  of  song,  frequently  without 
rising  from  the  ground,  and  I  never  saw  it  mount  high  like  its  musical 
neighbour,  the  A.  gulgula,  whose  habits  and  song  closely  resemble 
those  of  A.  arvensit :  the  haunts  of  these  two  species  border,  and 
they  may  commonly  be  seen  and  heard  at  the  same  time ;  but  this  will 
be  on  the  confines  of  each  others  territory.  Upon  ascending  the  river 
Hoogly,  a  considerable  change  both  in  the  animal  and  vegetable  pro- 
ductions of  its  banks  is  soon  perceptible,  with  the  change  of  the  hce  of 
the  country  that  has  been  alluded  to.  The  White  Vulture  (Neophron 
perenopterue)  makes  its  appearance,  which  is  never  seen  lower  down 
upon  the  argillaceous  or  mud  soil ;  Buteo  eaneecena  is  common ;  and 
various  little  insessorial  birds  which  I  have  never  seen  near  Calcutta, 
as  Mttlaeocercus  caudatue,  Chrysomma  sinenee,  Cietieola  cursitam, 
the  true  British  Curruea  gnrrula,  Amadina  malabarica,  &c.,  &c.,  abound 
more  or  less ;  the  fauna  altogether  more  approximating  that  of  Hin- 
doostan  Proper,  and  I  have  no  doubt  that  it  would  soon  yield  various 
novelties  to  a  diligent  collector. 

Genua  CerthUauda^  XIII,  962.  There  are  two  closely  allied  species 
of  Indian  Certkiiauda,  differing  only  in  size :  the  larger  of  which,  with 
wing  four  inches  long,  must  be  the  true  C.  ckendoola,  (Franklin,)  des- 
cribed to  be  of  the  size  of  the  British  Sky  Lark ;  while  the  smaller, 
referred  to  C.  ehendooia,  loe»  cii.,  has  the  wing  but  three  inches  and  a 
half,  or  less,  and  the  rest  in  proportion:  the  latter  may  now  rank, 
is  CBofsU,  nobis  (the  Society  being  indebted  to  Captain  Boys  for 
a  fine  specimen  of  the  former  species,  which  has  led  to  its  descri- 
mination).     One  of  them  is  the  '  Crested  Calandre  Lark'  of  Latham.f 

•  The  hind-daw  of  this  Alauda  resembles  that  of  the  CerthUaudm  and  Pyrrhuktudm, 
u  does  also  its  light  sandy-coloured  plumage ;  but  its  other  characters  are  those  of 
restricted  Alauda. 

t  Latham's  *  Aggta  Lark'  is  Alauda  gulguia  ;  his  *  Finch  Lark'sA/trq/f-a  assa- 
mtca;  his  *Baag-geyra  huk' asCalandrella  hraehydactyla  ;  his  *  Slender  Lark's 
Antims  tnalayensis;  his  *  Yellow-headed  Lark'  can  only  be  Budytes  citreola;  and 
his  *  Wagtail  Lark'  is  the  female  common  Budytes, 


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42  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

In  the  '  Madras  Journal/  No.  XXXI,  136,  Mr.  Jerdon  considers  hur 
A,  deva  (A.  malaharica  apud  nos,)  to  be  an  aberrant  Certhilauda,  nearly 
allied  to  C.  Boyn i  .*  bnt,  if  so,  he  must  have  sent  the  Society  another 
species  as  his  A.  deva ;  for  the  specimen  referred  to,  is  a  true  Aiauda, 
closely  allied  to  A,  gulptla,  but  with  a  pointed  crest,  and  quite  agreeing 
with  Scopoli's  description  upon  which  is  founded  A.  maiabariea, 
Omelin ;  whereas  Mirafra  affinis,  Jerdon,  which  Mr.  Strickbnd  conn* 
dered  to  be  the  nudaharica,  has  too  short  a  wing  for  that  bird,  and  also 
does  not  accord  in  other  particulars. 

Genus  Accentor,  Bechstein.  This  remarkable  genus  seems  to  come 
in  no  where  better  than  on  the  extreme  verge  of  the  Frinpllida,  which 
I  believe  to  be  its  natural  location.*  Mr.  Hodgson  has  recently  described 
(in  P.  Z.  8.  1845,  p.  34),  in  addition  to  Ace.  nipalensis  and  Ace. 
strophiatus,  J.  A.  S,  XII,  958-9,  an  Aco.  eacharensis  and  an  Ace.  tin*. 
maculatus.  Specimens,  however,  with  which  that  gentleman  fovoured  the 
Society,  having  those  names  attached,  I  consider  to  be  decidedly  of 
one  and  the  same  species  in  different  states  of  plumage ;  and  I  have 
described  each  of  these  phases  in  my  notice  of  Ace.  nipalensis.  Refer- 
ring now  to  Mr.  Hodgson's  specimens  which  were  so  labelled,  I 
still  consider  his  Ace.  immaculatus  to  be  the  adult  in  worn  plumage, 
which  I  mentioned  in  my  description  of  this  bird  to  have  been  forwarded 
as  distinct ;  but  I  cannot  equally  well  reconcile  the  description  of  Aec. 
eacharensis  with  the  only  young  specimen  retained  for  the  Museum, 
though  I  still  greatly  doubt  its  distinctness.  I  know  four  well  marked 
Himalayan  species  of  Accentor,  all  of  which  have  been  described  by  me 
in  the  Society's  Journal,  viz.  Ace.  nipalensis,  Aec.  variegatus.  Ace. 
strophiatus,  and  Aec.  mollis,  (vide  XiV,  581). 

The  Fringillida  peiSB  to  the  softer-billed  birds  through  the  great 
American  series  of  the  Tanagrtnes ;  and  from  them  I  believe  there  is  a 
pretty  complete  gradation  to  the  Cerahina,  or  South  American  Honey- 
suckers.  The  latter  are  quite  distinct  from  any  of  the  nectar-feeding 
genera  of  the  Old  World,  which  may  nevertheless  follow,  and  we  com- 
mence the  series  of  them  with  the  Neeiariniad^,  (passing  over  the  true 
Promeropida,  in  which  Irrisor  does  not  rank). 
Genus  Arachnothera,  Temminck,  treated  of  in  XII,  981,  and  fur- 

•  When  writing  the  above,  I  had  not  remarked  Mr.  Hodgson's  expressed  opinion 
to  the  same  effect.  P,  Z.  5. 1845,  p.  34. 


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1846.]  or  Little  Kwwn  Speciei  of  Bird$.  43 

ther  notieed  in  XiV,  5S7.     The  Society  has  now  eight  species  of  this 
genoB,  a  revision  of  which  has  become  necessary. 

1.  A,  magna,  (Hodgson)  :  vide  XII,  981.  Hah.  Nepal,  Assam,  and 
Arracan. 

2.  A.  flavigaster,  (Byton) :  vide  XIV.  557.    Malacca. 

3.  A.  chryiog9ny9y  Tern.,  vide  XV,  98h  Malay  coontnes.  This  and 
the  preceding  species  are  allied,  but  differ  much  in  size :  and  A.  fianu 
fatter  has  a  broad  drcle  of  yellow  feathers  surrounding  the  eye,  in  ad* 
diti<m  to  the  ear-tuft ;  whereas  A.  ckrysogemfs  is  naked  under  the  eye, 
and  has  a  aenii-drde  of  yellow  feathers  above  it. 

4.  A,  uwmaia.  Tern,  (nee  apud  nos,  XII,  982) :  dnnyris  afiaie, 
Horsfield.  Closely  allied  to  the  next,  but  larger,  of  a  brighter  and  more 
yellowish  green  above,  the  under-parts  greyer,  and  marked  more  decid- 
edly (especially  on  the  breast)  with  a  dark  central  streak  to  each  fea- 
ther.   Inhabits  Java. 

5.  A.  modeita,  (Eyton)  :  A.  latirostris,  nobis,  vide  XII,  982.  Malacca. 

6.  A.  '  ■■  -  ■  ?  Temminek.  Allied  to  the  next,  but  much  larger ; 
the  throat  and  breast  dull  albescent-green,  with  an  obscure  central  dusky 
streak  to  each  feather ;  belly  and  lower  tail-coverts  pale  yellow ;  and  a  tuft 
of  orange-yellow  feathers  on  each  side  of  the  lower  breast,  ordinarily 
oonoealed  beneath  the  wing.  Length  of  wing  three  inches  and  a  quarter ; 
of  tail  two  and  a  quarter ;  and  bill  to  forehead  two  inches.    FVom  Java. 

7.  A,  langirottrai  (Lath.)  Smaller  than  the  last,  with  the  same  pec- 
toral tufts  under  each  wing ;  but  the  throat  and  fore-neck  are  spotless 
dear  doll  white,  and  the  abdomen  is  much  deeper  yellow.  Also  from 
Java. 

8.  A.  affinis,  nobis ;  A.  inomata,  apud  nos.  XII,  982.  Very  like  the 
last,  but  always  smaller,  and  duller-coloured ;  the  abdomen  of  a  weaker 
and  greener  yellow,  and  rarely  a  trace  (and  at  most  a  very  slight  one) 
of  the  orange  pectond  tufts.  Inhabits  the  Eastern  coast  of  the  Bay  of 
Bengal,  from  Arracan  to  Malacca;  and  Mr.  Jerdon  obtained  a  single 
specimen  of  it  in  the  Mysore  district,  bordering  the  Neilgherries. 

Respecting  the  other  genera  of  this  group,  I  have  little  now  to  add : 
the  Nectarinia  are  treated  of  in  XII,  969,  et  seq.,  and  XIV,  557  * ;  and 


•  Nectarinia  malaccensis,  (Scop.),  lepida,  (Lath.)»  and/owrnica,  Horsf.,  refer  to 
the  same  species. 


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44  Notices  and  Descriptimu  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

the  Dicceum  group  also  on  the  latter  occaftion.'^  Mr.  Gould  has  rec^itly 
figured  a  curious  little  Australian  bird  by  the  name  Smikromis  flaveacena, 
the  form  and  colouring  of  which  approximate  those  of  Piprisama  agile ; 
and  it  seems  to  lead  thence  to  the  hitherto  isolated  Australian  genus 
Pardalotus,  Should  this  affinity  be  real,  a  gradation  would  be  here  shewn 
from  the  Malayan  Prionochilus  to  the  Australian  Pardalotus;  and  the 
position  of  the  latter  genus  be  thus  affirmed. 

Fam.  Meliphagida.  The  most  decided  Indian  representative  of  this 
Australian  group,  occurs  in  the  genus  Zosterops,-  treated  of  in  XIV,  562 
et  seq. ;  and  the  sole  Indian  species  is  evidently  the  Sylvia  palpebrosa, 
Temminck,  p.  c.  292,  f.  3,  as  described  in  Griffith's  '  Animal  Kingdom/ 
VI,  451 ;  but  whether  this,  or  the  name  annulosus,  (Swainson),  should 
hold  precedence,  I  have  not  the  means  of  determinmg.  The  Z.  borbonicus 
doubtfully  referred  to  this  genus  in  XIV,  564,  is,  I  perceive,  on  more 
minute  inspection,  a  decided  Zosterops,  having  the  same  circle  of  fea- 
thers round  the  eye,  only  of  a  dusky  hue,  instead  of  the  silky- white 
which  renders  this  circle  so  conspicuous  in  its  congeners.  It  Ib  the 
Z.  cinerea,  Swainson,  '  Menageries,'  p.  294 .f  Perhaps  the  genus  lora 
(treated  of  in  XIII,  380,  and  XIV,  602,)  may  come  within  the 
extreme  confines  of.  the  Meliphagida :  and  though  not  much  aUied  to 
lora  (so  far  as  I  can  perceive),  I  have  less  hesitation  in  bringing  the 
Orioles  under  the  same  group.|  An  Australian  species  of  true  Oriole 
(Gracula  viridis  of  Shaw)  has,  indeed,  been  long  regarded  as  a  Me/t- 

*  Lord  Arthur  Hay  has  discovered  a  new  Dicceum  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Simla, 
which  he  designates  D.  sangwmifrons.  **  Forehead,  occiput,  and  chin,  a  rich  bloods 
orange  red — more  orange  than  red  in  dry  skins;  lower-parts  golden-yellow :  upper>parts 
the  same,  mingled  with  olive."  Dr.  Horsfield's  Javanese  D,  cruentatum^  described  in 
XIV,  note  to  p.  558,  is  Z>.  rubrocanum^  (Tern.) 

t  I  named  one  Mauritius  species,  Z.  curvirostriSt  in  XIV,  563 ;  but  I  find  this 
name  has  been  anticipated  by  Mr.  Swainson,  for  the  **  Dicceum  chloronotus  of  the 
Paris  Museum"  (vide  *  Birds  of  W.  Africa,'  Nat.  JJbr.,  Orn.,  VIII,  44).  If,  how- 
ever, the  latter  had  been  described  by  the  specific  name  eMoronotus^  Mr.  Swtiinson 
could  have  no  right  to  change  it,  at  least  without  assigning  a  sufficient  reason  for  so 
doing;  and  if  undescribed  before,  it  does  not  appear  that  Mr.  Swainson  has  published 
any  description  of  it,  that  should  establish  his  right  of  nomenclature. 

My  Z,  mcobaricuSy  XIV,  563,  would  seem  to  be  merely  the  young  of  Z*  patpehro^ 
9U9;  though  I  have  never  seen  an  Indian  specimen  in  the  same  plumage.  Examples 
in  the  ordinary  adult  garb  of  Z.  palpebrosus  have  now  been  received  by  the  Society 
from  the  Nicobars. 

%  This  is  an  opinion  to  which  I  have  long  been  leaning ;  and  I  pointed  out  the  affi- 
nity  of  Plectrorhynclia  lanceolata^  Gould,  to  the  Orioles,  even  to  the  form  of  its 
nest,  in  XII>  180  (bis). 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  45 

pkoffuhms  bud,  and  nnder  the  generic  name  Mimeta,  has  been  dassed 
in  the  present  fiunil]^.  Mr.  Qould,  in  his  great  work  on  the  birds  of 
Aostndia,  has  lately  established  its  trae  generic  position;  which  in« 
deed  had  been  previously  indicated  by  varioos  other  systematists. 

In  XI,  797, 1  made  some  attempt  to  review  the  Asiatic  Orioles,  and 
shall  now  (with  much  more  extensive  materials)  resume  the  subject. 
The  species  are  as  follow : — 

1.  O.  7Vat//tt;  Pastor  TraUiii,  Vigors. and  Gould.  Common  in 
the  eastern  Himalaya,  and  occurs  in  Assam,  Arracan,  and  Burmah.  This 
bird  has  been  placed*  in  all  sorts  of  genera,  certain  of  which  have  been 
established  for  its  reception,  as  Psarophiius  of  Jardine  and  Selby  :  Mr. 
Hodgson  long  ago  recorded  his  opinion  that  it  is  a  true  Oriole, 
and  in  this  I  qmte  coincide.  Mr.  G.  R.  Gray  refers  it  to  Analcipus 
of  Swainson,  founded  on  Ocypterus  sanguinolentus  of  Temminck,  p, 
e.  499 ;  and  another  species  which  Mr.  Swainson  arranges  with 
it,  is  his  An.  hirundinaeeus,  (Nat.  Libr., '  Menageries',  p.  284,)  a 
bird  which  he  also  assigns  to  India;  but  Mr.  Strickland,  who  has 
recently  examined  the  originals  (now  at  Cambridge)  of  many  of  Mr. 
Swainson's  descriptions,  writes  me  word  that  the  species  in  question  is 
scarcely  separable  from  Artamus  (u,  Ocypterus)  ^  and  that  it  is  labelled 
from  Madagascar.  How,  therefore,  such  a  bird  can  have  any  near 
affinity  for  an  Oriole,  and  a  most  decided  Oriole  (in  my  opinion),  is  far 
from  being  easy  to  understand. 

2.  O.  melanocephalus,  lin.:  0.  maderaspatanus,  Franklin  (the  female)  ; 
O.McCoshii,  Tickell  (young  male).  Very  common  in  Bengal,  also  in 
Nepal,  Assam,  Arracan,  and  southward  to  the  Tenasserim  Provinces ; 
and  in  some  parts  of  the  Peninsula  of  India,  whilst  in  other  parts  it  is 
radier  scarce.  Length  of  a  male  nine  inches  and  a  half,  by  sixteen 
inches ;  wing  five  and  a  quarter,  and  tail  three  and  a  half ;  of  a  female 
nine  and  a  quarter,  by  fifteen  inches :  bill  to  forehead  an  inch  and 
three-eighths  ;  to  gape,  one  and  five-eighths ;  tarse  seven-eighths  of  an 
inch.  The  black-headed  Oriole  of  South  Africa,  considered  identical  by 
Sykes  {P.  Z.  S.  1835,  p.  62),  is  a  conspicuously  different  species,  with 
no  yellow  on  the  wings:  it  is  the  Tardus  monaehus,  Gm.,  termed 
0.  capensis  by  Swainson ;  who  also  names  another  black-headed  Oriole, 
more  nearly  allied  to  the  Indian  species,  but  from  Sierra  Leone,  O. 
hrachyrhynchus,  (*  Birds  of  West  Africa.*   Nat,  Libr,) 


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46  Notices  and  De»cnpiion$  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

In  his  *'  Two  centenaries  and  a  quarter  of  new  or  little  known  birds." 
appended  to  his  yolume  on  *  Menageries/  in  the  '  Natoridists'  library,* 
Mr.  Swainson  has  also  described  an  Oriolui  Hodgsom,  said  to  be  from 
Nepal ;  but  of  numerous  Nepalese  and  other  Himalayan  specimens,  1 
have  seen  none  that  could  be  referred  to  it.  It  is  stated  to  resemble 
O.  melanocephalua,  except  that  it  is  "  much  smaller,  and  the  tips  of  the 
quills  are  white  instead  of  yellow :  middle  feathers  of  the  tail  yellow, 
with  a  black  bar  nearly  across  their  centre.  Total  length  about  seven 
inches :  bill  from  gape,  an  inch ;  to  front,  eight«tenths :  wings  four 
inches  and  eight-tenths ;  tail  beyond,  seven-tenths :  tarse  seven-tenths." 
This  notice  may  perhaps  lead  to  its  recognition. 

3.  O.  chinet^ais,  Lin. :  0.  cochinchinensist  Brisson ;  O.  acrorhynehos^ 
Vigors,  P.  Z.  iS.  1831,  p.  97:  CauUxuan  of  Bujffbn.  This  bird,  which 
is  not  Indian,  is  remarkable  for  its  very  large  and  highly  carinated  beak, 
which  is  particularly  deep  at  base,  and  drawn  out  to  a  fine  point. 
Forehead  yellow,  not  extending  back  beyond  the  hind-part  of  the  eye : 
lores,  spreading  above  and  below  the  eye,  and  forming  an  occipital  patch 
broader  than  the  yellow  of  the  forehead,  deep  black ;  this  does  not, 
however,  reach  forward  quite  to  the  nares :  posterior  half  of  the  wing, 
comprising  also  the  winglet  and  coverts  of  the  primaries,  black; 
the  rest  of  the  wing,  or  anterior  half,  bright  yellow :  tail  black,  its 
middle  feathers  tipped  with  yellow  for  three-eighths  of  an  inch,  the  next 
for  an  inch  and  a  half  on  its  outer  web,  and  the  outermost  for  two 
inches  on  both  webs.  Length  of  wing  six  inches  ;  of  bill  to  forehead  an 
inch  and  a  half,  or  nearly  so ;  and  of  tail  four  inches.  Inhabits  China 
and  Manilla. 

4.  O.  macrouruB,  nobis.  Closely  allied  to  O.  ehinensis,  from  which 
it  is  distinguished  by  its  longer  tail,  n^er  smaller  and  less  carinated 
beak  (which  however  is  always  conspicuously  larger  than  in  the  next 
species),  and  by  the  greater  patch  of  yellow  upon  the  forehead  of 
the  male :  another  distinction  consists  in  the  disposition  of  the  yellow 
upon  the  tail,  which  has  scarcely  any  of  this  colour  at  the  tips  of  its 
middle  pair  of  feathers,  while  the  outermost  is  in  old  males  wholly 
yellow,  with  merely  the  shaft  black  towards  the  base, — some  specimens 
shewing  one  or  two  insulated  patches  of  yellow,  chiefly  at  the  extreme 
base  of  the  outer  web, — and  younger  males  having  the  tail  coloured  more 
as  in  the  adults  of  the  Chinese  species,  but  still  with  scarcely  a  trace 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Sirde.  47 

of  yellow  at  the  tips  of  the  middle  pair  of  feathers.  The  wings  have 
their  longest  primaries  slightly  margined  externally  with  whitish,  and  in 
some  specimens  there  is  a  slight  yellow  horder  to  the  secondaries  and 
tertiaries ;  while  younger  males  have  the  whole  exterior  portion  of  the 
seeondsries  and  tertiaries  washed  with  yellowish-olive.  The  coverts  of 
the  primaries  are  always  tipped  with  yellow,  producing  a  slight  spot  of 
this  hue,  which  does  not  occur  (tX  least  in  the  adult  male  of)  O.  chmen* 
eie.  Younger  males  have,  as  usual,  the  back  and  wings  tinged  with  dusky 
greenish;  and  in  females  (and  perhaps  still  younger  males),  the  same 
dnll  colour  prevails  on  the  head  and  neck,  the  broad  black  occipital 
crescent  is  merely  indicated,  the  feathers  of  the  under*parts  haye 
eadi  a  black  central  stripe,  and  the  tail  is  wholly  dusky  yellowish  above, 
prevailing  throughout  the  outer  webs  of  all  the  feathers,  while  the  inner 
webs  are  successively  more  deeply  terminated  with  yellow,— this  colour 
being  alone  seen  underneath,  in  adults  of  both  sexes'.  Length  about 
eleven  inches,  or  rather  more ;  of  wing  six ;  and  tail  four  and  a  half  to 
five  inches :  bill  to  gape  an  inch  and  a  half,  and  tarse  an  inch.  Inhabits 
the  Nieobar  Islands. 

5.  O.  indicw,  Brisson,  Jerdon,  III.  Ind.  Om,  pi.  XV :  O.  cMneneie 
et  eoehinchinensie  of  India,  auctorum :  k  Loriot  dee  Indee,  Buffon.  This 
differs  from  the  two  preceding  in  its  considerably  smaller  bill ;  in  the 
yellow  of  the  forehead  extending  further  back  beyond  the  eye,  reducing 
the  black  occipital  crescent,  which  latter  is  continued  forward  in  adults, 
through  the  ocular  region,  quite  to  the  nares ;  in  the  greenish  tinge  of 
the  back,  even  of  old  males;  and  very  conspicuously  in  the  much 
greater  extent  of  the  yellow  upon  its  wings,  while  the  tail  has  less  than 
in  O.  chineneie,  and  its  middle  feathers  have  rarely  distinct  yellow  tips  : 
in  0.  chineneis,  and  some  specimens  of  0.  macrourue,  the  secondaries 
and  tertiaries  are  wholly  deep  black ;  whereas,  in  the  present  species, 
the  secondaries  are  broadly  margined,  and  the  tertiaries  have  their  whole 
outer  web  and  part  of  the  inner  web,  greenish-yellow ;  the  pri- 
maries are  tipped  with  the  same;  and  a  bright  yellow  wing-spot  is 
formed  by  the  tips  of  the  coverts  of  the  primaries.  Younger  males 
have  much  more  of  the  green  tinge  above  and  on  the  wings,  and  the 
nnder-parts  are  much  weaker  yellow,  with  black  stems  to  the  breast- 
feathers,  more  or  less  developed.  They  evidently  increase  in  bright- 
ness of   colouring  for   several   years.     Females   are   yellowish'green 


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48  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

aboye,  with  little  or  no  trace  of  the  occipital  crescent;  whitish  be- 
neath, with  dark  central  lines;  bill  infuscated,  instead  of  pinkish* 
white,  as  in  the  males ;  and  the  shape  of  the  beak  will  always  readily 
diiitinguish  them  from  the  same  sex  of  O.  kundoo.  Length  of  wing  six 
inches  to  six  and  a  quarter  in  bright  old  males,  often  not  more  than 
five  inches  and  a  half  in  younger  males ;  bill  to  forehead  an  inch  and 
one*eighth,  or  a  sixteenth  more.  Rather  a  rare  bird  in  India  generally, 
and  I  have  never  seen  it  from  the  Himalaya.  About  Calcutta  it  is  very 
rare ;  but  in  the  countries  eastward  of  the  Bay  it  is  generally  common, 
as  in  the  island  of  Ramree  (Airacan),  in  the  Tenasserim  Provinces,  and 
Malay  peninsula.     The  Society  also  possess  it  from  China. 

6.  0.  coronatus,  Swainson ;  O.  hippocrepis,  Wagler.  With  this  Ma- 
layan species  I  am  unacquainted,  and  shall  merely  cite  the  following 
passage  from  Mr.  Jerdon's  description  of  the  last,  in  his  '  Illustrations  of 
Indian  Ornithology.'  "  Swainson's  0.  coronatus  from  Java  (as  described,) 
differs  from  our  peninsular  O.  indieus,  in  its  smaller  size,  shorter  wings, 
tail,  and  tarsus,  and  in  the  narrowness  of  the  black  nuchal  band.  Its 
bill  appears  to  be  somewhat  larger  than  in  ours,  but  shorter  than  in 
chinensis,  Wagler's  description  of  0.  hippocrepis  (which  he  considers 
the  same  as  ehinensis,  auct.,)  corresponds  with  it  in  the  yellow  tips 
of  the  central  tail-feathers,  and  with  our  peninsular  bird  in  having  the 
black  ocular  band  extending  to  the  nares,  and  in  other  points.  As, 
however,  his  specimens  were  obtained  chiefly  from  Java  and  Sumatra, 
it  is  most  probably  Swainson's  coronatus,  with  which  it  indeed  agrees 
pretty  nearly  in  dimensions.  The  latter  are  given  as  nine  inches  and 
a  half  total  length,  wing  five  and  three-tenths,  tail  three  and  a  half,  bill 
to  forehead  an  inch  and  two-tenths,  and  tarse  eight-tenths." 

7.  O.  tenuirostris,  nobis.  An  evident  young  male,  resembles  the  corres- 
.pondingage  of  O.  indicus,  except  in  the  shape  and  colour  of  its  bill,  in 
the  much  greater  extent  of  the  yellow  on  its  forehead,  and  propor- 
tionate contraction  of  the  black  occipital  crescent,  also,  in  its  rump  having 
much  less  yellow,  relieving  the  greenish  hue  of  the  back  and  wings.  As 
in  the  young  male  0.  indicus,  and  fully  adult  O,  cMnensis  and  O.  macrou' 
rus,  the  black  of  the  lores  is  not  continued  forward  to  the  nares ;  but  the 
separation  of  colours  is  abrupt  and  decided,  probably  indicating  a  simi- 
larity of  extent  in  the  adults  :  the  whole  crown  is  yellow,  the  black  of  the 
occiput  not  rising  above  the  level  of  the  eye.    Wing  mostly  greenish,  the 


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1846.]  or  LUtie  KntnDH  Species  of  Birds,  49 

coverts  which  show  externally  not  being  tipped  with  yellow,  as  in  the 
corresponding  age  of  0.  indicus;  but  the  tertiaries  have  narrow  yellow 
tips,  which  also  are  less  developed  on  the  secondaries,  and  upper- 
most  primaries.  Bill  longer  and  much  more  slender  than  in  0.  indicus, 
and  of  a  slightly  arched  form;  its  colour  fleshy  apparently  at  base,  but 
red  for  the  remainder  as  in  0.  ffalbula.  Length  about  ten  inches,  of 
wing  five  and  three-quarters,  and  tail  three  and  a  half;  bill  to  forehead 
an  inch  and  a  quarter,  and  tarse  seven-eighths.  I  believe,  but  am  not 
sure,  that  the  specimen  here  described  is  from  Central  India.  There 
can  be  no  doubt  of  its  distinctness  as  a  species. 

8.  O.  ktmdoo,  Sykes  (the  female) :  O.  galbula  apud  Sykes  (the  male), 
and  of  Franklin's  catalogue :  0.  aureus,  Jerdon's  CataL :  and  doubtless 
0.  galbuloides  of  Gk>uld,  mentioned  in  P,  Z.  5.  1841,  p.  6.  This  is 
the  Indian  0.  galbula,  auctorum.  It  invariably  differs  from  the  Euro- 
pean speeies  in  having  a  larger  bill,  and  in  the  black  streak  from  the 
bill  being  continued  backward  beyond  the  eye  in  the  males :  from  the 
African  O.  auratus,  Swainson,  it  differs  in  the  colouring  of  its  wings, 
which  resemble  those  of  0.  galbula.  This  bird,  so  very  common  in  the 
Indian  peninsula,  and  which  extends  up  to  the  N.W.  Himalaya,  occurs 
also  in  the  hilly  parts  of  Bengal,  as  Rajmahl  and  Monghyr,  and  at 
Midnapore;  these  hills  being  off-shoots  from  the  ranges  of  Central  India, 
and  partaking  of  the  fauna  of  the  latter  in  numerous  other  instances ; 
but  in  the  vicinity  of  Calcutta  I  have  never  met  with  it,  nor  seen  it 
in  any  collection  from  the  countries  eastward  :  the  Calcutta  specimens 
which,  on  a  former  occasion,  I  referred  to  0.  galbula  (and  afterwards 
termed  aureus),  proving  to  be  females  of  0.  indicus. 

9.  0.  xanthonotus,  Horsfield  :  0.  leucogaster,  Reinwardt :  O.  casta- 
nopterus,  nobis,  J,  A,  S,  XI,  795,  (the  young  male).  Peculiar  to  the 
Malay  countries. 

Another  very  distinct  group  as  a  genus,  which,  though  less  allied  to 
other  Meliphagida  than  I  consider  the  Orioles  to  be,  yet  offers  (in  at 
least  the  majority  of  its  species)  those  adaptive  characters  which  many 
would  term  the  essential  features  of  the  family,  is  that  of  Phyllornis 
(vel  Chloropsis),  treated  of  in  XIV,  364  et  seq.  To  what  is  said  there, 
and  before,  concerning  this  group,  I  shall  now  only  add  that  the  young 
of  Ph,  Hardwiekii  may  as  well  be  described,  in  order  perhaps  to  check 
its  being  brought  forward  as  a  new  species.  The  plumage  is  green, 
more  yellowish  underneath,  the  throat  pale  yellowish,  and  there  is  a 


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50  Notices  and  Descrtpticms  of  various  New         [No.  169. 

little  blue  mingled  with  the  yellowish  on  the  moustaches :  a  trace  of 
blue  also  on  the  shoulder  of  the  wing,  and  upon  tke  outer  primaries 
and  butermost  tail-feathers.* 

The  PbyUonds  group  conducts  to  the  Bulbouls,  treated  of  in  XiV, 
566  et  seq, :  and  the  affinity  of  this  distinct  family  for  that  of  the  Meli^ 
phaffidee  is,  I  think»  undeniable.  I  have  little  now  to  add  elucidative 
of  a  group  so  lately  under  review ;  but  may  remark,  that  Lord  A.  Hay 
considers  the  Pyenonotus  htemorrhmis  of  the  Upper  Provinces  to  be  dis- 
tinct, from  that  of  S.  India,,  and  proposes  the  name  int^rmedius  for  the 
former.  There  is  this  much  dijSerence,  that  it  would  be  generally  easy 
to  pronounce  \diether  a  specimen  was  from  Northern  or  Southern 
India,  the  formter  having  the  colours  generally  better  defined,  especially 
the  pale  margins  to  the  feathers  of  the  upper-parts,  and  the  tail  also 
is  commonly  longer :  but  loolcing  to  a  series  of  these  Inrds,  from  Qoom- 
soor,  Agra,  and  Arracan»  I  do  not  see  that  they  can  be  defined  tipart.  Ot 
P.  leucogenySy  Capt.  Boys  informs  me,  that  it  is  common  down  the  Indus 
from  Buhawulpore ;  and  that  he  has  lately  obtained  it  near  Ferozepore. 
A  P.  ru/ocaudaius  has  recently  been  described  by  Mr.  Eyton,  An, 
and  M<Mg,  iST.  £/.  1845,  p.  228,  which  must  be  put  as  a  synonyme  Of 
Criniger  gularis  (Horsf.),  J,  A,  S.,  XIV,  571.  Mr.  Eyton  also  des- 
cribes an  Ia:os  metallicus,  which  would  seem  to  be  allied,  except  in 
size,  to  Braehypodiua  melanQcephalus,  XIV,  576*  The  Dirdusindicus,  Gm., 
as  represented  in  Buffoa's  figure,,  of  which  a  copy  has  been  obligingly 
sent  me  by  Mr.  Jerdon,  would  certainly  appear  to  be  a  very  difierent 
species  from  Criniger  ?  icterieus,  Strickland,  which  Mr.  Jerdoo  had  re- 
ferred to  T,  indictts  (as  noticed  in  XIV,  570).  Lastly,  the  name  Ixodia, 
nobis,  XIV,  577,  has  been  forestalled  in  Botany ;  as  Ixodes  (as  I  first  had 
it)  had  been  previously  applied  to  a  genus  of  Spiders ;  so  I  shaH  now  take 
refuge  in  Ixidia,  which  I  trust  has  remained^  hitherto  unattached. f 

Among  our  late  acquisitions  from  the  Nicobars,  I  must  not  omit  to 
mention  several  specimens  of  Ixodnda  virescens,  nobis,  XIV,  575  ;  and 
of  all  ages«  from  youth  to  maturity.     The  species  is  quite  distinct  from 

*  The  *  Blue-cbinned  Thnuh'  of  Latham  refers  to  PhyUomi»  Jgrdoni  ;  and  CJkio^ 
ropsis  gampsorhynchus  (mispelt  ceesmarhynchos)^  apud  Tickell,  should  have  been 
assigned  to  the  same :  my  originally  mistaking  this  bird  for  the  female  of  another  spe- 
cies, ocoasioned  me  to  give  it  as  a  synonyme  of  the  latter. 

t  Latham's  '  Hooded  Tbrush'  refers  to  Pycnonotus  leucogenys  ;  his  Twdus  eopeis- 
sis,  Ind.  var.,  probably  to  P.Jlavirictus;  his  T.  caJeTf  from  India,  to  P.  benffalensis; 
and  his  *  Tufted  Thrush*  to  P.  mektnoeephaius. 


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1846.]  or  LUtle  Known  Species  of  Birds.  5 1 

Hypsipetes  malaccensis,  nobis,  but  can  scarcely  be  placed  in  a  different 
sob-generic  gronp ;  and  I  think  it  will  rank  best  as  an  aberrant  Hypsi* 
petes,  showing  a  marked  affinity  for  Iole»  The  bill  is  rather  shorter 
than  in  H.  makKcensis,  and  the  coronal  feathers  tend  less  to  assume 
the  pointed  form :  length  about  eight  inches  and  a  half,  of  wing  from 
three  and  a  half  to  nearly  four  inches,  and  tail  three  inches  and  a  half; 
bill  to  gape  an  inch,  in  some,  an  eighth  more;  tarse  three-quarters 
of  an  inch  :  the  tail  is  a  little  graduated,  but  inclines  to  assume  the  true 
Hypsipetes  shape.  Plumage  of  a  unifoign  olive-green  above,  thp  crown 
infuscated,  or  of  a  brownish-nigrescent  hue :  throat  and  breast  dingy- 
whitish,  a  little  tinged  with  yellow ;  the  rest  of  the  lower-<parts  more 
deeply  and  conspicuously  tinged  with  yellow.  Bill  dusky,  with  yellow 
tomiae,  and  elsewhere  an  appearance  of  its  becoming  ultimately  wholly 
yellow :  the  tarsi  plumbeous.  The  nestling  tertiaries  remaining  on  the 
specimen  formerly  described,  and  the  outer  webs  of  the  nestling  prima- 
ries, are  of  a  dingy  chesnut  colour ;  and  there  is  a  shade  of  the  same 
upon  Uie  tail.  The  same  appears  to  be  the  case  with  the  young  of 
H»  malaccensis ;  and  the  two  species  considerably  resemble  at  first  sight, 
hot  the  present  may  readily  be  distinguished  by  its  infuscated  crown, 
and  its  uostreaked  throat  and  breast.  £.  B. 

(To  he  continued* J 

Postscript. — I  have  already  to  acknowledge  another  interesting  col- 
lection, partly  from  the  Nicobars  and  partly  from  Penang,  just  received 
from  our  esteemed  contributor,  the  Rev.  J.  Barbe. 

Among  the  birds,  is  a  finer  male  of  Palaornis  erythrogenys  (note  to 
p.  23,  ante,)  than  that  previously  described  ;  having  the  nape  and  inter- 
scapularies  light  yellowish,  rather  than  tinged  with  hoary-grey,  and 
the  under-parts  also  more  yellowish  than  in  the  other.* 

Of  Todiramphus  occipitalis  (loc.  citj,  it  would  seem  that  I  described 
females  and  young  only  ;  for  what  I  take  to  be  the  males  are  consider- 
ably brighter,  with  the  wings  and  tail  much  bluer,  of  a  decided  Prussian 
bloe,  the  black  nuchal  collar  (continued  from  the  ear-coverts)  is  much 
narrower,  and  in  some  tinged  with  blue,  and  the  white  supercilia  (carri- 
ed round  the  occiput)  have  little  or  even  no  tinge  of  rufous. 

*  Dr.  Cantor  poMesses  a  female  of  P,  caniceps,  nobis  floe*  cU,Jf  from  the  Malay 
peninsula.  It  has  the  tail  developed  to  the  usual  leng^th  in  this  genus ;  ind  green 
above  with  some  blue  on  its  middle  feathers,  and  dull  golden-yellowish  below;  the' 
head  less  pure  grey  than  in  the  male ;  and  the  bill  wholly  black,  as  I  suggested  it 
would  be  in  this  sex. 


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52  Notices  and  Descriptious  of  various  New  [No.  169. 

Picus  moluccensis  {vems,  p.  16),  identical  with  the  Javanese  species, 
is  sent  from  Penang ;  and  I  find  that  it  is  Mr.  Eyton's  Tripsurus  auritus. 
An,  and  Mag,  N,  H,,  1845,  p.  229, — another  synonyme  to  be  added  to 
those  reduced  in  p.  14 :  Mr.  Eyton  also  describes  fioc.  eit,)  a  Ptci» 
rubiginosfts,  which  is  a  Gecinus  most  nearly  allied  to  G,  malaceensiM, 
and  has  been  subsequently  described  by  Lord  A.  Hay  as  P.  melanogaster, 
Madr,  Joum.  No.  XXXI,  p.  153 :  but  Bucco  quadricolor,  Eyton,  is  dis* 
tinct  from  both  the  species  with  which  its  identity  is  suggested  at 
p.  14  ante,  « 

The  most  interesting  specimens,  however,  in  this  collection,  are  a  pair 
of  adults  of  the  Megapodius  of  the  Nicobar  IsUnds,  and  also  two  undoubt- 
ed '  eggs  of  this  bird,  of  which  Captain  Lewis  prepared  only  a  chick. 
So  remarkable  a  species  may  be  at  once  described^  however,  out  of  its 
place  in  «the  present  series. 

M.  nieobariensis,  nobis.  Length  about  fifteen  inches,  and  of  wing 
nine  inches  ;  tarse  two  inches  and  a  half;  middle  toe  an  inch  and  five- 
eighths,  and  its  daw  three-quarters  of  an  inch  ;  hind-claw  seven-eightiis. 
Foot  rather  small  for  a  Megapodius,  the  middle  toe  and  claw  but  litUe 
exceeding  the  two  lateral  in  length.  General  hue  of  the  upper- parts  deep 
olive-brown  with  a  tinge  of  ochreous,  which  becomes  more  decided  on  the 
wings ;  lower-parts  dingy  greyish-brown,  with  a  slight  tinge  of  ochreous 
on  the  breast,  and  which  prevails  throughout  the  under- parts  of  a  presum- 
ed female :  crown  slightly  rufescent-brown,  prolonged  into  a  short  crest, 
and  the  occipital  feathers  impended  by  the  coronal  are  light  greyish : 
lores,  cheeks,  and  throat,  almost  naked:  the  primaries  light  ochreous  on 
their  outer  webs,  and  dusky  internally :  bill  yellow :  and  legs  and  claws 
dark  horn-coloured.  The  chick  is  coloured  nearly  as  in  the  adult,  but  is 
mottled  with  faint  russet  on  the  wings,  and  the  abdomen  has  a  rufous 
tinge ;  the  feathers  of  the  head,  neck,  and  breast,  having  a  peculiar  hair- 
like structure.  The  presumed  egg  is  of  a  true  elliptical  shape,  or  with  the 
small  end  just  distinguishable,  measuring  three  inches  and  a  half  in 
length,  and  being  of  an  uniform  somewhat  ruddy  stone-colour.  The  habits 
of  this  bird  would  appear  to  resemble  precisely  those  of  M.  tumului  des- 
cribed by  Mr.  Qould.  Captain  Lewis  had  seen  the  mounds,  and  the 
birds  upon  them ;  but  was  unaware  that  the  latter  had  been  the  accu- 
mulators of  such  huge  heaps  of  material.  Upon  shewing  him  Mr. 
Gould's  description  of  the  habits  of  the  Australian  species,  he  remarked 
that  the  same  account  would  equally  apply  to  the  Nicobar  bird,  except 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  53 

that  he  had  observed  no  heaps  quite  so  large  as  some  of  those  des- 
cribed by  Mr.  Gould.  The  eggs  were  sent  by  Mr.  Barbe,  with  merely 
a  notice  that  they  had  been  "  found  in  the  sand." 

I  have  further  to  acknowledge  a  rich  collection  of  New  Holland 
specimens,  just  received  from  the  Australian  Museum  at  Sydney.  In 
Vol.  XIV,  p.  546,  I  made  a  few  remarks  on  Mr.  Gould's  magnifi- 
cent work  on  the  birds  of  Australia,  and  therefore  I  shall  further  notice 
here,  that  Mr.  Gould's  Carpophaga  leucomeia  is  not  a  Carpopkaga,  but 
a  Dendrotreron  apud  Hodgson,  ranking  with  C  Hodgsonii,  C,  arquatris, 
and  C  guinea,  auctorum,  having  but  twelve  tail-feathers,  &c.  &c. :  and  that 
Mr.  Gh)uld's  distinctions  of  Ewrystomus  australis  from  Eu*  orientalis  are 
very  erroneous ;  as  these  two  species  exactly  agree  in  size  and  structure : 
but  the  former  is  readily  distinguished  by  having  the  black  of  the  head 
confined  to  the  lores,  and  by  the  brownish  hue  of  the  crown  and  nape, 
of  which  no  trace  occurs  in  the  species  of  India  and  the  Malay  countries ; 
which  latter  has  the  whole  head  and  cheeks  blackish,  and  the  nape  and 
back  concolorous  with  the  scapularies,  in  addition  to  its  blue  being  of  a 
deeper  tint.  Lastly,  the  Anous  melanops  figured  by  Mr.  Gould,  is  cer- 
tainly identical  with  a  species  in  the  Society's  Museum,  from  the  Bengal 
Soonderbuns  ;  and  which  I  can  scarcely  doubt  will  prove  to  be  the  Ster* 
na  tenuirosiris,  Tem.,  from  the  western  shore  of  the  Indian  Ocean,  or, 
in  other  words,  the  eastern  coast  of  Africa. 

Chrysocoecyx  smaragdinus,  nobis.  In  XI,  917,  I  considered  certain 
little  Cuckoos  to  be  specifically  identical,  which  are  respectively  inhabi- 
tants of  India,  the  Malay  countries,  and  Australia.  A  better  series  of 
specimens  now  convinces  me  that  three  species  are  here  confounded. 
That  of  India  has  already  received  a  name,  being  the  Trogon  ntaculatus, 
Gkn..  founded  on  the  spotted  Gurucui  of  Brown's  Illustrations,  which 
certainly  represents  a  variety,  or  incidental  state  of  plumage,  of  this 
species ;  but  the  name  is  so  very  inapplicable  to  the  species  generally, 
that  it  cannot  justly  be  adopted.  The  presumed  male  and  female  des- 
cribed, loc.  cit.,  as  C.  lucidus  refer  to  this  species :  another  presumed 
female,  from  Arracan,  tends  to  the  hepaticus,  plumage  common  to  many 
Cuckoos,  having  the  head  jshesnut,  the  back  still  more  cupreous  than  in 
the  supposed  female  formerly  described,  and  the  lower-parts  closely 
barred  throughout  with  coppery-green  upon  a  white  ground,  except  the 
lower  tail-coverts' which  are  chiefly  banded  with  green  and  deep  rufous: 


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54  Notices  and  Deseriptians,  8fC. 

the  tail  has  its  middle-feathers  shining  green,  with  a  dusky  purplish 
band  at  tip, — the  next  pair  similar,  but  with  deep  rufous  broadly  margin- 
ing the  basal  half  of  their  outer  webs,— -this  rufous  is  successively  more 
developed  on  the  two  succeeding  pairs, — and  the  outermost  has  its  ex- 
terior web  and  the  contiguous  portion  of  its  inner  web  pure  white, 
banded  with  shining  green,  which  extends  also  over  the  rufous  portion 
of  the  inner  web :  terminal  third  of  the  bill  dusky,  the  rest  translucent 
pale  straw-yellow  in  the  ^dry  specimen.  Another  supposed  female  is 
throughout  in  the  hepaiicus  plumage,  or  rufous  above,  white  below, 
with  greenish- dusky  bars  throughout,  the  outermost  tail-feather  marked 
with  white  chiefly  on  its  exterior  web,  and  the  two  next  tail«-feathera 
slightly  tipped  with  white  :  bill,  with  the  basal  half  amber-colonr- 
ed,  the  remainder  dusky.  Another,  again,  is  of  a  predominant  dull 
glossy  green  above,  with  the  same  rufous  and  white  on  the  tail,  but  its 
middle-feathers  are  also  obscurely  barred  with  rufous,  and  most  of  the 
wing- feathers  are  margined  with  the  same  :  bill  wholly  dusky.  Lastly, 
another  is  chiefly  of  a  dusky  hue  above,  scarcely  glossed  with  greenish, 
the  feathers  having  slight  rufous  margins  more  developed  on  the  wings ; 
and  tail  as  in  the  last.  In  all,  however,  the  under- parts  are  much  more 
closely  banded  than  in  the  Australian  species ;  and  the  wing  measures 
generally  four  inches,  or  sometimes  four  and  a  quarter  in  adults.  In* 
habits  the  hilly  parts  of  India,  but  seems  to  be  everywhere  rare.  Brown 
figures  it  from  Ceylon ;  and  I  have  seen  it  from  Central  India,  Rajmahl, 
Arracan,  &c. 

Chr,  basalis :  Cueulus  basalts,  Horsfield  :  C.  chaldtes,  Tem. :  C. 
malayanus,  Raflies.  This  seems  exactly  to  resemble  the  last,  except  in 
its  constantly  smaller  size;  and  it  is  equally  variable.  Wing  three 
inches  and  a  half  to  three  and  three-quarters.  It  holds  the  same  rela- 
tionship to  the  Indian  species,  which  C.  lugvhfis,  Horsfield,  does  to  C. 
dicruroides,  Hodgson,  and  C.  flavus  does  to  C.  tenuirostris.  The  specie 
men  described  in  XII,  944,  was  not,  I  believe,  from  Macao  (as  I  was 
informed),  but  from  Malacca.  Specimens  corresponding  to  the  adult 
male  of  Chr,  smaragdinus,  have  not  hitherto  fallen  under  my  observation. 

Chr.  lucidus  (?),  Gm. ;  C.  metallicua,  Vig.  This  is  the  Australian 
species,  corresponding  in  size  to  the  first,  but  having  constantly,  so  far 
as  I  have  seen,  a  black  bill,  the  under- parts  much  more  distantly  banded, 
and  presenting  various  other  distinctions. 


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55 


Note  on  the  Geological  features  of  Ziliah  Behar,     By  Lieut,  W.  S. 
Shkrwill,  B.N. I.,  Revenue  Surveyor, 

The  geological  feature*  of  ziliah  B^ar  may  be  dirided  ioto  four  great 
diviaons,  viz. — the  granitic,  the  qnartzose,  the  homstone,  and  the  sand- 
stone.  Commencing  from  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  ziliah,  where  it 
alnits  upon  ziliah  Mongfayr,  the  hills  are  in  general  composed  of  confused 
masses  of  fatty  quartz  abounding  wi^  mica,  which  is  generally  found 
adhering  to  the  quartz.  In  many  places  fine  veins  of  mica  are  worked 
and  the  produce  exported  to  Patna.  The  principal  mines  are  to  the 
south  of  Rujowlee,  both  in  the  granite  and  quartz  ranges.  The  country 
at  the  foot  of  these  hills  is  thickly  strewn  with  minute  particles  of  silvery 
mica,  brought  down  from  the  hills  by  the  rains,  and  entering  largely 
•  into  the  composition  of  the  soil :  much  of  it  is  collected  by  the  natives 
and  used  for  whitewashing  their  houses,  ornamenting  pottery,  toys,  &c., 
giving  to  the  artidea  thus  smeared,  a  lively  sparkling  appearance  and  an 
unctuous  fed ;  the  roads  and  beds  of  Nullahs  sparkle  in  every  direction 
from  the  abundance  of  this  mineral.  Immediately  on  the  boundary  of 
ziUah  Mongbyr  the  granite  peak  named  Kawa  Kho  rises,  from  out  of 
the  quartz  hills,  to  the  height  of  1,165  feet ;  another  small  patch  of  gra- 
nite also  appears  about  five  miles  to  the  S.  W.  from  the  peak.  The  quartz 
hiUs  are  covered  to  their  summit*  with  forest  trees,  brushwood  and 
bajoaboos,  but  as  they  advance  to  the  westward  and  become  granite, 
they  rise  into  bold  and  lofty  peaks»  some  upwards  of  a  thousand  feet  in 
hei^t. 

After  leaving  Rnjowlsee,  the  granite  of  these  hills  is  found  of-  every 
hue  and  texture  that  it  is  possiUe  granite  can  possess  or  be  composed  of. 
In  some  places  porphyritio  granite  is  found,  the  individaal  component 
parts  of  which  are  enormous ;  in  others  eurite,  where  the  individual  com- 
ponent parts  are  undistinguishable  from  their  minuteness,  and  in  other 
I^acea  syenite  is  found.  Also  occasional  masses  of  ponderous  black  mica 
are  found  scattered  about  in  company  with  large  masses  of  the  gassy 
and  fatty  quartz  so  common  to  granite  formations. 

At  the  spot  where  the  Calcutta  Trunk  Road  crosses  these  hills,  large 
blocks  of  gneiss  are  seen  protruding  from  the  fine  black  soil,  and  in 
moat  of  the  ravines  and  deep  water-courses  the  same  mineral  is  found. 
In  the  bed  of  the  Mohunneh  river,  to  tiie  west  of  the  Dunghye  Ghat, 
on  the  old  Calcutta  Road,  and  where  it  issues  from  the  hills,  the  water 


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56  Geological  features  of  Zillah  Behar.  [No.  169. 

has  laid  bare  a  beautiful  bed  of  gneiss  several  miles  in  extent,  cross- 
ing the  Behar  boundary  and  entering  zillah  Ramgurh :  but  from  the 
great  depth  of  soil  and  from  the  dense  forest  on  the  banks  of  the 
river,  I  was  unable  to  trace  how  far  it  extends  east  and  west.  In  the 
Dunghye  Pass,  gneiss  of  peculiar  beauty  is  scattered  about  in  every 
direction.  The  summit  of  this  pass  at  the  village  of  Tillee  Tand  I  found 
to  be  1,300  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea :  it  is  covered  with  thick 
forests,  haunted  by  tigers,  who  destroyed  some  men  of  my  establish- 
ment wlulst  engaged  surveying  these  hills.  A  spur  of  this  granitic  range 
strikes  off  from  the  main  body  and  suddenly  terminates  in  the  bold 
mountain,  known  as  the  "  Muhair  hill,"  (vide  map  and  vignette.)  The 
volcanic  range  of  hornstone  hills  appear  at  this  spot  to  overlay  the  granite, 
which  again  appears  on  the  other  side  of  the  hornstone,  distant  about 
eight  miles.  This  granite  extends  westward  to  ten  miles  beyond  the 
Koel  river,  or  120  miles  from  the  mica  mines  at  Rujowlee,  varying  in 
height  from  a  hundred  to  a  thousand  feet :  some  of  the  peaks  are  bold 
and  imposing,  but  much  of  this  range  is  composed  of  alow,  undulating  and 
broken  plateau  of  table  land,  especially  the  great  mass  which  forms  a 
spur  from  the  Vindhya  mountains  and  lies  in  pergunnah  Sherghotty. 
This  irregular  mass,  averaging  from  five  to  eight  miles  in  width,  is  com- 
posed of  coarse  granite,  covered  with  a  dense  jungle  of  underwood,  in- 
termixed with  forest  trees,  affording  an  inexhaustible  supply  of  the 
coarser  wood,  for  building,  manufacture  of  ploughs,  yokes,  sugar  mills, 
&c.  besides  yielding  a  plentiful  supply  of  bamboos,  grass,  a  variety  of 
medicinal  herbs,  barks,  roots,  leaves  and  fruits  which  are  collected  at 
various  seasons,  and  used  in  the  zillah  or  exported.  The  wild  silk  (tusser) , 
is  also  collected  from  the  Asun  trees  (Terminalia  alata  tomentosa)  and 
exported.  The  principal  tree  is  the  Saloogunje  or  Sal^,  a  tall  hand- 
some tree,  with  a  smooth  shining  white  bark,  high  clear  stem,  wide 
spreading  branches,  and  of  a  highly  resinous  nature,  and  from  which 
a  gum  or  resin  is  collected  and  used  as  a  varnish  chiefly  by  the  Palan- 
quin makers.  This  tree  answers  to  the  description  of  the  North- African 
frankincense  tree.  The  dhak  tree,  byre,  kheir,  mimosa  and  semul,  are 
the  most  common  trees  in  these  woods. 

The  Samba  stag  (Rusa),  spotted  axis,  neelghaee,  tigers,  leopards, 
and  a  variety  of  smaller  animals  inhabit  the  depth  of  these  woods. 
At  Deoree,  a  series  of  low  hills  are  detached  from  the  body  of  the  table 
land,  and  are  much  impregnated  with  veins  of  serpentine.     Near  the 


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1^46.]  Geological  features  of  ZiUah  Behar.  57 

village  a  meagre  bed  of  this  mineral  has  been  quarried  for  a  few  years 
by  natives,  who  manufacture  cups,  knife-handles,  &c.,  from  the  best  speci- 
mens. Captain  Richard  Ousdey,  Principal  Assistant  to  the  Qovemor 
General's  Agent  S.W.  Frontier,  had  a  shaft  sunk,  or  rather  a  huge  pit 
opened,  in  the  hopes  of  reaching  a  good  bed,  but  without  success ;  at 
the  depth  of  thirty  feet  only  a  coarse  friaUe  granite  was  fpund ;  nor  did 
I  perceive  in  the  sides  of  the  pit  any  traces  by  which  hopes  could  be 
upheld  of  ever  finding  any  at  that  spot.  Perseverance  may  perchance 
yet  discouver  a  valuable  bed  of  this  huidsome  mineral.  Several  slabs, 
three  feet  in  length,  were  obtained  by  the  Honourable  E.  Drummond, 
Magistrate  of  Gya,  but  being  from  the  surface  and  much  decayed,  were 
good  for  nothing,  although  very  handsome  both  in  colour  and  texture. 

To  the  north  of  this  great  plateau,  numerous  little  granite  hillocks  are 
dotted  over  the  plain,  extending  for  twenty-five  miles  north,  amongst 
which  is  the  large  Chirchanwan  hiU,  five  miles  in  length,  but  to  the 
N.E.  they  extend  for  forty  miles  as  far  as  the  Burabur  hiUs,  a  range  of 
black  sterile  granite  rocks,  in  which  are  some  very  curious  groups, 
peculiar  to  the  granitic  formation ;  particularly  that  of  Kawa  Dhole,  a 
coiucal  peak,  rising  to  365  feet  in  height,  on  the  summit  of  which 
rests  a  conical  block  of  granite  of  immense  proportions.  It  is  upwards  of 
forty  feet  in  he^ht,  standing  on  its  base,  without  flaw  or  crack,  a  land- 
mart  for  miles  around. 

On  the  summit  of  this  group,  iron   ore  of  a  rich  quality  is  scat- 
tered about  in  profusion.     This  is  the  most  northern  point  to  which* 
granite  can  be  traced  in  Zillah  Behar. 

Returning  to  the  west,  a  group  of  very  curiously  formed  peaks  are 
clustered  togedier,  six  miles  south  of  Kootoombeh.  One  in  particular 
from  its  appearance  is  styled  the  Kothila  (vide  Map  and  Vignette)  or 
granary.  In  these  hills  is  found,  in  small  quantities,  the  sulphate  of 
alumina  adhering  to  some  of  the  rocks;  it  is  styled  silajeet  by  the  natives. 

The  granite  range  after  crossing  the  Koel  Nuddee  suddenly  ceases  in 
numerous  small  hiUodcs,  and^is  here  joined  by  the  sandstone,  an  offset 
from  the  Kymoor  sand  and  limestone  range.  Eighteen  miles  furtiier 
up  the  Sone  river,  the  granite  again  appears  in  one  or  two  hillocks 
piercing  the  sandstone.  After  crossing  the  Ko^  river  from  the  east  the 
country  undergoes  a  complete  change.  The  Tar  tree  (palm)  becomes 
scarce  and  eventually  ceases  altogether,  the  surface  of  the  country  be- 

I 


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58  Geological  features  of  Zillah  Behar.  [No.  169. 

comes  covered  with  the  Mimosa  catechu,  a  few  ebony  trees  and  an 
abundance  of  saloogunje  trees.  The  hills  are  clothed  with  the  fragrant 
rhousa  grass,  from  which  a  powerful  spirit  is  extracted,  so  beneficial  in 
rheumatism,  and  known  in  Malwa  as  "  Grass  oil."  The  surface  of  the 
country  is  undulating,  the  soil  tinged  with  bright  yellow  and  red  hues, 
the  effects  of  the  oxide  of  iron,  which  ore  is  found  in  its  soil.  The  hills 
are  low  towards  the  north,  and  higher  to  the  south;  exceedingly  steep 
to  the  south,  and  sloping  away  gradually  to  the  north.  The  long  range  of 
hills  skirting  the  Sone  river,  are  so  steep  to  the  south  that  a  stone  may 
be  jerked  from  the  summit  to  the  base,  but  on  the  north  the  termination 
of  their  base  is  a  mile  removed  from  the  plumb-line  of  their  crest.  Ten 
or  fifteen  miles  south  of  the  Sone  river,  on  the  table  land  of  Oontaree, 
iron  ore  is  collected  and  smelted  by  the  Aghurreeas.  Immediately  under 
the  ruined  fort  of  Srinugger,  the  waters  of  the  Sone  have  denuded  a 
series  of  nearly  vertical  strata  of  homstone,  arranged  in  narrow  serpen- 
tine ribbons ;  this  homstone  again  appears  about  half  a  mile  down  the 
river,  at  Darehdeh,  and  has  the  appearance  of  having  been  fused,  being 
of  a  dark  pitchy  hue,  smooth,  rounded,  sonorous  when  struck,  difficult 
of  fracture,  and  heavy.  A  belt  of  the  same  rock  appears  in  the  bed  of 
the  Sone  jutting  out  from  the  Shahabad  or  north  side,  about  two  mUes 
above  Darehdeh:  the  rock  at  this  spot  has  exactly  the  same  burnt 
appearance.  Embedded  in  this  homstone  are  found  masses  of  a  hard 
daystone  of  a  bright  red  colour,  also  common  amongst  the  pebbles  of 
«the  river,  which  pebbles  generally  consist  of  rounded  pieces  of  agate, 
homstone  or  quartz,  possessing  but  little  beauty  or  variety.  The  rocks 
at  this  spot,  projecting  more  than  half-way  across  the  stream  of  the 
Sone,  create  rapids  of  about  six  feet  fall  in  a  quarter  of  a  mile.  At  a 
village  named  Phoolwurreea,  about  four  miles  inland  from  the  Sone, 
there  is  a  spring  of  good  water.  At  this  spot  a  fair  is  held  during  the 
months  of  Kartik  and  Chait,  At  a  spot  (marked  S.)  in  the  sandstone  a 
small  quantity  of  alum  is  manufactured  from  alum  slate,  but  by  what 
process,  I  could  not  learn.  Specimens  of  the  slate  were  sent  marked  359. 
The  natives  call  this  sulphate  of  alumina,  silajeei :  it  is  the  same  sub- 
stance as  that  brought  from  Nepal,  and  sold  under  the  same  name  at 
the  enormous  price  of  one  rapee  the  tola.  The  sandstone,  on  the  eastern 
and  western  banks  of  the  Koel  river,  is  similar  to  that  in  which  are 
situated  the  Rajhurrah  coal  mines,  eighteen  miles  from  the  Behar 


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1846.]  Geological  features  of  Zillah  Behar.  59 

boundary,  and  is  of  various  textures,  some  exceedingly  hatd,  others  very 
soft. 

The  stone  from  the  Khyra  peak,  which  rises  to  1:,086  feet,  is  much 
used  for  hand-mills,  curry- stones,  and  for  other  domestic  purposes.  The 
whole  of  this  sandstone  is  covered  with  a  thin  covering  of  forest  trees, 
underwood,  and  bamboos;  the  Saloogunge  tree  predominating  every 
where.  The  valleys  are  filled  with  the  Mimosa  catechu,  many  hundreds 
of  which  trees  are  yearly  destroyed  in  the  manufacture  of  the  catechu. 

The  next  group  is  that  of  the  homstone,  or  Rajgheer  range  of  hills, 
which  although  slightly  mixed  with  quartz  and  jasper,  must  nevertheless 
be  considered  as  a  homstone  range.  The  homstone  is  of  both  kinds, 
conchoidal  and  woody :  the  former  is  found  of  endless  varieties,  bright- 
red,  purple-blue  and  other  lively  colours,  uniting  to  render  this  an  elegant 
stone :  the  latter  is  universally  of  a  greyish-green  colour.  This  double 
range  of  hills  presents  a  series  of  ragged  peaks,  offering  views  of  great 
beauty :  their  extent  is  about  forty  miles  from  S.  W.  to  N.E.  A  small  hill, 
evidently  a  portion  of  the  range  appears  at  Behar ;  another  small  hill, 
about  eighteen  miles  due  east  of  Gireenk,  and  another  again  twelve  miles 
to  the  south,  uniting  with  the  quartz  range  and  granite  peak  of  Kawa  Kho. 
in  this  range  are  numerous  hot  and  cold  springs,  especially  at  Rajgheer, 
where  there  are  nineteen  hot  wells  and  four  cold :  on  the  southern  face 
of  the  hiUs,  th^e  are  a  few  hot  springs  similar  in  character  to  those  of 
Rajgheer.  Half  way  between  the  Rajgheer  and  Burabar  hills  is  situated 
a  collection  of  hillocks,  from  which  is  quarried  hornblend  of  a  beautiful 
texture ;  the  crystals  are  large  and  glossy :  also  a  quantity  of  potstone, 
which  is  much  used  at  G^a  by  the  natives  in  the  manufacture  of  dishes, 
plates,  mortars  and  pestles,  likewise  by  the  image  cutters,  who  are  fa- 
mous for  the  elegance  of  their  carvings.  A  small  quantity  of  potstone, 
but  of  an  inferior  quality,  is  quarried  from  the  Bmhmjoonee  hill,  over- 
hanging the  city  of  Gya.  A  small  hill,  west  of  the  station  of  Gya,  yields 
an  indurated  reddle  used  for  dyeing  clothes  of  an  orange  colour,  also  for 
metalling  the  roads  in  the  station ;  this  mineral  is  either  of  an  orange, 
purple,  light-red  or  yellow  colour. 

These  few  notes,  combined  with  the  accurate  and  minute  details  by 
Dr.  Buchanan,  will  I  hope,  render  the  accompanying  Map  intelligible. 


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60 

A  Note  on  some  Hill  Tribes  on  the  Kuladyne  River ; — Arracan.    By  Lieut. 

T.  Lattkr  (67 Ih  N.  IJ,  of  the  Arracan  Local  Battalion, 

<l>ocT^  yap  vnip  aypiav  vSav,  ava  T*avTpo  Kai  nerpag. 

There  are  few  facts  more  remarkable  in  India,  than  the  vast  number 
of  tribes  which  occupy  its  mountain  fastnesses,  and  which  roam  through 
its  interminable  forests ;  all  speaking  distinct  dialects.  In  many  in- 
stances such  tribes  are,  as  far  as  distance  is  concerned,  near,  neighbours ; 
though  in  reality  almost  perfect  strangers ;  a  state  of  alienation,  in  a  great 
measure  arising  from  the  dense  and  impervious  vegetation,  always  occu- 
pying the  lower  mountainous  ranges  of  this  country.  And  in  no  part 
perhaps  is  this  peculiarity  more  strikingly  exemplified  than  in  the 
Yooma  range  of  hills,  which  separate  the  province  of  Arracan  from  the 
Empire  of  Burmah.  On  the  banks  of  the  Kuladyne  river,  which  runs 
down  the  93^  parallel  of  longitude,  and  within  a  space  over  which  a 
bird  might  speed  in  a  summer's  day,  may  be  found  the  following  clans — 
the  KhunUs,  the  Mrus  (of  which  there  are  two  tribes,  speaking  distinct 
dialects),  the  Anoos,  the  Kyaus,  the  Kh6n$,  the  Shentoos,  and  finally 
the  Khyoungthas.  Although  the  languages  of  all  these  may  have 
originated  from  the  same  stock,  yet  there  is  quite  as  much  difference 
between  them  as  between  French  and  English.  The  most  powerful 
among  them  are  the  Shentoos,  who  being  beyond  our  frontier,  are  known 
to  us  only  by  their  devastations  on  those  tribes  which  pay  us  tribute  ; 
the  suddenness,  secrecy,  and  nev6r- failing  nature  of  these  attacks,  cause 
them  to  be  held,  by  the  rest,  in  a  dread  of  which  it  would  be  impossible 
to  give  an  idea.  The  Khdns,  who  are  likewise  beyond  our  frontier,  are 
employed  by  the  Shentoos  as  guides  and  spies,  and  are  on  that  account 
obnoxious  to  the  vengeance  of  those  clans,  who  may  owe  a  blood  feud 
to  the  Shentoos.  They  reside  during  the  night  in.  huts  built  on  high 
trees,  and  return  with  the  day  to  their  regular  habitations  below.  The 
remaining  tribes  are  all  more  or  less  under  our  rule,  aud  have  conse- 
quently given  up  their  feuds.  With  the  exception  of  the  Khyoungthas 
or  "  Sons  of  the  Stream,"  all  the  rest  of  the  tribes,  above  enumerated, 
go  under  the  general  term  of  Toungthas,  or  "  Sons  of  the  Hill."  I  shall 
proceed  to  give  a  slight  sketch  in  the  following  order  of  the  Khyaung- 
thas,  the  Khumis,  and  the  Kyaus,  which  three  clans  fell  under  my 
observation  during  a  short  trip  up  the  Kuladyne. 


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1846.]  A  Note  on  some  Hill  Tribes,  ^c.  €1 

KHYOUNGTHAS. 

The  Kkyoungtkas  are  only  found  on  the  banks  of  the  Kuladyne  river, 
and  their  livelihood  is  principally  gained  from  plantations  on  its  banks. 
They  may  be  viewed  as  the  type  of  the  Arracan  race ;  they  speak  the 
Burmese  language,  but  with  all  the  harsh  provincialisms  of  the  Arra* 
canese.  There  are  many  terms  in  the  Arracanese  dialect  totally  distinct 
from  Burmese :  as'^Aoy,  "  little,  small ;"  ara,  **  more ;"  Mkdn,  "  thing,"  and 
many  others,  just  in  the  same  way  as  words  are  foun^  peculiar  to  certain 
counties  in  England.  The  Kkyoitrngthas  appear  to  have  been  a  portion 
of  the  original  inhabitants  of  Arracan,  driven  up  the  river  at  the  time  of 
the  invasion  and  occupation  of  the  province  by  the  Burmese.  Their 
religion  is  a  simple  type  of  Boodhism,  but  mixed  up  strangely  with  the 
Ndt  or  "  spirit"  worship  of  the  hills ;  which  appears  in  some  instances 
almost  to  have  absorbed  their  original  faith.  Their  parent  stream  is 
looked  upon  with  a  holy  love,  not  only  as  aflfording  them  sustenance,  but 
likewise  a  ready  passage  by  which  to  flee  from  the  attacks  of  their  foes. 
At  the  northern  outskirts  of  each  village  from  which  quarter  alone  they 
dread  the  advent  of  any  danger  (all  to  the  south  being  in  possession  of 
the  English),  in  the  direction  of  the  forest,  and  under  the  shade  of  the 
comeliest  tree  may  be  seen  the  shrine  of  their  two  NdtSt  the  one  male* 
the  other  female.  They  are  represented  by  two  pebbles  picked  from  the 
banks  of  the  river.  The  female  is  considered  the  most  powerful,  and  is 
meant  to  represent  the  Mayoo  Ndt,  or  spirit  which  presides  over  the 
mouth  of  the  Mayoo  river :  she  is  believed  to  be  a  most  powerful  spirit, 
the  guardian  of  Arracan  from  all  the  dangers  from  the  sea.  The  road 
from  Akyab  to  Chittagong  crosses  the  mouth  of  the  Mayoo  river ;  here 
all  natives,  whatever  may  be  their  faith,  invariably,  make  their  offering 
to  this  powerful  spirit  by  letting  loose  fowls,  &c.  The  other  or  male 
siHrit  is  styled  RwdUamg  Ndt  or  *'  the  village  guardian,"  to  whom, 
as  his  name  implies,  is  intrusted  the  care  of  the  village.  They  believe, 
to  use  their  identical  words,  that  **  should  he  withdraw  his  favour, 
the  evil  eye  would  glare  upon  their  children;  sickness  would  de- 
vastate their  hearths;  the  floods  would^  sweep  away  the  foundations 
of  their  homes ;  and  their  most  favourite  haunts  would  become  the 
prowl  of  the  tiger,  and  wild  cat  o'mount."  Whenever  a  new  shrine 
is   to  be  erected,  fresh  stones  are  chosen,  the  village  is  tabooed  for 


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62  A  Note  on  some  Hill  Tribes  [No.  169. 

seven  days,  sientinels  are  placed  on  all  the  surrounding  heights  to 
prevent  the  ingress  or  egress  of  any  person,  and  sacrifices  of  fowls, 
and  pigs  are  made.  Around  each  stone  is  wound  some  cotton  thread, 
coloured  yellow  with  turmeric*  These  objects  however  are  still  further 
curious,  for  it  wiH  be  perceived  by  inspecting  the  plate  that  they  are 
rough  representations  of  the  lingum,  and  yont  The  colouring  with 
turmeric  is  Boodhistic,  for  yellow  is  the  sacred  and  royal  colour  of 
Boodhism.  In  the  simpler  types  of  Boodlusm  which  have  come  under 
my  observation,  whenever  the  worship  of  the  powers  of  nature  has  been 
introduced,  it  has  been  invariably  that  of  the  united  male  and  female ; 
of  wluch  the  latter  has  been  the  most  powerful.  This  is  the  true  ex- 
planation of  those  monuments  which  abound  in  the  Cossyah  hills, 
figured  in  a  very  interesting  paper  from  the  pen  of  Lieut.  Yule,  in  a 
volume  of  the  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Calcutta.  Another  inter- 
esting fact  illustrated  by  these  objects,  is  the  invariable  predilection  of 
the  human  mind  to  identify  the  object  of  its  worship  with  the  realities 
of  its  every- day  life.  This  circumstance  might  be  exemplified  by 
instances  throughout  the  whole  history  of  man;  whether  we  take  the 
objects  of  worship  themselves,  as  that  god,  "  downwards  fish,  and 
upwards  man,*'  worshipped  in  the  fish  coasts  of  Azotus ;  or  their  conse- 
crated residences  from  the  dark  cave  temples  ^f  the  Troglodyte,  to  the 
spired  fanes  of  the  dweller  in  tents.  And,  as  we  shall  see,  whilst  the 
Toungtha,  or  "  Son  of  the  Hill,"  looks  for  sustenance  to  the  clearings 
of  the  forest  patch,  or  the  scant  verdure  -of  his  rock-bound  hills,  and 
conformably  represents  the  idea  of  his  adoration ;  so  here  we  find  the 
"  Child  of  the  Stream"  fitly  choosing  from  the  rolled  pebbles  of  his 
parent  flood  a  simple  fetich,  wherewith  to  identify  the  object  of  his 

worship,  and  his  love. 

THE  KHUMIS. 

The  KhUmis,  as  I  have  already  remarked,  are  a  member  of  the  general 
family  of  the  Toungthas,  or  '*  Sons  of  the  Hill."  They  are  a  numer- 
ous tribe,  having  several  villages,  each  under  a  distinct  Toungmeng, 
or  "  mountain  chief."    This  authority  appears  originally  to  have  been 

*  These  stones  are  represented  two-thirds  their  real  size  in  Plate  I,  fig.  a  being  the 
female,  and  fig.  h  the  male.  They  are  shewn  erect  for  the  sake  of  giving  their  forms; 
they  are  in  reality  however  placed  lying  down  in  a  flat  position ;  each  having  a  sort  of 
baby  house  erected  to  receive  it;  they  are  in  the  Plate  shewn  in  their  relative  positions 
with  one  another. 


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1846.]  on  the  Kuladyne  River: —  Arracan,  63 

hereditary ;  whilst  in  those  villages  within  the  British  territory,  it  heing 
necessary  that  the  village  chief  should  be  acquainted  with  the  Burmese 
language  for  the  purpose  of  transacting  Government  business,  an  indi« 
vidual  on  account  of  such  qualification  is  often  raised  to  that  dignity ; 
and  thus  in  some  viUages  there  ezist  two  Toungmengs,  the  one  hereditary, 
the  other  elected.  The  religious  system  of  the  Khtimd  appears  to  be 
very  vague ;  it  consists  of  the  worship  of  numerous  Ndts,  gt  spirits,  and 
indeed  of  every  thing  that  strikes  their  fancy.  They  worship  the  earth 
as  the  author  and  giver  of  all  they  possess ;  the  sun  also,  in  its  noon- 
day height,  as  the  pledge  of  safety  from  their  foes — ^for  the  attacks  of 
these  mountain  tribes  are  never  made  except  during  the  night;  no 
single  night  passes  over  their  head  that  is  not  replete  with  terror.  They 
reverence  also  the  spirits  of  the  dead ;  these,  they  say,  at  times  flit  over 
their  ancient  haunts,  at  others  wing  their  way  like  birds  over  mountain 
and  vale.  The  spirits  of  the  good  they  think  ever  happy,  those  of  the 
wicked  miserable.  Each  house  likewise  has  suspended  from  its  walls  the 
skulls  of  the  animals  it  may  have  killed  for  food ;  to  these  likewise  they 
pay  a  simple  adoration,  by  placing  before  each  individual  a  handful  of  its 
wonted  food,  as  an  acknowledgement  of  the  sustenance  it  h&s  afforded 
them  in  its  time.  The  skulls  also  of  the  animals  slaughtered  by  their 
fathers  are  in  like  manner  preserved  as  much  in  remembrance  of  those 
deceased  relatives  as  a  monument  of  their  wealth ;  frequently  will  a 
chief  point  to  them  with  pride,  and  tell  you  how  many  mountain 
bulls  his  father  could  spear  for  a  marriage  feast.  Their  religion  may  be 
said  to  consist  of  nothing  but  the  worship  of  spirits ;  to  every  object  that 
strikes  their  fancy,  they  accord  a  spirit  of  its  own.  Each  peak  in  their 
native  hills,  they  hold  to  be  the  mountain  watch-tower  of  a  god.  No- 
thing could  illustrate  this  better  than  the  accompanying  translation  of 
part  of  a  KkdmW  prayer.  Previous  to  an  undertaking  or  expedition  he 
lets  loose  a  fowl  as  an  offering  to  the  spirits,  and  utters  the  following : 
"  Oh !  spirit  of  the  day-sun ;  Oh !  spirit  of  the  rock*ledged  gate* ;  Oh ! 


*  These  are  two  very  singular  wall-like'  ridges  of  sandstone,  running  across  the 
Knladyne,  about  twe;nty  miles  the  one  above  the  other.  They  are  not  rocks  like  those 
of  Colgong  on  the  Ganges ;  but  ridges  perpendicular  on  each  side,  and  only  a  few  feel 
in  width ;  the  river  has  forced  itself  a  passage  through  the  centre*  The  tradition  is  that 
when  the  spirits  found  their  domains  invaded  by  a  new  faith  from  the  plains,  they  en- 
deavoured to  raise  a  barrier;  this  was  forced :  a  second  attempt  in  like  manner  failed, 
and  in  despair  they  have  given  up  the  idea  of  a  third. 


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64  A  Note  on  some  Hill  Tribes  [No.  169. 

spirit  of  the  streams  of  the  Hoosalong* ;  Oh !  spirit  of  the  surges  of 
the  Kolakf ;  Oh !  lords  of  the  mountain  peaks:t ;  One,  two,  three, 
four,  five,  six,  seven,  eight  times  ;  take  ye  this  my  offering." 

Every  object  which  is  in  motion  they  conceive  to  be  so,  in  virtue  of 
a  spirit,  and  a  motion  of  its  own :  in  fact  to  be  animate.  This  is  a 
belief  which  has  been  shared  by  all  primitive  and  savage  tribes ;  and 
is  one  that  will  at  once  appear  to  be  most  natural.  The  simple  savage, 
judging  from  the  movements  of  his  own  person,  gives  a  spirit  and  a  will, 
as  inherently  the  cause  of  movement  in  all  things.  It  is  the  predi- 
lection of  the  modern  mind  to  count  all  as  phoenomena ;  the  cold  results 
of  causal  agencies  beyond.  And  when  in  this  its  last  stage  the  mind 
carries  itself  back  to  the  first ;  when  it  spiritualizes  the  dull  realities  of 
this  every- day  world ;  and  writes  down  every  sensuous  object  in  nature 
as  impelled  by  a  spirit  and  motion  like  its  own ;  then,  having  achieved 
a  communion  with  all  existing  things,  it  becomes  seized  of  the  highest 
poetry,  and  purest  ideality.  This  is  the  simple  reason  why  the  poetry  of  a 
rude  age  is  to  us,  as  rich  in  its  ideality  as  is  that  of  the  most  polished 
epoch.  In  this  respect  the  human  mind  may  be  conveniently  classed  into 
three  stages — The  1st  and  savage,  where  it  believes  all  objects  whatever  to 
hav«  life  and  spirit.  The  2nd,  where  it  has  so  far  advanced  as  to  accord 
a  separate  individuality  to  the  spirit,  and  to  hold  that,  like  a  guardian,  it 
presides  and  watches  over  the  inanimate.  And  finally,  the  3rd  and  last, 
that  which  we  have  above  described.  Those  peculiarities  which  are  the 
source  of  poetry  in  the  last,  are  unideal,  mere  common  place  matters  of 
belief  in  the  first.  And  even  in  poetry,  such  as  that  of  Homer,  which  we 
may  look  upon  as  the  annals  of  the  mind  in  what  we  have  described  as  its 
second  stage,  many  of  those  wondrous  figures  which  appear  to  us,  the 
living  transcripts  of  mysterious  portraitures  traced  upon  the  secret  wall 
of  the  chambers  of  the  poet's  imagery,  may  in  reality  be  but  the  simple 
and  unimaginative  record  of  the  beliefs  of  his  every  day  existence. 

The  Kh^mis  have  no  religious  superiors,  although  they  pay  a  certain 
respect  to  some  who,  profess  to  have  converse  with  familiar  spirits. 

*  The  name  of  a  stream  among  the  Hilb. 

t  The  original  is  v6m  of  the  Kolakf  the  latter  being  the  name  of  a  stream  ;  vtfm, 
in  their  dialect  is  a  place  partaking  of  a  character  of  both,  a  waterfall  and  a  rapid :  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Kolak,  the  river  rattles  its  way  over  a  shallow  rapid,  and  being  im- 
peded in  its  coarse  by  a  great  number  of  ridges  of  rock,  it  has  the  appearance  of  a 
huge  seething  chaldron. 

X  Here  they  generally  enumerate  the  most  remarkable  peaks. 


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1846.]  on  the  Kuladyne  Rwer:^Arracan.  63 

When  a  man  marries,  ,he  gives  what  he  can  to  the  parents  of  his  bride, 
feasts  his  native  village^  and  the  ceremony  is  concluded.  The  dress  of 
the  KhiM  female,  in  common  With  that  of  the  Twrngthas,  is  a  parody  on 
five's  apron }  the  men  have  a  small  doth  over  the  loins  but  iite  leitill  next 
to  naked ;  the  women  wear  a  petticoat  about  a  cubit  in  length,  which  is 
kept  on  in  a  most  indescribable  manner  by  heaVy  strings  of  brass  rings. 
They  have  a  ^gular  tradition  accouating  for  the  scantiness  of  their 
costume.  In  fortner  ages*  say  they,  idl  the  world  was  of  one  tongue, 
and  of  one  kind ;  there  was  then  a  god  upon  the  earth— ^his  name  they 
do  not  know, — when  he  was  about  to  depart  from  among  men,  he 
divided  them  into  nations  and  tongues,  and  gave  to  each  the  peculiar 
costume  by  which  it  was  to  be  distinguished^  The  poor  Ta/ungthai, 
however,  were  at  the  time  wandering  over  their  native  mountains,  and 
engiAgckl  in  their  pkntations  in  the  hills,  so  that  they  came  last.  The  god 
tdd  them  he  had  given  away  all  that  ha  had,  except  one  small  piece  of 
elotb,  a  cubit  broad,  which  their  wometi  were  to  wear ;  the  men  to  shift 
as  tfaey  cduld.  The  only  risible  objects  of  worship  of  the  KMmCg,  are  the 
trunks  of  three  or  four  trees,  which  have  been  cut  down  in  clearing  a 
spa6e  for  th^  vUlage ;  also  the  same  number  of  pillar^like  stones.  These  are 
fixed  in  tiie  earth  together^  in  the  middle  of  a  large  shed,  which  is  also 
employed  as  the;  place  of  reunion  and  festirity  of  the  village. 

llie  ctdtitation  of  the  TomgthM  is  styled  Jhoim,  A  hill,  the  bfest 
covered  with  vegetation,  is  cleared,  the  rubbish  buTnt  to  fertilize  it,  and 
the  Space  sown  with  an  indigenous  species  called  hill  or  red  rice.  As 
the  soil  on  these  steep  hills  is  necessarily  scanty,  and  becomes  more 
liabk  to  be  washed  away  by  the  periodieal  rains  wheA  denuded  of  its 
forest  coverklg,  a  piece  of  ground  rarely  3fields  more  than  one  crop;  in 
each  successive  yesr  other  spots  are  in  like  manner  chosen,  till  all  those 
around  the  village  are  exhkisted :  a  move  is  then  made  to  another  loca- 
lity, fresh  habitations  are  erected,  and  the  same  process  gone  through. 
These  migrations  occur  about  ev^  third  year,  aiid  they  are  the  means 
by  winch  long  periods  of  time  are  calculated ;  thus  a  Twmgtha  will  tell 
you  that  such  and  such  an  event  occurred  so  matty  migrations  since. 
In  forcing  one's  way  through  the  forest,  one  often  comes  suddenly  on  a 
deserted  village,  which  presents  a  peculiarly  melancholy  appearance ;  a 
dense  vegetation  rapidly  reclaims  it  as  a  domain  of  ancient  wood ;  the  very 
bamboos  long  since  decayed  and  old,  the  materials  of  a  once  merry  home, 
become  covered  with  luxuriaikt  creepers,  and  appear  modkingly  to  vegetate 


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66  A  Note  on  some  Hill  Tribes  [No.  169. 

with  a  new-born  life  at  the  absence  of  man.  Compelled  thus  to  wear 
away  an  errant  life,  and  in  continual  dread  of  being  massacred  by  their 
foes,  the  poor  Toungthas  know  not  what  comfort  or  secureness  is :  all 
their  valuables  are  secreted  in  some  hidden  cave,  known  only  to  them- 
selves. Should  the  maiden  weave  for  herself  a  choice  petticoat,  or  the 
young  man  fashion  a  favourite  bow,  it  is  forthwith  taken  and  stowed 
away :  and  yet,  in  spite  of  all,  they  are  a  merry  and  laughter-loving  race, 
fond  to  a  passion  of  beads,  with  which  they  profusely  decorate  every 
thing  that  belongs  to  them :  one  little  Khdm{  damsel  showed  me  her  pet 
pipe  so  ornamented. 

Having  thus  endeavoured  to  give  a  general  sketch  of  the  Khdmiis, 
I  will  proceed  to  a  few  remarks  on  their  language. 

The  KMmis,  in  common  with  all  the  Toungthas,  have  no  written 
characters.  Their  dialect  is  evidently  cognate  to  the  Burmese,  that  is, 
the  pure  and  original  Burmese,  but  it  presents  itself  under  the  harsh 
type  of  the  Arracanese,  not  softening  down  any  of  its  sounds  in  the 
usual  manner  of  the  Burmese  language.  It  is  monosyllabic,  and  ex- 
presses the  relations  of  its  parts  of  speech  by  means  of  affixes  ;  of  these 
some  seem  to  be  merely  euphonic,  as  ma,  gd,  v4,  td,  &c.,  these  gener- 
ally occur  between  the  root  and  its  affixes.  In  like  manner,  for  the  sake 
of  euphony,  some  of  its  roots  are  slightly  inflected,  as  tchau,  "  to  eat," 
when  preceding  the  past  affix  hau,  or  bank,  is  changed  into  ieha.  It  is 
moreover  necessary  to  premise  that  all  final  consonants  such  as  the  k 
in  the  above  word  bauk,  are  invariably  mute,  that  is,  not  pronounced, 
hut  formed  in  the  mouth.  Indeed  by  a  person  whose  ear  was  not  ren- 
dered sensible  to  the  value  of  these  finals  by  an  acquaintance  with  the 
Burmese  language,  of  which  they  are  a  marked  characteristic,  the  above 
word  bank,  would  be  written  ban.  As  we  might  expect  in  a  rude,  and 
unformed  tongue,  the  affixes,  above  alluded  to,  are  omitted  whenever 
the  sense  can  be  conveyed  without  them;  as  A:at,  1st  pers.  pron.and 
p^,  "  give/'  form  hat  ph  **  give  me,"  or  it  might  equally  convey 
"  I  give  ;"  kai,  "  as  above."  and  yn,  "  wife,"  kai  yu,  "  my  wife  ;"  bok 
"  food,"  and  tekau,  "  eat,"  bok  tchau,  "  eat  food." 

NOUNS. 

Mail  signifies  "in;"  as  ummau,  "  in  the  house."  Hlogd,  "under;" 
as  trm  hloyd,  "  under  the  house."  .  Hi  loungd,  "on  the  top  of;"  tm  At 
lovngd,  "  on  the  top  of  the  house,"     Ted,  "near ;"  as  um  t46,  "  near  the 


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1846.]  on  ike  Kuladyne  River : — Arracan.  67 

house."  Bdd,  •*  from ;"  as  urn  hd/6,  "  from  the  house."  Br&n,  "  outside ;" 
as  urn  bran,  "  outside  the  house."  W6,  "  by  or  by  means  of."  The  final 
d,  in  all  these,  implies  "  to,  towards,"  which  sometimes  for  the  sake  of 
euphony,  is  pronounced  w$. 

Tehee  is  the  affix  of  the  plural  number  with  nouns,  but  it  is  not  made 
use  of  when  numerals  are  employed,  they  being  sufficient  to  express 
plurality ;  as  urn,  "  a  house,"  and  mi,  "  two ;"  urn  nu,  **  two  houses." 

Like  the  Burmese,  the  KhumCe  have  only  one  affix  to  express  the 
female,  whilst  several  affixes  express  the  male  of  animals. 

TchCdu  is  a  male  affix  for  human  beings.  Tchd  is  a  female  affix  for 
human  beings.  Nil  is  the  general  female  affix.  Pok  is  a  male  aflbc ;  as 
tcMpoh  "  a  son ;"  tchi  nu,  "  a  daughter." 

P'ting,  is  a  male  affix  for  large  animals ;  as  tchie  pUing,  '*  a  bull ;"  tch(e 
nu,  "a  cow."  Painoh  p'ting,  "a  male  buffido;"  painoh  nu,  "a  female 
ditto."  Kounggnau p'ting,  "a stallion;"  kounggnau  nu,  <<a  mare."  K'sai 
p'ting,  "  a  nude  elephant ;"  k'sai  nu,  *'  a  female  elephant." 

Lok  is  a  male  affix  for  smaller  animals ;  as  uS  loh,  "  a  dog ;"  ui  nu, 
*'  a  bitch."  Miyaung  loh,  "  a  male  cat ;"  miyaung  nu,  "  a  female  cat" 
A'lik  loh,  '*  a  male  hog ;"  <fuA;  nd  "  a  female  hog." 

Luhi  is  a  male  affix  for  birds ;  as  da  luhi,  **  a  cock ;**  da  nu,  "a  hen." 
Tawo  luhi,  '* a  male  bird ;"  tawo  nu,  "a  female  bird." 

Hdi  is  a  superlative  affix ;  as  houi  hdi,  *'  very  beautiful." 

VERBS. 

The  relations  of  verbs  ar^  expressed  by  affixes. 

Au  is  the  substantive  verb ;  as  kai  au,  "  I  am." 

The  present  tense  has  properly  no  affixes ;  as  y^,  "  to  fear ;"  kai  y4,  "  I 
fear." 

The  future  tense  and  present  tense  are  often  used  synonymously. 

There  is  an  affix  ^dn,  implying  present  time,  used  with  some  roots 
signifying  "  quality ;"  as  khumdi  tdn,  **  is  cold,"  roch  tan,  "  is  dear ;"  but 
it  is  very  irregular  in  its  application. 

The  future  is  formed  by  the  addition  of  the  affix  ndk,  which,  when  the 
roots  end  with  a  mute  consonant,  often  has  the  euphonic  vocal  gd  in- 
tervening ;  kai  tdi  ndk,  "  I  speak,  or  will  speak ;"  kai  tchik  gd  ndk,  '*  I 
go,  or  will  go." 


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as  A  ^ote  on  same  Hill  TribeM  [Na.  169. 

The  past  tense  is  e^presBed  by  the  affile  h9,uk;  as  hai  (eUk  bauk,  '*  I 
have  gone." 

The  imperative  is  expressed  by  the  simple  root,  and  is  distinguished 
from  the  present  tense  by  having  no  nominative  <?ase, 

Mdn,  or  matoi,  are  interrogative  particles. 

With  reference  to  the  negation  of  sentences,  there  appear  to  be  vari- 
ous negative  particles.  E  is  used  to  negative  the  substantive  verb  t 
as  kai  b'au,  f'  I  am  not."  Mok,  mauk,  auk,  au,  fmdn,  are  all  variously 
used  as  particles  of  negation,  the  first  two  are  prohibitive. 

They  do  not  appear  to  have  an  affile  of  number  for  verbs ;  the  upun 
which  is  the  nominative  being  sufficient  to  shew  the  time  of  the  verb ; 
as  kai  tch^k  gd  ndk,  "  I  go,  or  will  go ;"  kai  tcMe  tch^k  §d  fi4i«  "  we 
go,  or  will  go." 

In  the  formation  of  septences,  the  nominfttive  pomes  first,  the  objectiye 
next,  and  the  verb  last.  There  are  however  som^  eases  in  which  this 
order  appears  varied. 

NUMBERS. 

We  now  come  to  the  mode  of  numeration,  and  ia  this  dialect  it  pre- 
sents some  interesting  peculiarities.  The  numeral  system  of  the  KkikiUs 
is  emphatically  decimal ;  of  the  ten  fingers.  It  is  moreover  so  intricate 
as  to  be  somewhat  difficult  of  explanation.  This  fact  admits  us  into 
a  very  peculiar  phase  of  "  savagery."  We  are  apt  to  consider  the  mode 
of  reasoning  and  every  thing  appertaining  to  an  uncivilized  race,  as 
necessarily  bearing  the  impress  of  simplicity :  and  this  may  be  said  to  be 
generally  the  case,  but  at  times  the  savage  mind  seems  to  take  to  itself 
flights  of  intricate  and  almost  obfuscated  reasoning. 

The  first  peculiarity  which  we  shall  notice  is,  that  the  decades,  or 
multiples  of  ten,  up  to  himdreds  have  two  names  ;  thus  as  they  count 
on  their  fingers  when  they  get  to  **  twenty,"  they  call  it  first  horS  lath 
hor^,  which  means  literally  "  ten  and  ten,"  and  then  throiHng  their  fin- 
gers  on  an  imaginary  heap  they  exclaim  ap4n§f  ri,  "  a  score,"  and  8Q 
on.    R^  is  an  affix  used  with  numbers,  and  implies  ^ *  full." 

The  next  circumstance  to  be  noticed  is,  the  number  of  diffisrent 
terms  used  to  convey  the  idea  of  **  and,  more." 

1 ,  hndk,  2,  nu,  (u,  like  the  simple  French  uj.  3,  fkeoH,  4,  p*in.  5,  pdn§. 
6,  fru.  7,  «Vti.  8,  t^a.  9,  t'khau.  10,  ho,  or  hor^.  11,  har4  Ukik  hndk. 


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1846.]  on  the  Kuladyne  River  : — Jrracan.  69 

{km  here  laik  implies  "aDd,  more").  19.  horilaih  t'kh^u,  20,  Korihik 
M,  or  ap(kg  r(f,  H,  Qpdng  p'hai  hndk»  (bere  p'hai  commences  to  con- 
vey "  and,  more").  29,  tipdng  p'hai  fkhau,  30,  (ipdng  p'hai  hor^»  pr  p'haird, 
31,  p*hair^  ph  hndh,  (here  p*lu  conveys  "  and,  more").  34.  p'haird p'lu 
p'lu.  39,  p'h^ir^  plu  t'khau.  40,  p'haird  p'fu  hori^  or  t9i>7ti  r/.  41,  tp| 
p'In  j»^  m  in^t  (here  |»4fi^  mo  represents  *'  i^nd,  more").  44,  toip'/n 
p<lii9  sa  j»7ti.  45,  v>%  p*iu  pdng  no  pdag.  50,  wl  p7tf  ^^^nf  na  Aonf,  or  wl 
|K^  r^r  5 1,  tol  piling  fr¥  hniik,  (bere  ^'rv  expresses  **  and,  more").  55,  wi 
pdng  t'ru  pdng.  56,  wi  pdng  fru  Vru.  60*  wi  pimg  fru  hor4,  or  w%  fru  ri. 
61,  vt  /'rtf  s*ru  hndk,  (here  a'rtf  expresses  "  fmd»  more").  6^,  wi  fru  t*ru 
I'rs,  67,  wifru  a'ni  9'n$.  70,  ipf  i'rw  9*ru  hard,  or  wf  a'n«  ri,  l\,wi  M*ru 
i^a  hn(Ui,  (here  t^9  represents  "  and,  more").  77,  wi  M*ru  tdya  s'ru. 
7$,  tpt  9'Hk  tdga  tiga.  BO,  wi  $*ru  tdga  hori,  at  witdgard.  81,  wi  tdga  fkhau 
h94k,  (here  fkhau  conveys  **  and.  more").  $8.  wi  idga  fkhau  tdga.  69, 
vt  tiga  fkhtm  fkhoH,  90,  ^(  t4ga  fkhau  hard,  or  w(  fkhau  rd.  91,  ter/ 
thhw  ho  hnak,  (here  hq  expresses ''  and,  more").  99,  wi  fhhau  ho  fkhau, 
100,  wi  fkhau  ho  hard,  or  tchoon  wairdn  101,  UhQon  waird  aiklddk  hndk, 
(here  oikhlok  signifies  ''and").  110,  ichoon  waird  aikhldk  hard,  120, 
tchoon  waird  aikhldk  apdngrd.  200,  tchoon  wai  nurd,  202,  tchoon  wai  nurd 
aikkldk  nu,  303,  tchoon  wai  fhoon  rd  aikhldk  fhoon,  1000,  tchdngrd, 
aOOO.  tehdngnurd, 

1845  would  be  thus  writteun-lcMnpr^  aiktidk  tchoon  wai  tdga  rd 
mkUdk  vd  p'lu  rd  pUng  no  piing. 

It  will  be  remarked  in  the  above,  that  not  only  for  3 1  do  they 
ny  *f  thirty  and  one,"  or  ^'  thirty  more  one ;"  and  for  45  '*  forty  and 
five,''  or  "  forty  more  five ;"  but  that  moreover  they  have  several  differ- 
ent terms  to  express  this  increment  '*  and,  more."  We  will  reoapitu* 
late  them.  Between  10  and  20,  the  term  is  laik;  between  20  and 
30,  it  is  p'hai,  which  it  will  be  seen  is  likewise  the  term  for  "  thirty ;" 
and  from  "  thirty"  upwards  each  decade  has  the  unit  next  above  its 
own  to  represent  the  increment  "  and,  more."  Thus  the  third  decade, 
^t  of  '<  thirties,"  has  "  four }"  and  for  "  thirty  more  one,"  they  say 
"thirty  four  one,"  &o.  The  fourth  decade,  or  "  forties,"  has  '*  five," 
wd  for  "  forty  ware  five,"  they  say  **  forty  five  five ;"  and  so  on  with  the 
rest.    Above  a  hundred,  aikhldk  represents  the  same  term. 

it  would  not  be  easy  to  give  a  reason  for  this  peculiarity,  unless 
P^hsps  that  the  true  **  more"  of  a  number  is  the  one  immediately 


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70  A  Note  on  some  Hill  Tribes  [No.  169. 

above  it ;  and  that  therefore  the  "  more'*  of  the  third  decade  is  aptly 
"four,"  and  so  on.  It  will  be  remarked,  that  from  40  to  90,  the 
term  vd  represents  "  ten ;"  thus  wi,  "  ten,**  and  p'ln,  "  four,"  make 
w{  p'lu  "forty."  It  will  be  moreover  perceived,  that  between  40 
and  50,  the  term  pangno,  is  used  instead  of  pang.  It  is  probable  that  the 
first  is  the  correct  term,  and  that  the  latter  is  merely  an  abbreviation. 
The  name  t'hoon,  "  three,"  is  the  same  as  in  the  Burmese  language, 
only  that  in  the  latter  it  is  pronounced  softly  thoon.  The  term  pang  or 
pangno,  **  five,"  is  evidently  derived  from  the  same  root  pdgnya,  "  wis- 
dom," as  is  the  Pali  term  p^gntsa,  '*  five.'* 

A  peculiarity  which  so  remarkably  characterizes  the  Indo-Chinese 
languages  does  not  exist  in  this  dialect ;  and  that  is,  that  there  are  no 
numeral  generic  affixes ;  thus  um,  "  a  house,"  and  na  "  two."  are  suffi- 
cient to  express  "  two  houses."  In  the  case  however  of  human  beings 
there  is  a  kind  of  adjunct  used  either  with  or  without  numerals ;  as 
khum{,  "  a  man  ;**  khtimi  laangnu,  "  two  men  ;*'  tchipau,  "  a  child ;" 
tchipau  laung  t'hoon  "  three  children." 

THE  KYAUS. 

There  is  only  one  village  of  this  tribe  in  existence ;  it  is  situated  on 
the  banks  of  the  Kuladyne,  and  in  the  midst  of  the  large  dan  of  the 
Khiimis.  The  Kgaus  relate  that  their  tribe  was  originally  numerous, 
but  that  now  this  single  village  is  all  that  has  been  spared  from  the 
attacks  of  the  Shentoos  and  other  powerful  neighbours.  The  Kgaus 
are  viewed  by  the  rest  of  the  Toangthas,  with  a  kind  of  estrangement ; 
few  among  these  latter  being  able  to  master  their  dialects.  The  first 
thing  that  strikes  one  on  entering  the  village  of  the  Kgaus  is  their 
marked  difference  in  physiognomy  from  that  of  all  the  other  hill 
tribes.  Indeed  the  general  physiognomy  of  the  Toungtka  is  a  Tar« 
tar-like  family  face,  but  the  Kgaus  in  feature,  dress,  and  appear- 
ance could  scarcely  be  distinguished  from  the  lower  class  of  the 
Bengali  peasantry  of  Chittagong.  The  Khdmis  are  fair,  with  small 
features  :  the  Kgaus  are  dark,  with  large  features.  The  Khumia 
invariably  wear  a  cotton  head-dress,  and  their  hair  tied  upon  the  crown, 
and  shave  no  portion  of  their  head  :  the  Kyaus  on  the  other  hand 
shave  a  few  inches  of  hair  from  the  forehead,  tie  it  low  down  on  the 


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1846.]  on  the  Kuladyne  River : — Arracan.  71 

neck,  and  wear  no  head-dress.  On  first  seeing  them  I  felt  convinced 
that  I  had  fallen  in  with  the  original  type  ;  the  etymon,  as  it  were,  of  the 
Bengali.  Though  repeatedly  asked  whether  they  had  any  tradition 
of  having  come  from  Chittagong,  they  invariably  replied  they  had  none. 
On  this  however  much  stress  could  not  be  laid,  as  from  the  wandering 
and  miserable  life  they  lead,  no  tradition  could  well  extend  among  them 
above  a  couple  of  hundred  years.  I  consequently  turned  to  their  Ian* 
guage,  and  found  it  presenting  the  marked  characteristics  of  the  dialects 
of  Trans- Gangetic  India,  being  monosyllabic,  and  having  affixes  to  express 
the  various  relations  of  its  parts  of  speech,  and  even  not  possessing  the 
euphonic  inflexions  which  sometimes  occur  in  the  Khumi,  If  the  Kyaua 
are  an  archaic  type  of  the  Bengali,  as  their  extraordinary  physiognomi- 
cal similarity  and  their  marked  estrangement  from  the  tribes  around 
renders  to  my  mind  most  probable,  it  goes  far  to  prove  that  the  original 
dialect  of  Bengal  was  monosyllabic  and  consequently  rude ;  and  that  its 
nature  and  structure  has  been  entirely  revolutionized  by  the  polished 
polysyllabic  languages  of  Hindoostan.  The  Kyaus'  ideas  of  worship 
are  very  rude  and  simple  like  that  of  the  rest  of  the  hill  tribes.  They 
erect  upright  stones  in  different  portions  of  their  village,  which  they 
consecrate  to  the  Ndis,  or  spirits  of  the  hills. 

With  reference  to  the  dialect  of  the  Kyaus,  not  having  had  the  same 
time  at  my  disposal,  or  the  same  means  of  making  enquiries  into  it,  as 
I  had  for  that  of  the  Khumis,  my  remarks  are  necessarily  more  scanty. 
The  Kyaus  dialect,  as  has  been  already  remarked,  is  monosyllabic,  and 
possesses  affixes. 

Ka  is  the  nominative  affix,  chiefly  used  with  a  noun,  in  construction 
with  a  verb  in  the  present  tense ;  in  which  case  the  verb  dispenses  with 
its  own  affix  of  time.  This  idiom  is  singular,  as  it  shows  that  the  time 
of  the  nominative  case,  and  that  of  the  present  tense  are  the  same. 
Tk*ti,  or  fk'tau  are  future  and  present  affixes.  The  two  finals  id  and 
tau,  I  suspect  to  be  nothing  more  than  expletive.  In  this  dialect  as  well 
as  in  that  of  the  Khumis,  the  future  and  present  tenses  are  the  same. 

Mau,  affix  of  the  interrogative  mood,  occurs  last  in  a  sentence  after  all 
others.  It  may  also  be  applied  directly  to  a  noun  without  the  inter- 
vention of  the  substantive  verb,  as  sipa  "  child,"  and  mau  interrogative 
from  sipa  mau  "  child  ?"  t.  e.  *•  Have  you  any  children  ?"  This  is  one  of 
abundant  instances  of  how  crudely  ideas  are  expressed  among  a  rude 
people. 


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72  A  f^ote  on  some  Hill  Tribes  [No.  169. 

RtM  and  frAu ;  impenitive  termination :  iis  Uh4  '*  to  go,"  t$h4  t'rau, 
"  go."  Md  is  a  negative  affix,  and  alwa3rs  occurs  after  the  root ; 
as  tsh^  fn'rau,  "  dont  go."  In  this  it  differs  frotn  most  dialects,  the  parti- 
cle of  negation,  generally  and  correctly,  preceding  the  statement  of 
the  act  which  it  is  meant  to  cancel.  In  asking  however  a  negative 
question,  the  order  is  somewhat  varied.  The  interrogative  pronominal 
occurs  first,  the  negative  next,  then  the  personal  prononn,  and  finally 
the  verb ;  thus  arong,  "  why—"  ma,  "  not—"  na,  "  you—"  and  kouitff, 
**  come,"  make  aroung  ma  nakmrng, "  Why  don't  you  come  ?"  In  this  case 
it  is  peculiar  that  the  interrogative  modeKafiix  it  not  nsed*  the  intenroga- 
tive  pronommal  being  snftcient  to  mark  the  clause  to  be  a  question. 

Ak  is  an  auxiliary  affix  of  negation  used  only  with  the  substsmtive 
verb  dm,  "  to  be,"  in  which  case  the  true  negative  md  is  united  with  it, 
into  one  word  m'ak ;  m't^hdt "  husband,"  Am  "  is,"  m'ak  '*  not." 

len  is  likewise  an  auxiliary  affix  of  negation,  similar  to  the  Burmese 
bkoof  as  tshem'ien  "  (I)  won't  go." 

NUMBERS. 

The  numeral  system  of  the  Kt/aus  id  not  intricate  like  that  of  the 
Khumis,     It  is  decimal. 

1,  khdt.--^,  niek.^Z,  i'Aoom.— 4,  m'rt.— 5.  nga.-^G,  dfook. — 7, 
«Vetf.— 8,  nfe/.— 9.  iferf.— 10,  tcMom.-^ll,  s'mr^ khdt^\2,  s"mr4niek. 
— 13,  s*mri  /'Aodm.— 20,  tcMom  nteA;.— 31,  tchuom  niek  t4  khdt.*-^ 
22,  tchAom  niek  14  ntek.-^ZQ,  ich^om  tchoom.-^SZ,  fch4om  fhoom  14 
Vhoom, — 40,  Vchfiom  m'lL — 50,  tchfiom  nga, — 60,  tchfiom  dtaok. — 70, 
/cAlJom *Vw.— 80, /<f*iiom  n#rf.— -90.  teh4om  *<^.— 100.  r'jra.—iOl. — 
r'zal4  khdt.-^^QO,  r'za  niek.--^222,  r*sta  niek  14  tchuom  niek  14  niek, — 
1000,  sankha, —  2000,  sankha  mVA;.— 1846,  sankha  14  r'za  tHet  14  tehiiom 
m*lil46rook. 

It  is  to  be  noticed  that  one  very  peculiar  aiid  characteristic  idiom  of 
the  Indo-Chinese  languages,  such  as  the  Burmese.  Siamese.  Malay,  is 
entirely  wanting,  as  far  as  I  could  make  out.  in  thes^  two  dialects  above 
described.  I  allude  to  numeral  generic  affixes.  The  numeral,  as  in 
English,  is  placed  in  immediate  relation  with  the  noun,  whereas  in  the 
others  it  is  placed  in  relation  to  a  generic  affix ;  as  where  the  Burmese 
say  "  dog,"  two  animals ;  the  Kya$is  and  Khdmis  say  merely  '*  dogs  two.** 
But  stiU  as  these  hill  dialects  are  so  evidently  cognate  to  the  Burmese, 
it  is  singular  if  they  do  in  reality  lack  so  characteristic  a  trait ;  and 


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1846.]  on  the  Kuladyne  River : — Arracan,  73 

therefore  I  cannot  but  suspect,  that  a  better  acquaintance  with  these 
dialects  would  reveal  them ;  and  that  I  was  unable  to  make  myself  un- 
derstood in  that  part  of  my  enquiries. 

Mone  of  the  tribes  to  which  we  have  referred  in  the  above  pages  are 
in  possession  of  any  alphabetical  system.  Unless  indeed  we  except  the 
Khyoungikas,  who  being  in  reality  pure  Arracanese,  have  consequently 
the  Arracanese  or  Burmese  characters.  With  reference  to  the  remain- 
der, it  is  as  yet  a  matter  of  doubt,  among  those  who  have  turned  their 
attention  to  the  subject,  whether,  for  the  purposes  of  education,  their 
dialects  should  be  adapted  to  the  Roman,  or  the  Burman  alphabet. 
With  reference  to  the  first,  the  only  thing  that  can  be  said  in  its  favour  is, 
that  it  will  save  their  European  instructors  the  trouble  of  learning  the 
Burmese  alphabet.  With  reference  to  the  second,  a  crowd  of  arguments 
appeal  in  its  favour.  In  the  first  place  all  these  dialects  are  evidently 
cognate  to  the  Burmese  language,  not  only  so  in  sound,  but  also  in 
structural  peculiarities ;  all  their  finals  are  exactly  similar  to  those  of  the 
Burmese  language,  being  required  to  be  formed  in  the  mouth  but  not 
uttered ;  this  single  peculiarity,  which  in  Burmese  is  represented  by  a 
mark  called  that,  would  require  some  outlandish  configuration  to  be 
conveyed  in  an  European  alphabet.  Secondly,  the  instruction  which 
these  people  could  possibly  receive  directly  from  European  instructors 
must  be  comparatively  small;  as  with  the  exception  of  a  few  short 
months,  their  mountain- fastnesses  are  inaccessible  to  an  European  con- 
stitution ;  and  therefore  native  teachers  formed  in  the  plains,  where  Bur- 
mese is  vernacular,  would  necessarily  become  the  principal  instruments. 
Thirdly,  the  Burmese  language  is  used  as  the  medium  of  communication 
with  the  English  Government,  and  thereforie  there  are,i^ways  a  numb^  of 
persons  in  every  viUage  familiar  with  it.  Fourthly,  there  are  fewer  sounds 
foreign  to  the  Burmese  than  to  the  English  language.  I  remarked  but 
two,  viz.  the  t;  in  "  van"  and  the  u  in  the  French  **  plume"  "  a  feather ;" 
these  could  easily  be  supplied  by  characters  conformable  to  the  general 
type  of  those  of  the  Burmese  alphabet ;  as  has  been  done  by  the  Ame- 
rican Missionaries  at  Tavoy  in  the  cade  of  the  Karen  language. 

In  the  following  list  the  coronna  as  in  the  word  pHaung,  represents 
the  a  considered  by  the  Burmese  as  inherent  in  every  consonant,  similar 
in  sound  to  the  fiirst  a  in  "  papa  :**  the  u  with  a  dot  under  it  represents 
the  tt  in  the  French  word  plume,  "a  pen."  The  other  accentuated 
letters  will  expljiin  themselves. 


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74 


A  Note  on  some  Hill  Tribes 


[No.  169. 


English. 

Burmese, 

Arracanese 

.  KUmi. 

JTyad. 

Bengali, 

air 

\6 

li 

ali 

khK 

boi/r 
hpin  yra 

ant 

parwottshiet  par6ttshiet   paleng 

m'rtshi 

arrow 

hmy^ 

mra 

t^ 

t'har 

tlr 

bird 

gnhet 

gnh^ 

t»w6 

va 

th6r6i 

blood 

thw^ 

thwi 

fhi 

t'hi 

Idh 

boat 

hl6ortham 

-hli 

p'laung 

m'laung 

na6n 

bone 

ay6  or  j6 

ar6 

ah6k 

rd 

banr 

buffalo 

kywai 

kywai 

painoh 

chaiaw^ 

m6nhis 

eat 

kyoung 

kroung 

miyaung 

meng 

bfl^-i 

cow 

nwdm& 

nwdma 

tchi-nti 

charrap'nu 

^ 

buU 

nw4hp6 

nw4b6h 

tchlp'ting 

charrats^ 

ard 

crow 

kye6 

tchagin 

6^ 

v-a 

qaooa 

Clin 

day 

n6 

rat 

ni 

nlding  ta 

to-day 

kh6n6 

goni 

wanni 

thooruj 

sun 

n^ 

nln 

k'ni 

ni 

to-morrow  nSthpftn 

hnapran 

kondam 

kulya 

yesterday 

yamSn^ 
khw6 

yaman6 
khwi 

yandoo 

kulya 

dog 

tii 

{A 

koonr 

ear 

n4 

nd 

kannaa 

na 

kan 

earth 

mj6 

tAmln 

k'l-16ng 

niung 

bhooin 

egg 
elephant 

aoo 

aoo 

k'd<il 

artdi 

bauda 

tsheng 

tshan 

k'sdi 

sai 

hdti 

eye 

mygttsie 

myatsie 

amik 

m6-et 

th6kh 

father 

fthp& 

ahpa 

ng'-a-i 

pa 

baba 

fire 

mee 

meen 

mai 

ma-i 

agdn 

fish 

nga 

nga 

ngaa 

mans 

flower 

khy^ 

pan 

k'tsh6n 

fooU 

foot 

khripoa 

&k6k 

fh^ng 

goat 

tsmet 

tshiet 

m'^ 

kiear 

saghul 

hair 

tshftn 

tshan 

tcham 

tcham 

thdl 

hand 

let 

\kt 

&kti 

ktiet 

hat 

head 

ookkhoung 

oogoung 

m 

lii 

mat*ha 

hog 

wfet 

w&t 

atik 

vauk 

hoorr 

horn 

gy6 

gr6 

t'kf 

thing 

horse 

mygng 

mrdn 

kaunggnad 

kora 

gort 

house 

ieng 

ieng 

um 

eeng 

ghorr 

iron 

than 

than 

t'maa 

tirr 

l<Sar 

leaf 

arw6t 

paroa 

agndm 
[-  tchaung 

arr-nd 

phatha 

k6ia  ka 

plaintain 

nghet   py- 

ngha  pyau 

kiluen  na 

leaf 

aurwfet 

roa 

gnim 

phatha 

ngh^t  pyau 

ngha  pyau 

k<itti 

kiluen 

k^l4 

plaintain 

nghet  pyan 

L  ngha  pyau 

kdttiat^t 

amra 

k6ia  p'hol 

fruit 

th65 

thee 

- 

dawn  light  lenp: 

Ian 

ktiwang 

kawata 

bhor 

mankind 

loo 

loo 

khiimi 

m'tshi 

manoos 

monkey 

myouk 

myouk 

h'lait 

j'uang 

bandur 

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1846.] 


on  .the  Kuladyne  River : — Arracan. 


75 


English. 

Burmese, 

Arracaneae 

.  Kh&mi. 

Kyau. 

Bengali. 

moon 

\a 

la 

mi 

khya 

chdn 

mother 

ftmie 

amie 

gna-au-i 

noo 

m&n 

hill 

toung 

toung 

mati-i 

kh'ldng 

phdr 

mouth 

khftndwSng 

khr^ 

Tbaung 

m'kWi 

moonkh 

musquito 

khyfing 

ch6ng-r4ng 

tcheen- 

m6nsha 

tchimp 

name 

amee 

namee 

a-mdn 

n  rming 

nlim 

night 

gnyee 

gnyee 

wdm 

kuUoh 

r&it 

oil 

tshee 

tshee 

atauk 

tchirut 

t6il 

river 
road 

myeet 
Iftm 

mriet 
Ian 

yangp^g 

tip6-e 
ktmm 

d6rdje4 
p'h6nt 

skin 

ftr^ 

ar^ 

apik 

ftvtin 

sdm 

sky 

koungkeng   goungkan 

k'ni 

mitsh^m 

dthmdn 

snake 

myw6 

mrwi 

puwi 
k'tshl 

mrtii 

h&np 

star 

kyay 

kray 

ftrshi 

ttirtt 

bracelet 

letgouk 

lag6k 

k'tshi 

kiroo 

stone 
tiger 

kyouk 
ky4 

kyouk 
kyd 

16ngtchaung  lung 
t'kii            km 

shll 
bikh 

tooth 

ftthwd 

thwd 

haw 

hd 

dint 

tree 

theetpgng 

theetpan 

dingkaung 

ting 

g&as 

fruit 

^theg 

athes 

atdit 

p'h61 

village 

ywd 

rwd 

aw^ng 

V6 

p'h&ra 

water 

j6 

ri 

ttii 

t6i          4 

p'Mnf 

yam 

myoukQo 

m^oukoo 

ah6 

U\ 

&Ioo 

wife 

m&y£ 

miey& 

ayti 

napoi 

b6h 

husband 

I6ng 

Ian 

yti-w6 
k'loong 

m'tsh&l 

khushum 

white 

hpyoo 

hproo 

ftgnoung 

dhdph 

black 

mee 

mee 

p'noong 

avaum 

k£l& 

red 

nSS 

nee 

p'ling 
k'ddp 

atshen 

l&U 

blue 

koung 

gnyoo 

arait 

mSshyeh 

bt 

koung 

Shaul 

atsh& 

^mm 

tsh6 

tsh6 

haui-auk 

tsha  m&k 

khrib 

beautiful 

hla 

hla 

ahaui 

amenhl& 

shoondur 

ugly 

m&hlft 

mahla 

akoochi 

tsha  mak 

^mm  noi 

I 

nga 

nga 

kdi 

keema 

&mie 

thou 

thSng  or 

than 

ndn 

nama-td 

t'hoomi 

UCllg 

he  and  she  thOO  , 

thoo 

ni 

nengm^ta  6\ 

to  go 
to  fear 

thw& 

la 

tshek 

tsh6 

jfciii 

kyouk 
shie  or  hie 

krouk 

y^-e 

tchf 

d6rr  ash 

to  be 

hie 

aun 

km 

dshie 

to  give 

f€ 

pi 

P^ 

^ 

d€na 

to  speak 

pyau 

prau 

t6i 

tchong 

kh6t4 
khau 

to  come 

la  or  youk 

larouk 

youk 
nee 

houng 

here 

theehma 

di^hma 

t6 

eenytit 

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76 


A  Note  on  some  Hill  Tribes 


[No.  169. 


English,     Burmese,      Arraeanese.  KMmi.         Kyau, 


year  fthneet  ahneet 

milk  n6  n6 

child  akhAl^  ashay 

ofiBspring  tha  tha 

male  youky&         youkya 

(man) 
female 

(woman) 

a  boy  loogftl^ 


miemmft       miemmft 


kolay  shay 


a  girl  miemmft  gft-  miemmft 

1^  shay 


khdm 

^  tehok 

domigdi        

tehipau         sip4 
nomigboo      m'tshi 

tchiftii 
noungboo      n'pang 

tchft 
nomigboo      m'tshU 
tchi&d 
domigdi 
nomiigboo      noukti 
tchft  domiig- 
di 


Bengali, 

busr 

dhoot 

hpooa 

hpooft 

morod 

m&iyiinla 

morod 
hpood 

mftiyunUt 
hpood 


The  following  is  a  list  ofKhitmi  words.  The  English  is  the  meaning 
they  have  in  that  dialect.  The  Burman  is  the  term  that  comes  nearest 
to  them ;  although  often  the  Burman  term  does  not  express  all  the  mean- 
ings of  the  KMmi  one. 


Burman, 


KMmi, 


English, 


hluot 

p'th'lau 

to  abandon,  leave,  let  go 

shie  or  hie 

aun 

to  be,  remain,  abide  dwell  in 

hnding 

pyiik 

to  be  able,  can 

hpooftt  or  khy6 . 

fthdp 

to  bathe,  wash 

hpooftt 

t'mooi 

to  rub 

ht& 

khftt 

to  put,  or  place 

sh6 

mon 

front 

ftp&d 

hiloung 

above 

th6 

wau 

to,  in  direction  of 

nouk 

ningthon 

behind 

tshair^ 

angyok 

to  abuse,  insult 

pyoo  or  look 

pan 

to  do,  act,  work 

ienghtoung 

p6ng 

marry  a  husband 

ienghtoung 

neng 

marry  a  wife 

th6thwa 

d6k 

to  die 

sh^ng 

ahing 

to  live 

yay 

pftnoo 

to  laugh 

gno 

ftw6h 

to  cry,  weep 

shdikshoo 

fttfthd 

to  breathe,  pant 

^oo-yftkhoo 

Wiii 

now,  soon 

1.6  k6kway 

aOi 

to  worship 

h6h-hma 

h6h 

there 

wa 

p'16p 

cotton 

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1846.] 


on  the  Kuladpne  River : — Arracan. 


77 


Burman. 

hneet  thet 

kya 

mdgh  yw^ 

Stoo 

aaloon 

tsiet  tsh6 

khy&.fkhyd 

iet 

n6 

iet 

htoung 

wi 

kh4 

khwai 

yoo 

yoo 

meeloung 

thenggy6h 

kbau 

hpan  k5ing 

ahp6-nee 

ahp6myd 

khyam 

atsiet 

tsiet  padie 

kyet 

Ueehtoo 

tsootswot 

tU  thwii 

net 

thouk 

thwl 

pyee 

thee 

dayay  thameng 

oodoung 

atoung 

toungp^n 

nwl  poo 

ya 

tw6 

khyoung 

pyan 


Khimi. 


EnglUh. 


ph6rd 


gnaing 

to  love,  to  want 

kl& 

tofaU 

k'ni  nSIk 

to  rain 

winr^ 

alike,  similar 

p'lunaf 
tAkft  or  kxi 

all 

angnr 

another 

i^i 

to  sleep 

anlau    - 

to  wake 

tch&kh6n 

abag 

htoung 

a  basket 

<iw 

a  bamboo 

&kh6 

bitter 

kh« 

to  break,  snap 

youhai 
16h 

to  bring 

to  take 

p'tau 

to  bum 

m 

to  bury 

hain 

to  call 

p'too 
^tien 

to  catch,  hold,  seize 

cheap 

rfiik 

dear  in  price 

khtimdi 

cold 

am^ 

a  bead 

laing 

a  necklace  of  beads 

ia 

a  fowl 

bdik 

to  cut,  carve 

tchooi 

wet,  damp 

d'wi 

to  die 

ht6k 

deep,  as  water,  also  to  drag, 
to  drink                   [pull,  draw 

n^-f 

p'hoof 
kh6i 

dry    . 

m 

kndi6k 

empty 

hi 

this 

tchoo  tchook 

a  deer 

touk  d&i 

a  feather 

&m6-i 

p'khi 

awing 

bhi 

warm 

nil 

to  find,  get,  obtain 

2Uw6m 

to  meet  with,  find 

taw6 

a  stream,  a  bird 

ankhan 

to  fly  as  a  bird 
to  play,  jest,  amuse 

kmSk 

k'ni  y'16ng 

God 

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78  A  Note  on  some  Hill  Tribes,  SfC.  [No.  169. 

Burman,  KMmi,  English, 


{■ 


*  the  an-  m^    f  mii  "  fire"     a  musket 

th6  nat  I    gel  of  pauk  \  pauk  "tube" 

ieath" 

bhayhneet  ay6  r6  how  many 

htameng  b6k  dinner 


The  Bengali  terms  given'  in  the  first  part  of  the  above  are  those  of 
the  dialect  of  Chittagong.  With  reference  to  the  KMmi  and  Kydu, 
there  are  some  that  are  interesting,  as  presenting  instances  for  that  pre- 
dilection to  onomatopseia  so  characteristic  of  archaic  dialects.  The  first 
we  will  notice  is  the  term  tawd,  a  sound  which  may  be  heard  echoing 
through  the  still  forest,  and  emitted  by  many  of  its  winged  denizens. 
The  next  oak,  ond  w*-d,  especially  the  first,  admirably  represent 
"  a  crow."  The  term  Ai  **  a,  dog"  is  uttered  with  a  strong  and  sudden 
intonation  on  the  first  syllable  ;  it  is  a  sound  constantly  in  their  mouths 
employed  to  frighten  those  animals  from  their  never-varying  occupation 
of  pulling  every  thing  about  in  search  of  food.  It  is  probable  also  that 
the  Burman  term  khwe,  had  the  same  origin.  The  terms  m'-e  "  any 
thing  of  the  goat  species,"  and  Mk  "  a  hog,"  mi-yaung  "  a  cat,"  are  like- 
wise instances  of  the  same  kind.  It  will  be  remarked,  that  in  the  KMmi 
dialect  the  term  for  *'  Sun"  enters  into  composition  for  that  of 
"  God ;"  as  also  that  in  Burmese,  KMmi,  and  Kyau,  the  term  for  "Sun" 
conveys  also  the  idea  of  **  day,"  in  contradistinction  to  "  night." 


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JOURNAL 


OP  THB 


ASIATIC  SOCIETY. 


Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  and  Boorun  PaiMes  over  the  Hima^ 
iaya,  in  September,  1845.    By  Captain  Maddbn,  Bengal  Artillery, 

The  writer  of  the  following  notes  hae  been  induced  to  commit  them 
to  paper,  in  the  hope  of  their  proving  interesting,  from  the  fact  that 
a  portion  of  the  route  traversed  is  comparatively  little  known,  and  so  far 
as  ^abluBhed  information  is  concerned,  is  nearly  new  ground  in  botany ; 
though  of  ornithological  and  entomological  tours,  several  have  appeared 
from  the  pens  of  Captains  Hay,  Hutton,  &c.  Thtf  tract  in  question  is 
scarcely  ever  quoted  for  plants  in  *  Royle's  Illustrations,'  and  the  writer  is 
therefore  induced  to  believe  that  the  new  habitats  here  given,  may  not  be 
without  their  use  to  some  of  the  many  travellers,  who  now  annually 
cross  the  Himalaya,  from  Simla  to  Kunawur.  To  those  amongst  them 
who  are  novices  in  the  mountains,  he  would  recommend  attention  to  the 
following  particulars,  as  tending  considerably  to  remove  the  difficulties, 
and  enhance  the  pleasures  of  the  trip. 

Ist.  Avoid  forming  a  party  of  more  than  three,  in  consequence  of  the 
difficulty,  increasing  in  a  geometrical  ratio,  of  obtaining  supplies  and 
porters  for  a  greater  number. 

2nd.  Ohdnge  the  latter  daily ;  one  may  tiius  hdt  at  pleasure  without 
expense,  when  desirable ;  the  rate  of  payment  is  only  three  annas  per 
diem  instead  of  four,  as  near  Simla,  and  the  difficulty,  often  a  serious 
one  near  the  snowy  range,  is  obviated  of  procuring  large  supplies,  and 
of  adjusting  the  fair  rate  to  be  paid  for  them ;  a  frequent  source  of  angry 

No.  170.     No.  86,  New  Series.  m 


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80  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

and  interminable  discussion.  It  is  also  advisable  to  secure  the  coolies 
from  fraudulent  deductions  by  paying  or  seeing  them  paid  in  person. 
A  heavy  bag  of  pice  is  useful  in  many  villages,  where  the  inhabitants 
cannot  often  produce  change  for  a  rupee. 

3rd.  Encumber  yourself  with  the  least  possible  number  of  servants ; 
but  let  these  be  able-bodied,  in  sound  health,  and  warmly  clothed ;  their 
« falling  sick  will  cause  much  delay  and  inconvenience :  and  on  no  account 
start  without  a  small  tent  for  their  use. 

4th.  Let  this  tent  (and  your  own)  be  only  of  such  a  weight  that  one 
strong  man  can  carry  it  well,  even  when  soaked  with  rain;  and  to 
effect  this  the  better,  let  each  of  the  party  have  his  own  tent. 

5th.  As  the  heat  in  the  low  vallies  is  very  great,  take  some  light  cloth- 
ing, and  a  copious  sola- feather  hat.  If  inclined  to  hepatitis,  a  doablj- 
lined  umbrella  is  indispensable ;  and  a  green  gauze  veil  or  pair  of  gog- 
gles to  protect  the  eyes  from  the  glare  of  the  snow,  especially  in  spring: 
many  have  been  temporarily  blinded  from  this  '  cause  defective.'  The 
traveller  should  avoid  the  vallies  as  much  as  possible ;  many  of  them  are 
infested  by  flies  of  which  the  bites  are  exceedingly  poisonous,  and  when 
irritated,  terminate  in  dangerous  sores.  A  double  wax*  cloth,  to  keep 
one's  bedding  dry,  is  essential,  and  five  times  as  many  pairs  of  shoes 
as  you  would  expend  at  Simla  in  an  equal  period.  The  country-made 
articles  sold  in  the  shops  there,  will  not,  particularly  during  wet  wea- 
ther, stand  more  than  a  hard  day's  work  on  the  rugged  paths  of  the 
interior ;  and  in  the  end,  the  purchase  of  European  shoes  will  be  found 
to  economize  cash,  space,  and  skin. 

6th.  Let  your  cups,  jugs,  plates  and  dishes  be  of  metal;  with  these 
only  may  you  defy  fete  and  falls ;  and  as  for  provender  to  adorn  them, 
an  ample  supply  of  tea,  sugar.  Carr's  biscuits,  hermetically  sealed  soup 
and  bouilli,  fowls,  sliced  bread  re-baked  into  everlasting  rusks,  with  a 
liberal  allowance  of  beer,  wine^  and  brandy,  the  latter  precious  article 
insured  against  damage  by  being  decanted  into  cura^oa  or  other  stone 
bottles.  Nor  lastly,  must  a  liberal  proportion  of  tobacco  be  excluded 
from  the  category ;  be  assured  Moli^re  was  not  far  wrong  when  he  said 
'  Quoique  puisse  dire  Aristote  et  toute  la  Philosophie,  il  n'y  a  rien 
d'^gal  au  tabac' — at  all  events  when  jaded  by  a  severe  walk,  and  all  other 
creature-comforts  out  of  sight.  Amidst  the  fulness  and  listlessness  of 
Simla,  one  may  dispense  very  stoically  with  many  of  these  things,  bat 


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1846.3  ^^  Boorun  Passes  over  the  Hmtdaya.  81 

after  the  hard  exercise  and  keen  air  of  the  mountain  tope,  nature  asserts 
her  rights,  and  speaks  through  the  stomach,  in  tones  which  can  he 
neither  mistaken  nor  denied.  The  direction  of  the  journey  being  deter- 
mined before-hand,  much  trouble  and  expense  will  be  saved  by  the  esta- 
blishment of  a  dep6t  at  some  convenient  spot  on  the  return  route. 

7th  and  last.  Some  quarter  of  a  century  since.  Stalker,  Welsh,  and 
other  out-fitters  used  to  furnish  the  innocent  Cadet  with  certain  pounds 
of  tobacco  to  be  given  to  the  sailors  "  for  doing  little  jobs ;"  such,  as  well 
as  presents  of  coarse  powder  and  small  shot — will  be  found  really  ser- 
viceable in  the  Himalaya,  where  they  are  all  scarce  and  bad.  A  judi- 
cious exhibition  of  these  coveted  articles  will  often  secure  a  cheerful 
endurance  of  cold,  wet,  danger,  and  fatigue  ;  the  fumes  of  the  tobacco 
stimulating  the  sensorium  of  the  mountaineer,  as  those  of  loyalty  and 
chivalry  do,  or  did,  that  of  the  Frenchman.  It  is  needless  to  add  that 
the  contrary  method  of  abuse,  blows,  and  violence,  irrespective  of  its  im- 
morality in  contravening  the  expressed  will  and  orders  of  our  honourable 
and  honoured  masters,  is  almost  sure  to  defeat  its  intention,  and  to  lead 
to  the  desertion  of  those  subjected  to  it. 


September  Zrd. — ^Left  Simla  with  Lieutenant  Bourchier,  of  the  Artil- 
lery, and  walked  to  Fagoo,  distant  eleven  or  twelve  miles,  in  four  hours 
and  forty  minutes.  The  rocks  at  Simla  are  chiefly  clay  and  mica  slate, 
with  quaftzose  sandstone  towards  the  west,  and  a  crystallized  lime- 
stone at  Jutog ;  the  road  lies  along  the  northern  face  of  Jaka  mountain, 
which  is  here  composed  of  a  deep-blue  clay  slate,  and  not  of  limestone, 
as  erroneously  stated  by  Captain  A.  Gerard.  The  forest  is  here  chiefly 
formed  by  the  Ban  oak  (Quercus  incana)  ;  and  in  the  steep  precipitous 
ravines  to  the  right,  grows  abundantly  the  Deutzia  Brunoniana,  which 
bears  a  considerable  resemblance  to  the  common  Syringa.  Quitting  this, 
the  road  gradually  ascends  the  south  or  bare  side  of  the  ridge  which 
connects  Jaka  with  Muhasoo :  the  north  side  is  covered  with  a  forest 
of  Mohroo  oak  (Quercus  dilatata) :  and  at  8  or  9  miles  from  Simla,  the 
summit  of  Muhasoo  is  attained,  upwards  of  9.000  feet  above  the  sea  ; 
the  route  is  latterly  through  a  fine  forest  of  cedar,  Rai  (Abies  Smithi- 
ana),  and  the  Kreoo  or  Kurshoo  oak  (Quercus  semicarpifolia),  and  des- 
cends to  Fagoo,  700  feet  below,  through  beautiful  hanging  woods  of 
maple,  pindrow,  or  Jhunera  pine  (Picea  pindrow),  horse  chestnut  (Pavia 


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82  EHary  of  an  Excurshn  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

indica),  below  the  road,  and  a  multitude  of  shrubs.  Viburnums,  Leyces- 
teria  formosa,  Limonia  laureola,  black  currant,  &g.,  under  which  in  May 
and  June,  the  large  pure  white  ladies'  slipper  (Cypripedium  oomigerum) 
flowers  in  abundance.  The  Putees  (Aconitum  heterophyllum),  Gircsea 
cordata,  and  the  blue-flowering  chereyata  (Hatenia  elliptica)  are  also 
both  common  on  Muhasoo  and  at  Faguo.  On  the  pleasant  downs  behind 
this  latter,  the  Plrimula  denticulata,  the  sundew  (Droaera  musdpula), 
WkA&  ccebpitosa,  and  the  {uretty  little  eye-bright  (Euphrasia  officinaMs), 
are  all  common,  though  less  so  than  in  the  intmor. 

To  the  resident  of  Cawnpore  or  Ferozepoor,  nothing  can  be  more 
delicious  than  the  freshness  of  the  Fagoo  woods  in  spring.  The  lofty 
stems  of  Hie  pines  are  enyeloped  by  the  huge  ivy  and  Ampelopsis  dimb-* 
ers ;  and  vH  the  autumn,  ifhea  the  leaves  of  this  last  turn  bright  red 
and  copper>  the  effect  is  very  rich,  and  is  said  to  resemble  that  produced 
in  the  Nwth  American  woods  by  species  of  oak,  maple,  and  sumach. 
All  otur  oda  here  are  evergreens.  Hie  Tree- Rhododendron  and  Andro- 
meda, which  cover  whole  mountains  of  the  outer  ranges,  become  rare 
at  Fagoo,  and  are  seldom  met  with  in  the  interior  :  so  very  limited  in 
width  is  their  favourite  belt.  They  are  however  abundant  on  the  Sutlej 
between  Seran  and  Tiranda.  The  boiling  point  of  water  is  198^  at 
Fagoo. 

SepienUfer  4^.— ^Detained  iot  coolies ;  all  diose  availabfe  being  8e<^ 
cured  for  Prince  Waldemar  and  suite  proceeding  to  Simla,  aiid  Colmiel 
FuUarton  and  his  party  bound  for  the  Roopin  Pass. 

September  5th, — ^To  Puralee,  ten  miles,  in  four  hours ;  tiie  first  seven 
miles,  as  far  as  Synj,  are  for  the  most  part  a  steep  and  uninteresting  des- 
cent to  the  Girree ;  the  Morina  wallicfaiana,  which  flowers  in  May  and 
June,  and  the  Scutellaria  angustifolia  are  common.  The  glen  of  the 
Oirree  is  so  warm  for  most  months  of  the  year,  that  it  is  advisable,  if 
practicable,  to  descend  in  the  afternoon  and  merely  pass  the  night  in  it ; 
but  fishermen  will  run  all  risks,  and  there  is  said  to  be  good  fishing  ten 
miles  lower  down.  Puralee  is  about  two  and  a  half  mfles  up  the  valley 
from  Synj  on  the  same  bank  of  the  river,  which,  between  these  villages, 
forces  its  way  through  a  deep  rocky  defile  on  the  brink  of  which  the 
road  is  carried  for  half  a  mile.  There  is  a  good  breadth  of  arable 
land  in  this  part  of  the  valley,  and  the  climate  being  veiy  warm, 
the  products  are  nearly  those  of  the  plains-^barley,  wheat,  kodab 


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1846.]  and  Boorun  Poists  over  the  Himalaya,  83 

(Elensiiie  coracana),  cheena  (Panicnm  miliaoeam),  till  (Sesamum  ori- 
entale)»  and  yarioas  spedes  of  Phaaeolus.  Puralee  boasts  a  small  bungalow 
of  one  Fooin»  which  is  oookr  than  a  tent,  bat  by  no  means  so  clean,  being 
infested  with  almost  all  the  insect  plagues  of  Egypt. 

September  6M.«— To  Kotichaee,  twelve  miles,  which  we  walked  in 
five  hours  ten  minutes.  The  road  lies  for  three  miles  or  so,  up  the 
right  bank  of  the  GHrree,  and  then  crosses  by  a  good  Sanga  to  the  left 
bank,  along  which  it  continues  for  the  rest  of  the  route  in  a  constant 
and  rather  wearisome  series  of  ascents,  descents,  and  sinuosities. 
Kotkhaee,  "  the  Fort  of  the  Fosse,"  is  a  picturesque  spot  at  the  junction 
of  seyeral  streams  from  the  east  and  north,  which  first  here  give  the 
Girree  the  character  of  a  small  reach,  about  liie  same  size  as  the  Hosilla 
in  Kemaon,  and  like  it  rising  short  of  the  snowy  range.  The  thermo* 
meter  boils  here  at  202®,  which  gives  about  6,000  feet  elevation,  about 
500  more  than  is  generally  allowed  to  Kotkhaee.  An  exodlent  bunga- 
low of  two  rooms  had  just  been  finished  by  Mr.  Brskine,  150  or  200 
feet  above  the  left  bank  of  the  river.  Across  the  stream,  on  a  precipitous 
Tock  at  the  angle  formed  by  the  Oirree,  and  a  stream  from  Huttoo,  is 
"  the  palace"  of  the  Kotgooroo  chief ;  it  is  an  emblem  of  his  own  mind, 
being  a  ruin,  which  only  shines  under  the  brush  of  the  painter.  Conse- 
quent on  the  imbecility  of  the  chief,  the  district  has  long  been  under 
British  management.  A  clump  of  cypress  (Cupressus  torulosa)  grows 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  palace ;  the  other  trees  are  chiefly  Kail  pine 
(Finns  exoelsa.)  On  the  route  to-day  I  noticed  in  the  com  fields  abun- 
dance of  the  pretty  Hibiscus  trionum,  for  which  Dr.  Royle  goes  as  far 
as  China.  A  species  of  Vida,  resembling  V.  cracca,  is  common  amongst 
the  thickets.  Considerable  quantities  of  iron  are  smelted  at  and  around 
Kotkhaee,  and  conveyed  on  mules  to  Simla  and  the  plains. 

September  7/A.—- To  Deorah  or  Dehrah,  about  twelve  miles,  in  five  and 
three-quarter  hours.  Three  miles  from  Kotkhaee  the  road  crosses  to  the 
right  bank  of  the  Girree,  and  tiben  leaves  the  glen  to  ascend  the  Shnnkun 
Ghatee,  over  the  high  neck  jmning  the  Koopur  mountain  on  Uie  SB.,  with 
Toomliroo  and  Huttoo  on  the  left.  The  Pass  is  probably  from  9,000  to 
9,500  feet  above  the  sea,  and  on  the  ascent  occur  Abies  smitiiiana,  Picea 
pindrow,  and  in  considerable  numbers,  Populus  ciliata  :  this  I  find,  the 
natives  of  the  plains  invariably  mistake  for  the  peepul.  If  the  word 
papuhie  comes  from  peepul,  it  would  go  to  prove  that  the  separation  of 


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84  ^    Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

the  Latin  nations  from  the  Hindoos  took  place  after  the  establishment 
of  the  latter  in  India ;  the  peepul  not  being  known  in  the  high  countries 
to  the  north,  whence  the  Hindoos  are  supposed  to  have  emigrated. 
Tlie  converse  may  indee'd  be  true,  that  the  northern  tree  is  the  original 
peepul.  On  the  grassy  summit  of  the  Pass,  the  Morina  longifolia,  the 
Sibbaldia  procumbens,  &c.  are  in  abundance.  From  this  point  the 
source  of  the  Girree  may  be  seen  to  the  right,  at  about  10,000  feet 
elevation  on  the  Koopur  mountain,  below  which  the  stream  penetrates 
by  a  deep  rocky  and  wooded  chasm,  a  spur  from  Koopur  which  would 
otherwise  turn  it  down  by  Deorah  to  the  Pabur.  The  locality  is  well 
worth  a  visit,  especially  following  the  Ghumba  range  from  Bulsun 
and  PuthemuUa.  A  little  beyond  Koopur,  and  connected  with  it  by 
the  Puthemullah  Pass  of  the  map,  is  the  still  loftier  three-peaked  range 
in  the  Tiroch  territory,  called  Kunchooa ;  the  Urrukta  ridge  of  Royle 
and  Fraser,  an  appellation  apparently  taken  from  a  fort  now  dismantled, 
and  scarcely  known  to  the  present  inhabitants.  From  the  presence  of 
birch,  silver-fir,  Anagyris  barbata,  &c.  the  Kunchooa  summits  are  pro- 
bably little  under  12,000  feet  elevatioa ;  there  is  a  difficult  route  over 
them  from  Deorah  to  Choupahl  vid  the  Puthernullah  Pass  of  the  map. 
The  view  is  fine  from  the  Shunkun  Pass,  including  the  Jumnootree 
peaks  to  the  east,  the  Choor,  Shallee,  Huttoo,  Fagoo,  &c.  The  Koopur 
mountain  is  composed  of  gneiss  rock,  like  Huttoo ;  but  the  Shunkun 
Pass  is  of  a  decomposing  micaceous  shale,  down  which  the  road,  some 
times  steep  and  rocky,  proceeds  for  four  or  five  miles  to  Deorah,  which 
is  seen  directly  beneath.  Deorah,  often  called  simply  Durbar,  is  the  resi- 
dence of  the  Rana  of  Joobol.  The  last  Chief,  Poorun  Chund,  was  drug- 
ged to  imbecility  by  his  Wuzeers,  in  order  to  ensure  the  management 
of  the  country  remaining  in  their  own  hands ;  this  policy  failed,  as  our 
Government  assumed  and  still  retains  the  management;  but  the  legiti- 
mate claimant,  an  intelligent  boy  of  eight  or  ten,  is  prondsed  the  restoration 
of  the  Raj  when  he  attains  his  majority.  His  palace  is  an  extensive 
and  lofty  square  pile,  surmounted  by  turrets,  slated  in  the  concave 
Chinese  style,  not  uncommon  in  the  Himalaya ;  it  is  picturesque  and  has 
often  furnished  a  subject  for  the  tourist's  sketch  book ;  the  best  view 
is  from  the  Saree  road.  It  stands  from  6,000  to  6,400  feet  above  the 
sea,  the  thermometer  boiling  at  20 1^°,  and  being  surrounded  by  high 
mountains,  is  rather  a  warm  spot.     But  the  traveller  has  the  advantage 


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1846.]  and  Boorun  Passes  over  the  Himalaya.  85 

of  a  small  bungalow,  the  last  on  the  route  to  the  snowy  range.  Here 
commences  the  rice  cultivation  so  general  in  the  valley  of  the  Pabur. 
Bathoo  (Amaranthus  anardana),  kodah,  cheena,  and  tobacco,  are  also 
cultivated.  The  country  is  fertile  and  populous ;  the  neighbouring 
mountains,  especially  to  the  south,  where  a  long  and  lofty  spur  from  • 
Koopur  extends  to  the  Pabur — are  beautifully  diversified  with  fields, 
thriving  villages,  and  pine  forests,  chiefly  of  Kail,  the  only  species  at 
Deorah. 

September  8/A.— To  Rooroo  Kothee  in  four  and  three-quarter  hours, 
called  fourteen  miles  in  the  route  book,  but  perhaps  not  above  twelve. 
Soon  after  leaving  Deorah,  the  road  enters  the  domain  of  the  Ranee  of 
Syree,  leading  down  over  gneiss  rock,  along  the  left  bank  of  the  Beeskool 
river,  which  rises  from  the  Koopur  mountain.  Its  banks  are  regularly 
fringed  with  elder  trees  (Alnus  obtusifolia)  here  called  Koonch,  the  New 
of  Kunawur.  Saree  is  about  half-way  to  Rooroo,  and  is  the  lair  of  an 
old  Ranee,  once  famed  for  her  beauty,  and  now  for  litigation  with  her 
neighbours,  and  oppression  of  her  people.  The  old  lady  visited  Cal- 
cutta about  1822,  where  I  saw  her  on  a  tisit  to  the  late  Sir  Robert 
Stevenson.  From  near  Saree,  which  is  a  poor  hamlet,  the  Pabur  river  is 
first  seen,  with  the  Beeskool  flowing  into,  it,  through  some  flat  alluvial 
ground  by  Goonsa  village.  Across  the  Pabur,  on  a  nearly  isolated  hill 
perhaps  500  feet  above  it,  stands  the  fort  or  castellated  mansion  of 
Raeengudh  or  Raeengurh,  once  a  Ghoorka,  then  a  British  post,  and 
since  ceded  to  the  Rana  of  Kjoonthul  in  exchange  for  Simla.  Far 
above  the  fort,  from  amidst  a  group  of  minor  mountains  of  very  pic- 
turesque outline,  spring  the  richly  wooded  peaks  of  Boorhun  and 
Godar  Deotah,  to  the  height  of  nearly  9,000  feet  above  sea  level, 
a  branch  of  the  Ghangsheel — or  as  it  is  here  softened,  Ghaheel  range. 
The  road  descends  by  easy  gradations  to  the  level  of  the  Pabur,  and 
crossing  the  Nye,  Noye,  Pursrar  ^or  Dogra,  a  tributary  from,  Thana 
Keeshain,  continues  along  or  near  its  right  bank  to  Rooroo,  a  few  hun- 
dred yards  short  of  which,  it  crosses  by  a  Sanga,  or  wooden  bridge,  a 
icocky  narrow  chasm,  ninety*nine  feet  deep,  through  which  flows  the 
Shikree  Nuddee.  The  Pabur  is  here  a  fine,  strong,  and  perfectly  clear  river, 
occasionally  forming  formidable  rapids.  A  species  of  trout  is  abundant 
in  it  and  in  the  Shikree,  but  is  said  to  be  prevented  by  the  snow  water 
from  ascending  more. than  ten  or  twelve  miles  higher  up.    The  cliff 


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86  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

Bection  of  the  Shikree  exhibits  strata  of  a  micaceous  sandstone,  but 
Rooroo,  Ghergaon,  and  several  other  villages  on  the  Pabur,  stand  on 
elevated  plateau  of  gravel  and  boulders,  from  100  to  150  feet  above 
the  present  level  of  the  river.  These  are  chiefly  devoted  to  rice  culti* 
.  vation,  for  which  this  valley,  here  and  upwards,  known  as  Cbooara,  is 
celebrated ;  the  fields  are  abundantly,  and  to  the  traveller  often  incon- 
veniently, irrigated  by  rills  skilfully  led  along  artificial  cuts  from  the 
Pabur,  originating  at  a  sufficient  distance  above  to  admit  of  the  highest 
levels  being  watered. 

Rooroo  Kothee  is  5,200  feet  above  the  sea,  and  is  rather  a  hot  place. 
The  barley  ripens  in  the  latter  half  of  May,  the  wheat  in  the  first  half  of 
June ;  the  heat  is  then  excessive.  It  is  not  a  very  large  village,  and 
has  a  kind  of  square  in  the  centre,  which,  were  it  a  little  cleaner,  would 
remind  one  of  a  substantial  fann-yard  in  England.  The  Mnhnnt  or 
Chief  Gooroo  of  Busehur  resides  here,  and  has  large  endowments  in 
land.  Owing  to  the  neglect  of  the  smooth-tongued  Mookheea  of  Deonh, 
who  promised  everything  and  performed  nothing,  our  baggage  did  not 
arrive  till  sunset,  so  that  our  breakfast  and  dinner  merged  into  one,  at 
i  past  7  p.  M.,  thirteen  hours  after  leaving  Deorah ;  a  place  which  eccmo- 
mizes  cash  better  tiian  temper.  During  the  day,  a  general  assembly  of 
(the  mountaineers  took  place  under  the  Gooroo's  auspieea,  £or  the  purpose 
of  dancing  round  tiie  gods.  These,  however  well^gilt,  appear  to  be 
aired  and  ventilated  but  once  a  year,  and  were  deposited  in  littens 
beneath  the  trysting  tree  in  the  village  square,  round  which  the  pec^sle 
formed  themselves,  men  and  women  apart,  into  seven  equares,  single 
rank  of  eight  or  ten  each,  holding  each  other's  hands,  extended  behind 
their  backs :  then  by  a  curious  and  by  no  means  inelegant  step,  or  set  of 
steps,  in  excellent  time,  they  gradually  completed  the  dreuit,  the  move- 
ment being  combined  with  c^hets  to  the  front  and  rear,  with  repeated 
bowings  in  concert  to  the  deities  ;  this  continued  the  best  part  of  the 
day  to  the  mnsic  of  pipe  and  drum,  the  perfomiers  being  oceanom^y 
relieved  from  the  surrounding  crowd,  all  seeming  equally  adefyts.  Gon- 
sidoraUe  practice  must  have  preceded  so  oneditable  aa  exeeutbn  ctf  tins 
dance,  and  once  or  twice  tiie  gods  even  joined  in  the  fun,  whidi  then 
grew  more  fast  and  ftinoos  than  ever ;  and  from  the  exceeding  elasticity 
of  the  ash-poles  on  which  tiiey  were  carried,  "  their  worships"  got  such 
a  shaking  as  gods  in  the  plains  can  never  hope  to  enjoy. 


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1846.]  and  Boorun  Passes  over  the  Himalaya.  87 

The  mountaineers  of  the  Himalaya,  like  those  of  Oilead,  invariably 
conyert  the  letter  s  into  sh :  so  that  the  Shibboleth  test  must  be  revers- 
ed to  detect  a  Paharee ;  they  have  also  retamed  in  common  use  a  great 
natnber  of  Hindooee  words,  which  are  seldom  heard  in  the  plains. 

Rooroo  Kothee  is  situated  about  150  feet  above  the  right  bank  of  the 
Pabor,  which,  at  this  season  is  fordable  here  with  difficulty.  In  com* 
mon  with  similar  valley  sites  in  the  mountains,  the  village  is  infested 
with  a  small  species  of  fly,  which,  without  giving  any  notice,  inflicts  a 
bite  that  is  frequently  attended  with  much  irritation.  The  higher 
mountains  have  also  in  the  spring,  their  pest,  in  the  shape  of  a  large 
gad-fly,  a  pitiless  enemy  of  man  and  beast. 

The  low  glen  of  the  Pftbur,  while  it  boasts  abundance  of  the  Rosa 
brnnonis,  Indigofera  dosua,  Hypericum  cemuum,  Deutzia  staminea,  and 
other  flowering  shrubs,  possesses  few  or  none  of  the  beautiful  her- 
baceous plants  of  the  Alpine  rocks  and  pastures.  The  Marvel  of  Peru 
(Mirabilis  jalapa)  however,  grows  in  the  greatest  abundance  and 
luxuriance  about  Rooroo  and  several  other  villages,  as  well  as  about  Kot- 
kfaaee  on  the  Girree,  and  on  the  outer  range  about  Barh  and  Kalka ; 
the  climate  of  the  Himalaya  between  4,000  and  7,000  feet  elevation, 
brings  it  to  such  perfection  that  in  aU  these  places  it  is  so  completely 
naturalized  as  to  appear  wild.  Another  American  plant,  the  Martynia 
diandra,  is  equally  abundant  near  villages  in  the  Turaee  of  Kemaon 
towards  Bhumouree.  The  Hypericum  perforatum  is  a  common  shrub 
in  the  cornfields  of  the  Pabur  and  Oirree  vallies  ;  and  on  the  rocks  near 
Rooroo  and  Deorah,  I  noticed  the  Linaria  incana,  resembling  in  habit 
the  L.  cymbalaria  of  Europe.  Desmodium  tomentosum  is  also  a  com- 
mon shrub  on  the  rocks  in  the  Pabur  valley  hereabouts,  and  on  the 
Satlo]  above  Wangtoo  bridge,  preferring  the  wannest  exposures. 

There  is  an  interesting  route  of  three  marches,  from  Rooroo  Kothee  vid 
the  Shikree  Nudee,  and  over  the  Moraul  ka  Dunda,  to  Rampore  on  the 
Sutluj,  halting  at  Samurkot  and  Neura  (or  Neheree.)  The  country  is 
well  peopled,  and  beautifully  varied  with  forest  and  cultivation.  In 
May  and  June  nothing  can  exceed  the  beauty  of  the  wild  roses, 
(R.  Brunonis)  climbing  up  the  dark  pines  and  alders,  and  falling  down 
in  splendid  festoons  of  the  most  fragrant  blossoms.  Snow  will  be 
foimd  early  in  June  on  this  route,  when  the  heat  at  Rampore,  imme- 
diately below  is  almost  intolerable. 


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88  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

September  9th. — To  Chergaon,  an  easy  stage  of  ten  miles  up  the  right 
bank  of  the  Pabur,  which  we  walked  in  three  and  a  half  hours.  The  cur- 
rent of  the  river  becomes  more  and  mbre  furious  as  we  approach  its  source 
in  the  Boorhun  Ghatee ;  and  in  several  places,  dashes  along  with  the 
greatest  noise  and  violence  amongst  the  granitic  and  other  boulders, 
which  lie  in  its  bed. 

*  *  Vexed  Scylla  and  the  sea  that  parts 
Calabria  from  the  hoarse  Trinacrian  shore," 

are  smooth  water  compared  with  it  even  in  poetry;  for  it  must  be 
acknowledged  that  in  reality  these  classic  rapids  are  wonderfully  calm 
and  gentle.  After  a  few  miles,  the  road  passes  under  a  high  range 
of  slaty  mountains  of  a  curious  formation,  presenting  an  appearance 
more  like  a  series  of  gigantic  pine-apples  or  cheeses,  than  any  thing  else 
I  know  of.  This  is  owing  to  the  inclination  and  interruption  of  the 
strata,  which  on  one  side  present  steep  faces  of  shattered  rock,  while 
the. reverse  side  of  the  hummocks,  though  steep,  is  covered  with  grass. 
There  are  no  trees  on  these  mountains,  exposed  as  they  are  to  the 
withering  influence  of  the  southern  sun ;  the  Desmodium  tomentosum 
is,  however,  abundant,  and  the  Capparis  nepaiensis  creeps  in  patches 
along  the  face  of  the  sunny  cli£fs.  About  eight  miles  from  Rooroo»  we 
passed  the  village  of  Mundlee,  held  in  free  gift  by  Brahmans,  but  also 
inhabited  by  a  colony  of  Moosulmans,  whose  ancestors  emigrated  here 
from  Jounpoor,  three  or  four  generations  ago.  They  still  possess  the 
true  faith  and  a  supply  of  fowls  and  eggs.  This  is  properly  the  first 
village  of  Ghooara.  The  land  is  here  almost  wholly  devoted  to  rice, 
which  will  be  ripe  in  October :  till,  koolthee,  mash,  &c.  are  still  sown, 
but  not  in  any  quantity ;  and  in  spring,  the  poppy  is  rather  largely  cul- 
tivated. Across  the  river  on  a  spur  from  the  mountains  stands  the 
romantic  fort  of  Butolee,  near  a  large  village  called  Musoola ;  above 
these  rise  the  densely  wooded  flanks  of  the  Changsheel  range,  facing  the 
north,  and  in  full  contrast  to  the  mountains  on  the  right  bank,  covered 
with  forests  of  pine  (Pinus  excelsa,  Abies  smithiana,)  &c.  Should  the 
traveller  prefer  it,  he  may,  if  bound  from  Simla  to  the  Roopin  Pass, 
strike  up  from  the  glen  of  the  Pabur  at  Raeengurh,  and  follow  the 
summit  of  the  Changsheel  range  to  Doodoo.  This  route  is  much  cooler 
and  more  interesting  than  that  by  Rooroo ;  but  there  are  no  villages,  and 
two  or  three  days  supplies,  a  good  map,  pocket  compass,  and  guides  from 


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1846.]  and  Boorun  Paises  over  the  Himalaya,  89 

Mandil  village,  are  indispenBable.  A  little  aboye  Batalee,  the  Pabur 
receives  on  the  right  bank  the  Mutretee  river,  from  the  Moral  ke 
Dhar,  consisting  of  lofty,  broken,  glacis-like  ridges,  the  strata  lying 
over  towards  the  Sntluj,  and  probably  rising  to  13,000  feet.  It  is  the 
continuation  of  the  Shatool  range,  and  divides  Ghooara  from  Dusao. 
By  fording  the  Mutretee  at  a  mill  in  the  line  of  the  Pabur,  a  considerable 
detour  to  the  bridge  up  to  its  glen  and  a  subsequent  ascent  of  several 
hundred  feet  may  be  avoided  ;  the  short  cut  keeps  close  to  the  Pabur, 
but  it  requires  a  steady  head  to  pass  in  safety  some  narrow  ledges 
of  rock,  against  which  when  the  water  is  high,  the  current  sets 
»trongly,  and  none  should  then  attempt  it,  who  cannot  depend  on 
their  nerves.  On  our  return,  the  Pabur  had  fallen  considerably,  and 
we  effected  the  passage  without  further  inconvenience  than  what  arose 
from  the  chilly  waters  of  the  Mutretee,  which  must  be  forded.  About  two 
miles  on  is  Chergaon,  a  small  and  poor  hamlet,  about  6,000  feet  above  the 
sea,  in  the  angle  formed  by  the  junction  of  the  Undretee  or  Indravutee 
river  with  the  Pabur.  This  impetuous  torrent  which  is  about  equal  in  size 
to  the  Pabor,  pours  down  south  from  the  Shatool  Pass ;  the  bridge 
having  been  carried  away,  we  were  forced  to  cross  its  angry  waters  by 
a  smgle  tree,  which  my  companion  did  unaided^  while  I  was  glad  to  ac- 
cept the  assistance  of  a  neighbouring  miller.  Al-sirat  itself  could  scarce  be 
more  narrow,  or  destruction  more  certain  in  the  event  of  a  slip.  Cher- 
gaon is  well  supplied  with  apricot  and  other  fruit  trees,  and  the  brink  of 
the  Pabur  is  shaded  by  alder,  &c.  The  Toombroo  peak,  north  of  the 
Shnnkun  Ghatee.  erroneously  written  Toongroo  in  the  maps,  is  a  con- 
spicuous point  from  Chergaon  down  the  glen  of  the  Pabur. 

September  lOth* — To  Moojwar  village  in  Rol,  twelve  miles,  a  fatigu- 
ing march,  during  which  we  accompanied  our  coolies,  who  halted 
liberally  to  rest  and  smoke,  so  that  we  were  eight  hours  on  the  road. 
For  three  miles  the  path  lies  through  rice  cultivation  and  brush- wood, 
np  the  left  bank  of  the  Undretee ;  then  crosses  and  ascends  about  500 
feet  to  Dugol,  a  Brahman  village  of  eight  or  ten  families  on  the  right 
bank,  but  in  the  map  erroneously  placed  on  the  left.  It  is  reckoned 
6,800  feet  above  the  sea,  but  the  warm  clothing  of  the  inhabitants  in- 
dicates a  much  colder  climate  than  would  be  due  to  such  an  ekva- 
tion  nearer  the  plains.  The  holy  fathers  are  small,  well  made,  well  clad 
men,  but  being  afflicted  with  the  itch,  accompanied  us  to  Rol  for  medi- 


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90  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

cine,  of  which,  by  the  way,  every  trayeller  should  carry  a  small  supply 
to  meet  the  demands,  which  will  be  almost  daily  made  by  patients  suf- 
fering from  liver,  spleen,  dysentery,  and  in  short  all  the  ills  that  flesh  is 
heir  to,  save  blue  cholera ;  and  if  unflinching  faith  in  the  skill  of  the  phy- 
sician be  conducive  to  a  cure,  the  practitioner  here  should  be  successfid 
indeed,  for  not  iEsculapius  himself  was  invested  by  the  Greeks  with 
more  certain  healing  powers  than  is  every  European — however  modest 
his  pretensions  in  this  department — by  the  mountaineers.  From  Dugol, 
the  path  again  descends  to  the  river,  and  for  two  or  three  miles  keeps 
near  its  bank  through  beautiful  English-like  woods  of  elm,  poplar, 
alder,  cornel,  (Comus  macrophylla)  and  birch  (Betula  cylindrostachya,) 
with  Abies  smithiana  on  the  heights.  A  little  beyond  Dugol,  I  found 
by  a  stream  a  species  of  Eupatorium  in  flower,  much  resembling  £• 
cannabinum.  We  next  recrossed  to  the  left  bank  and  followed  it  for 
several  miles  by  a  path  often  bad  and  rocky,  and  impracticable  to 
ponies ;  the  scenery  is  very  wild  and  beautiful,  the  Undretee  forming 
here,  and  indeed  throughout  the  march,  a  series  of  foaming  rapids :  it  is 
quite  unfordable.  We  now  once  more  recrossed  to  the  right  bank,  and 
in  a  mile  or  two  reached  the  junction  of  the  two  streams  which  iorm 
the  Undretee — viz.,  the  Byansoo  from  the  left,  the  Sheear  from  the  right, 
both  flowing  down  from  bare  russet-coloured  ridges,  far  above  the  re. 
gion  of  forest,  and  evidently  buried  in  snow  for  three-fourths  of  the 
year.  The  Byansoo,  I  believe,  originates  in  the  Jalsoo  Pass,  about 
13,000  feet  high,  which  afforids  a  passage  to  Seran  on  the  Sutluj.  We 
finally  gained  the  left  bank  of  the  Byansoo  by  a  fallen  spruce,  and  aa- 
cended  the  fork  between  the  streams  by  a  long  and  steep  ascent  to 
Cheechwar,  one  of  the  Rol  group  of  villages,  8,600  feet  above  the  sea, 
a  pretty  large  and  well-bmlt  place,  one  and  a  half  or  two  nules  above 
which,  by  an  easy  acclivity,  we  reached  Moojwar.  A  blue  aster,  quite 
similar  to  the  Swiss  A.  alpina ;  a  large  and  handsome  Inula  by  rivulets, 
(I.  royleana  ?)  the  Parochetus  oxalidifolia,  the  large-leaved  elm  (Ulmus 
erosa  ?)  much  like  the  Wych  ehn,  here  called  Mored  and  Paboona,  afford- 
ing much  fodder  to  the  cattle,  with  the  walnut,  peach,  and  oak,  (Q. 
semicarpifolia),  are  common  in  this  district.  Across  the  Sheear  to  the 
east,  the  mountains  present  a  lofty  precipitous  front  to  the  we8t»  clothed 
with  spruce  and  cedar.  Across  the  Byansoo  to  the  west  are  more  bare, 
brown,  and  very  rugged  mountains.    On  the  north,  the  Shatool  is  cono 


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1846.]  and  Boorun  Passes  over  the  Himalaya.  91 

cealed  by  rising  land,  but  so  far  as  one  can  see,  the  great  range  here  is 
deficient  in  the  magnificent  cliffs  and  crags  of  the  Roopin  and  other 
Passes  to  the  eastward,  but  one  is  not  yet  high  enough  to  judge  fairly. 
Moojwar  is  about  9,000  feet  above  the  sea ;  the  houses  large,  of  two 
stories,  very  substantially  constructed  of  stone  and  timber.  The  culti- 
vation is  chiefly  Bathoo  (Amaranthus  anerdana,)  and  Phaphur  or  Buck- 
wheat, with  a  little  tobacco.  The  climate  is  severe  and  capricious, 
and  the  people  seem  to  consider  the  passage  of  the  Shatool  by  no  means 
a  trifle,  and,  as  we  afterwards  found,  endeavoured  to  intimidate  our 
people  by  the  threat  that  not  one  of  them  would  ever  return ;  nor  was 
a  stonn  of  rain  and  thunder  in  the  afternoon,  much  calculated  to  en- 
courage them.  The  villagers  have,  however,  agreed  to  accompany  us, 
and  promised  to  have  jsupplies  for  three  days  all  ready  in  the  morning. 
They  are  said  to  have  been  recently  implicated  in  a  foray  on  their 
neighbours  beyond  the  next  ridge  whose  sheep  to  the  number  of  1,500 
they  carried  off  after  the  manner  of  Rob  Roy  and  his  Gaterans.  There 
is  no  king  in  the  land,  and  every  man  does  that  which  is  right  in  his  own 
eyes. 

September  1 UA. — To  Kala  Koondar,  ten  or  eleven  miles,  which  took 
OS  eight  hours,  being  much  delayed  by  the  constant  halts  of  the  coolies, 
by  my  own  rests  and  search  for  plants,  and,  after  quitting  the  forest, 
by  a  very  diflicult  path.  The  distances  indeed  are  but  approximations, 
and  are  perhaps  exaggerated;  experience  has  shown  that  to  the  direct 
map-distance  about  one-third  must  be  added  for  the  road- distance, 
instead  of  one-seventh  as  in  the  plains;  but  Kala  Koondar,  and  the 
next  two  stages*  being  "  vox  et  prseterea  nihil"  are  not  inserted  on  the 
maps.  Soon  after  leaving  Moojwar,  we  passed  the  hamlet  Jutwar, 
the  last  and  highest  (9,200  feet,)  on  the  route.  Brush- wood  and  meadows 
succeed,  the  first  formed  by  Rosa  sericea  (a  4-petalled  white  species,) 
Berberis  brachybotrys  (with  bright  red  fruit,)  and  abundance  of  the 
beautiful  yellow  Potentilla  dubia ;  while  the  pastures  abound  with  the 
sessile  flowered  Ins  kemaonensis ;  all  these  plants  are  equally  charac- 
teristic of  the  corresponding  sites  above  Junglig  and  Jaka  near  the 
Boorun  and  Roopin  Passes.  The  late  Dr.  Hoffmeister  shewed  me 
specimens  of  the  above  Potentilla,  if  they  were  not  varieties  of  P.  atro- 
sanguinea,  gathered  at  and  above  Ghitkool  on  the  Buspa,  in  which 
some  of  the  petals  were  yellow  and  some  carmine.     On  quitting  the 


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92  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

meadows,  the  route  enters  and  ascends  steeply  through  a  forest  of 
Abies  smithiana,  Pinus  exceka,  Picea  pindrow  and  P.  webbiana,  Quercus 
semicarpifolia,  Tazus  baccata,  Ribes  acuminjltum  (red  currant)  the 
lemon-scented  LaurustinuB  (Viburnum  nervosa,)  Rosa  sericea,  &c.,  none 
of  the  trees  remarkable  for  size.  The  Picea  pindrow  and  P.  webbiana  are 
here  and  at  Jaka,  confounded  under  the  name  of  Kulru,  perhaps  the 
Chilrow  of  Royle,  and  these  unconscious  disciples  of  Lamark  insist,  that 
the  difference  in  the  size  and  colour  of  their  leaves  is  solely  owing  to  the 
inclemency  of  the  wind  and  weather,  on  the  exposed  sites  where  the 
Webbian  species  is  found.  We  emerged  from  the  forest  at  a  spot  called 
Bhoojkal,  1 1 ,700  feet  above  the  sea,  and  about  three  miles  from  Moojwar ; 
the  rest  of  the  day's  journey  lies  along  the  east  or  SB.  exposure  of  the 
mountains,  destitute  of  trees,  but  covered  with  a  new  and  rich  aeries 
of  Alpine  plants.  A  little  beyond  Bhoojkal  and  on  the  same  level, 
Reoonee,  sometimes  used  as  a  halting  place  but  a  very  bad  one,  occurs ; 
and  hereabouts  much  ground  is  lost  by  several  steep  descents  to  torrents 
by  rather  dangerous  paths.  Above,  to  the  left,  the  mountains  exhibit 
bare,  but  not  precipitous  shelves  of  gneiss  rock,  inclined  from  the  route  ; 
to  the  right  are  deep  glens,  woods,  torrents,  and  a  few  beds  of  snow, 
all  wild,  lonely,  and  sublime.  Kala  Koondar  is  an  open  but  steep  spot  in 
a  grassy,  flowery  glen,  facing  south,  about  300  feet  above  the  forest,  and 
12,000  above  the  sea,  on  a  level  with  the  Choor  summit,  which  is 
visible  to  SSW.  We  encamped  amidst  heavy  rain  and  hail  from  the 
north,  which  rendered  the  grass  very  cold  and  wet  for  our  people  and 
ourselves  too,  having  been  compelled  for  want  of  hands,  to  leave  our 
charpaees  on  the  road  to-day.  In  these  difficult  tracts  a  good  tarpaulin 
under  one's  bedding  is  much  more  conveniently  carried  than  a  bed-stead, 
and  excludes  the  damp  almost  equally  well;  where  both  are  absent, 
a  very  excellent  substitute  is  a  thick  layer  of  pine  or  yew  branches. 

The  creeping  juniper,  here  called  Theloo  but  in  Upper  Kunawur 
Pama  (Juniperus  squamosa),  commences  from  800  to  1,000  feet  below 
Kala  Koondar.  The  open  pastures  are  covered  with  a  profusion  of 
alpine  flowers  among  which  are  the  Cyananthus  lobata  (called  Kheeree), 
the  Dolomicea  macrocephala  (Dhoop  or  Googul),  Saxifraga  pamassiae- 
folia  (or  a  species  very  like  it,  also  found  on  the  Choor),  and  (on  rocks) 
Saxifraga  mucronulata,  Sieveisia  elata,  Swertia  coerulea  and  several 
other  species,  (one,  a  large  plant  with  pale  blue  blossoms  is  probably 


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1846.]  and  Boorun  Passes  over  the  Himalaya,  93 

Royle's  S.  perfoliata),  the  Sphelia  latifolia  of  Don,  Polygonum  moUe  (or 
polystachyum),  branonis,  and  vacciniifolium,  (the  last  on  rocks,  a  beau- 
tifol  species),  Lonicera  obovata,  Senecio  nigricans,  Achillcea  millifolia, 
a  yellow  Tanacetum,  Oxyria  elatior,  Sibbaldia  procumbens,  Spiroea 
kamschatkika,  (very  like  meadow-sweet),  several  Sedoms ;  Morina  lon- 
gifolia,  Caltha  himalensis,  Delphinium  vestitum,  Aconitum  heterophyl- 
lum,  Phlomls  bracteosa,  Corydalis  govaniana,  Geranium  wallichianum, 
Picrorhiza  kurrooa,  and  many  more.  Rhododendron  campanulatum,  is 
common  in  the  region  of  birch,  and  is  called  Ghumreesh.  Simreesh, 
Simrat,  Simbur,  &c. ;  and  above  it  is  the  much  smaller  Rhododendron 
lepidotum  or  anthopogon  with  aromatic  leaves,  smelling  when  bruised 
like  those  of  walnut ;  it  is  called  Talsur.  The  capsules  are  in  dense  ter- 
minal  clusters,  and  the  flowers  are  said  to  be  red.  Gualtheria  tricho- 
phylla  with  its  beautiful  azure  fleshy  calyx  abounds  on  the  sunny  banks. 
The  above  are  so  general  in  all  the  region  above  the  forest  on  the 
Snowy  range,  that  it  will  be  needless  to  specify  them  on  every  occasion. 
The  Cyananthus  lobata  covers  extensive  tracts  with  its  blue  (occasion- 
ally white)  periwinkle -like  flowers ;  at  and  above  Nooroo  Bassa  on  the 
north  side  of  the  Roopin  Pass,  I  found  the  seed  ripe  on  the  20th  of 
September,  while  lower  down,  the  plant  was  still  in  full  bloom.  In  the 
same  way,  on  the  Changsheel  Range,  Morina  longifolia  was  all  ripe  on  the 
25th  September,  while  on  the  30th,  it  was  still  in  full  flower  on  Huttoo. 
Rhododendron  arboreum  flowers  in  February  and  March  at  7,000  feet, 
and  is  not  ripe  till  Christmas ;  but  R.  campanulatum  and  anthopogon 
(Talsur)  which  flower  in  May,  June,  and  July,  at  12,000  feet,  are  ripe 
by  the  end  of  October.  A  strange  alchymy  of  nature  this,  to  ripen  her 
products  first  in  the  colder  sites,  but  perhaps  necessary  to  the  existence 
of  plants  in  these  elevated  spots,  where  but  for  this  provision,  the  early 
winter  would  prevent  their  ever  coming  to  maturity.  "  II  est  demontr^ 
(says  the  brilliant  Frenchman,)  que  les  choses  ne  peuvent  6tre  autre- 
ment :  car,  tout  ^tant  fait  pour  une  fin,  tout  est  n^cessairement  pour  la 
meilleare  fin.  Remarquez  bien  que  les  nez  ont  6t6  faits  pour  porter 
des  lunettes,  aussi  avons  nous  des  lunettes.  Les  jambes  sont  visiblement 
instittt^  pour  ^tre  chauss^,  et  nous  avous  des  chausses.  Les  pierres 
ont  6t6  form^es  pour  6tre  tailldes,  et  pour  en  faire  des  ch&teaux,  aussi 
monseigneur  a  un  tres-beau  chateau ;  et  les  cochons  ^tant  faits  pour  6tre 
mang^,  nous  mangeons  du  pore  toute  Tann^.*' 


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94  Diaty  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

The  Dolomioea  macrocephala  is  a  very  common  plant  in  all  the  upper 
Himalaya :  Royle's  plate,  perhaps  for  want  of  space*  represents  the  leaves 
erect,  which  are  naturally  quite  procumbent ;  the  root  is  highly  valued 
as  incense,  and  as  such,  is  presented  to  gods  and  rajas.  The  Picrorhiza 
kurrooa  grows  abundantly  on  dry  rubble  from  Kala  Koondar  to  a  great 
height  on  each  side  of  the  Shatool  Pass,  but  I  did  not  notice  it  else* 
where ;  the  root  is  excessively  bitter,  and  is  sold  under  the  name  of 
Kurrooa  in  the  Simla  Bazar ;  it  is  the  Kutkee  of  Kemaon. 

September  I2th, — To  Doodach,  eight  or  nine  miles,  which  our 
coolies  performed  in  four  and  a  half  hours.  The  route  is  much  better 
and  more  easy  than  yesterday's,  gradually  rising  over  slopes,  for  the 
most  part  gentle,  and  crossing  many  rivulets  from  the  left,  some  of  them 
chalybeate.  The  banks  of  these  exhibit  in  some  places  great  walla 
of  gneiss  rock.  The  forest  is  now  entirely  lost  sight  of,  and  fuel 
must  be  brought  in  from  Kala  Koondar.  Doodach  is  an  open  and 
level  spot,  well  adapted  for  an  encampment;  it  must  be  fully  .13,000 
feet  above  the  sea,  and  is  probably  identical  with  the  Kuneejan,  of 
Gerard.  We  had  hard  frost  at  night.  The  Undretee,  a  mere  rivulet, 
rises  in  a  bed  of  snow,  a  little  higher  up,  and  flows  about  200  feet 
below  us.  Immediately  above  it,  the  opposite  bank  rises  to  a  very 
great  height,  in  a  magnificent  facade  of  bare  gneiss  cliffs,  the  ledges 
supporting  deep  beds  of  snow,  and  terminating  to  the  north  in  a  steep 
conical  peak,  called  the  Dhuneer  ka  Thood.  From  these  crags  several 
avalanches  of  rock  fell  down  at  night,  with  the  noise  of  thunder. 
Between  our  camp  and  the  base  of  the  Pass  (about  a  mile,)  the  rock  is 
quartz,  in  immense  coulees  of  shapeless  masses,  heaped  together  without 
order  and  very  difficult  to  climb  over.  They  have  fallen  from  a  huge 
and  very  curious  rectangular  mass,  which  forms  the  western  side  of  the 
Pass.  Several  interesting  plants  abound  here ;  the  Sausstirea  or  Aplo- 
taxis  gossypina,  clothed  in  dense  wool,  raises  its  conical  form  every 
where  on  the  rocky  rubble  to  the  top  of  the  Pass,  resembling  a  vegeta- 
ble spectre.  It  is  called  Kusbul,  Munna  Kuswal,  and  Bhoot-pesh,  and 
is  offered  to  the  gods,  who  have  evinced  their  care  and  favour  by  cloth- 
ing it  so  warmly,  exactly  as  they  have  protected  the  yak  and  alpine 
goat  with  a  thick  waistcoat  of  pushmeena:  Another  Aplotaxis  is  defended 
by  a  different  contrivance ;  the  leaves  are  gradually  converted  into  large 
yellowish  transparent  bracts,  enclosing  the  colts-foot-like  blossoms  as 


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1846.]  t^nd  Boorun  Passes  over  the  Himalaya.  95 

if  in  a  head  of  cabbage.  This  plant  is  common  amongst  the  large  rocks 
from  Doodach  nearly  to  the  summit  of  the  Pass,  and  is  also  sacred.  It  is 
called  "  Birm  (or  Brem)  Kounl  (or  Kouwul),"  i.  e.  "  Brahma's  Lotus ;" 
a  similar  species  on  the  high  mountains  behind  Gheenee,  has  a  strong 
odour  of  musk. 

Eraser  found  the  "  Birmah  Gounla"  on  the  Bumsooroo  Pass,  between 
Sookhee  and  Jnmnootree,  and  describes  it  thus — Stalk  covered  with 
large  and  long  leaves,  somewhat  like  those  of  a  primrose,  ending  in  a 
cup  like  that  of  a  tulip,  appearing  merely  the  continuation  of  these 
leaves,  closing  and  forming  the  petals  of  a  very  noble  flower,  in  the 
centre  of  which  the  stamina  and  pistil  are  seen.  Petals  greenish  to- 
wards the  base,  but  the  middle  and  higher  parts  are  black  and  yellow, 
as  is  the  centre  of  the  cup,  but  more  vivid.  The  latter  part  of  the  des- 
cription appears  derived  from  a  Fritillaria,  and  very  possibly  from  the  same 
plant  which, "  Pilgrim"  (pp.  66,  67)  says  is  so  beautiful  aft  Kadamath  in 
April :  and  though  growing  on  the  hard  ground  and  out  of  the  melting 
snow,  is  called  "  Lotus."  In  Kemaon,  the  Iris  nepalensis  is  known  as  the 
Neda  Kumul,  or  blue  Lotus  ;  and  is  a  favourite  plant  with  fukeers,  &c. 

Amongst  the  other  plants  found  at  Doodach  and  on  to-day's  route  were 
two  species  of  Aconitum.  One,  which  seems  to  be  known  as  A.  dissectum 
(Hamiltonii  or  Speciosum)  abounds  at  this  elevation,  and  has  the  leaves 
cut  into 'five  segments,  with  light  blue  blossoms.  It  is  called  here 
Doodhiya  Moura,  but  in  Kunawur,  Tilia  Kachung.  The  other  species,  * 
Aconitum  ferox,  is  called  Moura-bikh,  or  simply  "  Mora"  (from  mri,  to 
die,)  and  is  reckoned  extremely  poisonous.  It  only  occurred  in  one  spot, 
a  mile  or  two  above  Kala  Koondar,  growing  in  an  extensive  patch,  the 
stems  from  four  to  six  feet  high,  with  long  dense  racemes  of  splendid 
deep  blue  flowers :  the  follicles  three.  The  mountaineers  were  shocked 
when  I  told  them  that  an  equally  deadly  species  was  a  favourite  flower 
in  our  English  cottage  gardens,  where  they  concluded  it  could  only  be 
planted  in  the  view  of  occasionally  getting  rid  of  a  superfluous  boy  or  girl. 
The  handsome  Ligularia  amicoides  (figured  by  Royle,)  was  in  full  bloom 
every  where  about  and  above  Doodach,  and  in  similar  situations  all  over 
the  Snowy  and  Changsheel  ranges.  On  the  south  side  of  the  Roopin 
Pass  there  is  another  species,  with  reniform  leaves.  By  the  rivulets 
on  the  route,  and  high  upon  the  Pass,  the  Primula  stuartii  and 
P.  purpurea  are  abundant,  and  now  with  ripe  seed.      They  are  both 


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96  LHary-ofan  Ejccursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

called  *'  Jy-be*Jy*'  or  "  Jyan,"  and  are  very  ornamental  in   May» 
June,  and  July.     With  these  occurs   a   very  handsome  species  of 
Dracocepbalum  or  Lamium,  called  Ghirounta,  with  a  strong  camo-. 
mile  odour  when  hmised.     On  hare  rocky  ground  from  12»800  feet  up- 
wards is  found  the  Gentaurea  (Aplotaxis)  taraxicifolia,  the  "  Dhoopree," 
with  heads  of  purple  blossom  and  a  delicious  fragrance  like  that  of  the 
sweet  colt's  foot.      The  showy  musk-scented  Delphinium  (brunonia- 
num  ?)  grows  near  the  foot  of  the  Pass,  and  is  called  "  Soopaloo," 
"  Ruskur,"  "  Ruskachung :"  it  is,  I  believe,  the  "  Liokpo,"  of  Upper 
Kunawur,  and  is  a  curious  illustration  of  the  association  in  these  lofty 
regions  of  musk  in  the  vegetable  as  well  as  the  animal  kingdom.     The 
Hymenolaena  Govaniana,  and  several  similar  Umbelliferae,  with  bracts 
greatly  developed  and  beautifully  fringed  with  white,  are  common,  some 
of  them  attaining  the  crest  of  the  Pass ;  among  those  lower  down  is 
one  with  decompound  leaves,  of  a  strong  aromatic  parsley-like  fra- 
grance, here  called  Nesir,  and  mentioned  by  Eraser  as  occurring  near 
Jumnootree,  under  the  name  of  Mahee.    All  this  lofty  region  (from 
12,000  to  13,000  feet)  abounds  with  the  Kanda,  a  species  of  prickly 
Meconopsis,  probably  M.  nepalensis,  in  form  like  Royle's  M.  aculeata 
(which  in  his  plate  seems  too  deeply  coloured,)  except  that  the  flowers 
are  of  the  most  lovely  azure.     Amongst  the  Doodach  rocks  grows  the 
Sedum  himalensis,  very  like  the   Rhodiola    rosea  of  England,   and 
0  amongst  the  rocks  and  snow  at  the  source  of  the  Undretee  I  found  the 
Saxifraga  granulata  of  England,  and  a  Ranunculus  (choorensis  ?)  much 
like  the  R.  gladalis  of  Switzerland.     Such  are  a  few  of  the  plants 
which  '*  blush  unseen"  on  these  desolate  wilds ;  a  more  leisurely  exa- 
mination would  easily  double  the  niuiber.    Nature,  where  she  cannot 
be  useful,  seems  determined  to  be  ornamental,  and  converts  these  tracts 
where  grain  will  not  ripen,  into  pastures  and  flower  gardens,  where 
thousands  of  butterflies  and  insects  enjoy  their  brief  existence.    The 
utility  of  nature  must  not  indeed  be  limited  to  man,  for  there  is  scarcely 
one  of  these  plants,  the  seeds  of  which  do  not  support  myriads  of  in- 
sects as  well  as  many  birds ;  and  the  highly  successful  experiment  at 
Muhasoo  is  a  sufficient  proof  that  many  of  the  forest  tracts  at  least, 
and  perhaps  even  the  pastu^  lands  above  them  might,  by  a  moderate 
expenditure  of  industry  and  enterprise,  be  rendered  available  for  the  pro- 
duction of  excellent  potatoes,  and  thus  enable  the  Himalaya  to  support 


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1846.]  attd  Boorun  Passes  over  ike  Himaiaya^  97 

doable  or  treble  its  actaal  population.  Judging  by  the  produce  of  the 
flocks  and  herds  which  now  partly  graze  on  these  pastures,  the  soil  and 
grass  must  be  faultless ;  every  traveller  is  struck  with  the  quality  of 
the  milk — as  rich  as  cream — at  Rol,  Jangleeg,  and  Jaka,  placed  at 
ther  lower  limit  of  the  belt  where  cultivation  now  ceases. 

September  ISth, — From  Doodach  over  the  Shatool  Pass  to  Ateeng 
Wodar,  twelve  to  fourteen  miles,  in  somewhat  under  seven  hours.  An 
experienced  native  of  Rol  had  eamestiy  advised  ua  not  to  attempt  the  Pass 
unless  the  day  were  fine,  and  we  were  so  far  fortunate  as  to  have  a  cloud- 
less morning,  and  reached  the  summit,  perhaps  four  nules,  in  three  hours, 
mounting  at  a  very  easy  pace ;  the  ascent,  indeed,  is  less  fatiguing 
than  that  of  the  Choor  from  Seran ;  and  on  its  completion  we  expe- 
rienced none  of  those  feelings  of  headache,  giddiness,  distress  in  breath- 
ing, &c.,  described  by  many  travellers,  and  very  sensibly  felt  by  myself 
on  a  former  occasion  on  the  Roopin  Pass.  The  route  lies  up  over  the 
frozen  snow  bed  of  the  Undretee,  and.  then  up  one  steep  continuous 
tract  of  broken,  angular,  masses  of  gneiss  rock,  of  which  there  is  a  steep 
escarpment  to  the  right,  capped  by  a  thick  bed  of  the  purest  snow. 
The  col,  or  semicircular  summit  of  the  Pass,  is  in  its  whole  extent  fur- 
nished with  numerous  piles  of  stones  called  Shoogars  or  Thooas— ^the 
'*  Sbenezers"  of  gratefid  and  successful  passengers ;  in  number  and 
height  far  exceeding  those  on  the  Roopin  and  Boorun  Ghatees ;  the  pil- 
lars being  apparenUy  in  a  direct  ratio  to  the  piety  and  the  fear  of  the  * 
passengers,  and  the  difficulty  and  danger  overcome.  Our  men  had 
provided  themselves  with  stores  of  fiowers,  chiefly  the  Kounl  and  Munna- 
kuswal  saussurea,  and  the  musk  larkspur,  which  they  tied  in  long 
garlands,  and  with  which  they  decorated,  first  the  pillars,  and  then,'on  the 
Hindoo  principle  of  *'  Piirmeshwur-hai,"  ourselves.  They  cleurly  fancy 
their  gods  to  be  as  fond  of  musk  as  they  are.  On  sa  cold  a  site,  a  few 
faggots  of  wood  would  be  a  more  rational  offering;  but  as  their  evil 
genii  and  demons  are  lodged  in  eternal  fire,  it  is  quite  logical  to  locate 
the  gods  in  eternal  cold  and  snow,  and  it  is  remarkiable  that  he  who 
was  prophet  at  Medina,  and  impostor  at  Mecca,  also  patronized  this 
notion,  for  he  affirmed  that,  when  touched  by  the  hand  of  Allah,  the 
sensation  was  that  of  intense  cold.  On  our  return  by  the  Roopin  Pass, 
the  garland  ceremony  was  dispensed  with,  each  man  merely  teieuing  a 
small  portion  of  his  clothes,  and  suspending  it  6n  the  pillars,  a  cufttom 


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98  Diary  of  an  Etewrmn  to  the  Shatool  [No^  170. 

universal  in  these  mountains,  where  we  observe  a  bush  or  tree  on  each 
more  eminent  pass,  ornamented  with  votive  rags  of  all  colours,  precisely 
similar  to  those  about  holy  wells,  &c.,  in  Ireland.  With  respect  to 
vegetation,  the  Primula  purpurea  and  Sibbaldia  purpurea  grow  very 
high  upon  the  south  side  of  the  Pass;  the  two  Saussureas,  a  large 
Sedum  (probably  S.  asiaticum,)  a  Rumex,  and  a  pretty  pink  Corydalis 
(either  hamiltonii  or  meifoha)  reach  the  crest ;  and  above  that  of  the 
Roopin,  I  found  patches  of  Potentilla  inglesii ;  so  far  are  these  elevated 
ridges  from  being  entirely  forsaken  by  Flora ! 

The  right  or  eastern  portal  of  the  Shatool  Pass  is  formed  by  the.  pin* 
nacle  of  rock,  1,500  feet  high,  and  17,000  above  the  sea,  visible  from 
Doodach ;  it  is  called  Dhuneer  ka  Thooa  (the  Dunerko  of  Gerard,)  from 
the  Mookheea  of  Rol,  who  bribed  a  bold  adventurer  with  a  hundred 
rupees  to  scale  it,  and  erect  a  pile  of  stones  in  honour  of  the  Deotahs  and 
himself.  Moore  tells  us,  that  the  schoolmen  used  to  debate  how  many 
angels  could  dance  on  the  point  of  a  needle  without  jostling  each  other ; 
and  some  of  these  Himalayan  needles  are  so  sharp,  that  the  same  ques- 
tion naturally  suggests  itself  with  respect  to  the  thirty  million  of  gods 
which  the  Hindoo  Mythology  has  peopled  them  with.  The  Dhuneer 
ka  Thooa  sends  down  to  the  north  a  broken  serrated  spur,  which  falls 
to  the  west  in  a  lofty  and  most  superb  escarpment  of  naked  rook,  which 
lay  on  our  right  as  we  descended.  Looking  down  to  the  north,  through 
•  the  long  vista  of  the  glen,  we  had  a  glorious  though  somewhat  limited 
view  of  the  lofty  peaks  of  the  snowy  range  beyond  the  Sutluj,  separating 
the  Busehur  district  of  Wangpo,  north  of  the  Wangtoo  bridge,  from  the 
districts  of  Manes  and  Dunkur,  in  Speetee,  and  crossed  by  the  Taree 
Pass,  16,400  feet  above  the  sea.  In  some  of  our  maps  this  range,  or  its 
outliers  behind  Kanum  and  Cheenee>  is  called  tb^  Damak  Shoo,  proba- 
bly from  the  prevalence  of  the  Dmnak,  or  various  species  of  Astragalus, 
Caragana,  &c.  which  grow  there,  and  which  our  travellers  in  Upper 
Kunawur  call  Furze. 

The  Shatool  Pass  is  15,550  feet  above  the  sea  level,  nearly  100  feet 
below  the  top  of  Mont  Blanc:  and  was  first  crossed  in  June  1816  by 
General  Hodgson,  Kt  is  distinctly  visible  about  £.  24^  north  from  the 
top  of  Jaka  at  Simla,  a  degree  or  two  to  the  left  of  Colonel  Chadwick's 
iKHise  on  the  Muhasoo  ridge,  lying  between  two  of  those  conspicuous 
inclined  peaks  of  which  the  rocky  planes  slope  down  to  the  east  and 


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1846.]  and  Booruu  Passes  over  the  Himalaya,  99 

£S£.  at  angles  of  from  lO""  to  20^  considerably  to  the  right  of  the 
three^grouped  and  similarly  inclined  peaks,  often  but  erroneously 
pointed  out  as  the  Boorun  Pass.  It  is  owing  to  this  conformation  of 
the  strata  that  the  routes  up  the  Tallies  near  this  portion  of  the  Snowy 
range  invariably  keep  to  their  western  and  S W,  sides ;  on  the  opposite 
ones,  the  strata  '*  crop  out"  in  inaccessible  crags. 

Beautiful  are  the  "  balancings  of  the  clouds"  at  this  and  the  past 
season  in  the  Himalaya,  and  the  endless  variety  of  light  and  shade, 
which  they  cause  on  mountain,  forest,  field,  rock,  and  meadow.  No 
sooner  has  a  shower  feUen,  and  the  sun  shone  out,  than  the  process  of 
evaporation  commences  in  the  heated  vallies ;  the  rising  vapours  are  con- 
densed at  a  given  devation  into  clouds,  which,  with  a  snaiUlike  move- 
ment, creep  up  the  mountain  sides,  and  invest  the  summit  or  languidly 
tumble  over  the  ridge  into  the  next  valley ;  "  even  in  their  very  motion 
tki&ce  is  rest."  Occasionally  an  entire  valley  or  large  tract  of  the  moun* 
tain  is  covered  with  one  fleecy  mass,  on  which  the  spectator  looks  down 
as  on  a  sea,  a  lofty  peak  here  and  there  jutting  up  like  an  island.  It 
must  be  confessed,  however,  that  they  are  best  at  a  distance  and  in 
poetry.  Disagreeable  at  Simla,  they  are  dangerous  on  the  Shatool, 
where  we  had  not  been  above  half  an  hour,  on  the  narrow  crest,  when 
from  the  south,  douds 

**  Rose  curling  fast  beneath  us,  white  and  sulphury, 
Like  foam  from  the  roused  ocean  of  deep  hell. 
Whose  every  wave  breaks  on  a  living  shore. 
Heaped  with  the  damned  like  pebbles ! ! !" 

The  wind  also  being  very  keen,  and  our  only  seat  the  snow,  we  effected 
a  speedy  retreat  down  the  great  northern  snow-bed,  of  which  we  only 
reached  the  termination  in  an  hour  and  three-quarters.  The  upper  por- 
tion had  been  covered  to  the  depth  of  two  or  three  inches  by  a  recent 
fall.  To  this  succeeded  a  wearisome  and,  in  many  places,  very  steep  and 
difficult  moraine  composed  of  enormous  sharp,  shapeless,  fragments  of 
gneiss  piled  on  each  other  in  wild  confusion,  the  lowest  ones  resting  on 
frozen  snow.  TJ^ese  would  indeed  prove  "  destruction's  splinters"  to 
the  unfortunate,  overtaken  here  by  a  snow  storm,  which  would  paralyse 
his  hands  and  feet,  and  blind  his  eyes — all  most  essential  accessories  now ; 
and  accordingly  this  was  the  scene  where  Dr.  Oerard  in  September 
1820,  had  two  of  his  people  frozen  to  death  at  midday,  and  escaped 


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100  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

himself  with  great  difficulty  and  the  loss  of  all  his  baggage.  In  no 
month  is  the  passage  perfectly  secure.  It  is  effected  with  least  difficulty 
early  in  spring,  as  the  snow  then  covers  all  the  rocks  which  so  much 
impede  one*s  progress ;  but  I  am  not  aware  that  the  natives  ever  attempt 
the  Shatool  till  the  rains  have  set  in ;  and  even  on  the  other  Fuses 
clear  and  perfectly  calm  weather  is  indispensable  to  safety. 

The  scenery  on  the  northern  declivity  is  wild  and  savage  indeed  r  to 
the  right  are  the  magnificent  black  cliffs  before  mentioned,  which,  from 
the  summit,  slope  back  gently  in  great  fields  of  snow,  of  the  most 
dazzling  whiteness ;  deep  beds  also  lie  at  their  base.  Ta  the  left  the 
mountains  are  more  bluff  and  rounded  but  still  greatly  shivered.  The 
Moraine  ends  to  the  north  in  a  steep  esluirpment,  and  latterly  our 
route  over  it,  lay  on  the  ridge  of  a  very  curious  bund  of  snow,  nibUe, 
and  rocks,  about  sixty  feet  high,  and  very  steep  on  both  sides,  and 
apparently  artificial  as  any  railway  embankment.  Except  that  frozen 
snow  is  substituted  for  ice,  the  whole  scene  greatly  resembles  the  Mer 
de  Glace,  and  other  glaciers  of  Savoy  and  Switzerland.  A  turbid  stream 
issues  from  the  base  of  the  great  snow-bed,  and  is  joined  by  several 
torrents  from  the  left ;  the  combined  stream  a  little  below  flows  placidly 
for  a  while  over  a  nearly  level  dale.  During  the  day  time  the  powerful 
rays  of  the  sun  melt  the  whole  surface  of  the  snow  beds,  and  these  tor- 
rents become  unfordable :  but  at  night,  when  all  is  re-frozen,  they 
are  dwindled  to  mere  rivulets,  only  supplied  from  the  bottom  of  the 
snow-beds  being  melted  by  the  heat  of  the  earth,  and  hence  they  are 
easily  crossed  in  the  morning.  Below  the  moraine,  the  mountains  rise 
steeply  on  each  side,  covered,  especially  on  the  left,  with  grass  and 
herbage,  now  of  a  rich  raw-sienna  tint  forming  a  strong  contrast  with 
the  great  beds  of  white-quartz  masses,  which  on  this  side  extend  down 
to  the  valley,  reflecting  a  most  intolerable  glare.  The  path,  a  very  narrow 
and  bad  one,  finally  keeps  dose  to  the  left  bank  of  the  stream,  and  so 
continues  to  Ateeng  Wodar,  a  summer  station  for  shepherds,  equivalent 
to  the  ehaUta  of  the  Alps,  except  that  the  Hisudayan  mountaineer  is 
generally  content  with  the  shelter  of  a  cave  in  the  rocks,  sometimes  a 
little  improved  by  a  rude  wall  in  front.  Ateeng  is  nearly  in  the  latitude 
of  Rampoor,  a  short  distance  above  the  birch  forest,  about  12,000  feet 
above  the  sea,  and  perhaps  nine  miles  from  the  crest  of  the  Pkkss.  The 
valley  is  narrow,  and  destitute  of  the  savage  features  it  possesses  above,. 


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1846. jl  and  Boorun  Passes  aver  the  Himalaya.  101 

bat  across  the  torrent  to  the  east,  the  mountaus  are  still  very,  steep, 
bold  and  lofty,  with  many  deep  ravines  filled  with  show. 

The  vegetation  consists  here  of  Delphinium  vestitum,  Dolomioea  ma- 
crooephala,  Cyananthos  lobata,  Onosma  bracteata,  aromatic  rhododen- 
dron, and  Gassiope  fastigiata  ("  Talsiree")  the  "  heather"  of  Fraser ;  with 
it  grew  a  shrub  with  all  the  appearance  of  a  Vacdnium,  but  with  neither 
flowers  uor/raockatu  to  enable  one  to  decide.  Between  Ateeng  and 
the  moraine,  the  Salix  lindleyana  creeps  abundantly  on  the  ground, 
and  Royle's  Arenaria  festucoides  is  not  uncommon ;  on  the  moraine 
itself  was  a  plant  very  like  his  Saxifraga  imbricata,  abundance  of  Ra- 
nunculus choorensis,  and  one  or  two  Gentians,  in  flower.  These 
mountains  no  where  exhibit  the  carpet  of  blue  Gentians  and  Campa- 
nulas so  lovely  in  the  Alps.  On  the  gravel  beds  and  banks  of  the 
stream,  the  Epilobium  speciosum,  perhaps  the  finest  species  of  the 
genus,  grows  in  abundance. 

The  chief  reasons  for  the  Shatool  Pass  being  so  much  dreaded  are 
first — the  intrinsic  difiiculty  of  the  northern  moraine,  as  well  as  the 
descent  from  Ateeng  to  Panwee,  where  the  path  is  so  narrow  that  evea 
laden  sheep  pass  with  some  risk :  and  secondly,  the  remoteness  of  sup- 
plies, fuel,  and  places  of  refuge.  The  Roopin  and  Boorun  Ghatees 
have  each  a  village  within  one  stage  of  their  southern  base,  and  on  the 
north,  the  valley  of  the  Buspa  is  easily  gained  in  one  day  by  tolerable 
paths.  Laden  men  cannot  reach  the  Shatool  from  Rol  in  less  than  two 
days ;  and  at  Ateeng  Woodar,  on  its  north  side,  they  are  still  distant  a 
very  hard  day's«  journey,  by  an  execrable  path,  from  the  valley  of  the 
Sutluj. 

September  14th. — From  Ateeng  Wodar  to  Panwee,  near  the  Sutluj 
above  Wangtoo  bridge,  a  distance  which  we  estimated  to  be  sixteen 
or  seventeen  miles,  with  a  descent  of  6,000  feet ;  a  very  fatiguing  march, 
which  we  walked  in  eight  hours,  inclusive  of  several  halts.  In  the 
contrary  direction,  it  would  indeed  be  a  tremendous  journey,  and  should 
be  divided  by  all  who  travel  for  pleasure  or  profit.  The  route,  by  a 
bad. pathway,  gradually  rises  along  the  Alpine  pastures,  occasionally 
traversing  a  dense  coppice  of  Rhododendron  campanulatum,  R.  anthopo- 
gon  (or  lepidotum,  the  aromatic  species)  and  mountain  ash  (Pyrus  foliolosa 
or  ursina,)  the  latter  in  full  fruit,  the  berries  occasionally  of  a  beau- 
tiful waxy  white,  a  variety  probably  of  the  usual  red-fruited  species. 


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102  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

which  I  have  also  received  from  the  Harung  Pass  ahove  Sungla.  It 
forms  a  favourite  food  of  the  bears  which  are  numerous  hereabouts. 
Mingled  with  and  below  the  Rhododendron  and  mountain  ash  to 
the  right,  are  extensive  shaggy  woods  of  large  white-barked  birch 
(Betula  Bhojpatra.)  recalling  many  a  romantic  spot  in  the  Trosachs,  Glen- 
gariff,  and  Capel  Carrig.  The  bark  consists  of  as  many  as  twenty  layers, 
and  is  much  emp%yed  in  Kunawur  in  the  flat  roofs  of  the  houses,  where 
it  is  laid  under  a  stratum  of  clay.  Supposing  ^e  Himalaya  to  have 
emerged  gradually  from  the  ocean,  this  "  tree  of  knowledge"  may  be  held 
the  last  best  gift  of  heaven  to  man  in  the  vegetable  way,  for  it  could  not 
exist  till  the  mountain  had  attained  an  elevation  of  9,000  or  10,000 
feet;  the  silver  fir,  (Picea  webbiana)  must  be  nearly  of  the  same 
age,  and  thus  we  may  form  a  comparative  chronology  of  the  dates 
at  which  the  various  trees  were  successively  produced.  Quitting  the 
birch  braes,  we  encountered  a  steep  ascent  under  fine  gneiss  crags 
and  pinnacles,  with  tremendous  declivities  on  the  right  hand,  which 
brought  us  to  the  crest  of  the  Ootulmai  Ghatee,  (called  Gongrunch 
or  Shaling  by  Alex.  Gerard,)  where  the  path  turns  to  the  left,  and 
leaves  the  Shatool  glen.  Hence  to  Panwee  is  one  almost  uninter* 
mitted  and  generally  extremely  steep  descent  for  a  few  hundred  feet, 
over  loose  rugged  rocks,  covered  with  the  large  and  now  scarlet  leaves 
of  Saxifraga  ligulata,  and  then  through  a  superb  forest  of  Picea  web- 
biana and  Quercus  semicarpifoHa,  both  streaming  with  long  white 
lichens,  also  birch,  and  a  dense  underwood  of  mountain  ash,  Rhododen- 
dron campanulatum,  Rosa  webbiana,  Syringa  emodi  (Lilac,)  black  and 
red  currants,  yew,  &c.  At  the  bottom  of  this  glen,  perhaps  a  mile 
down,  we  reached  a  small  romantic  dell,  through  which  flows  the 
Skooling  or  Shaling  stream,  and  here  the  scenery  is  of  a  Titanic  gran- 
deur and  wildness.  On  all  sides,  feathered  with  the  dark  silver  fir,  vast 
precipices  spring  up  perpendicularly,  and  seem  utterly  to  preclude 
further  progress ;  it  seems  as  if  one  had  reached  the  gates  of  Hades.  On 
the  brink  of  the  stream  the  Greek  Valerian  (Polemonium  caeruleum,) 
and  the  lovely  azure  blue  hound's  tongue  (Cynoglossum  uncinatum,) 
were  flowering  in  abundance.  God  might  have  made  a  more  beautiful 
flower  than  this  last,  but  he  never  did^  as  some  one  has  justly  observed 
of  the  strawberry  as  a  fruit.  Exit  from  this  spot  seems  as  imfuracticable 
as  from  the  happy  valley  of  Rasselas,  and  is  only  obtained  by  a  short 


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1846.]  and  Boorun  Passes  over  the  Himalaya.  103 

sharp  clamber,  which  introduces  the  wayfarer  to  the  Panwee  Dhunka, 
a  distance  of  three  miles,  the  most  dangerous  I  ever  travened ;  the  path 
so  called*  being  excessively  narrow,  and  carried  along  vast  ledges  of 
rock,  inclined  at  a  high  angle  to  a  bottomless  pit  on  the  right,  from 
which  they  rise  at  an  equally  steep  angle  on  the  opposite  side.  I  cannot 
reoollect  such  enormous  shelves  of  rock  elsewhere,  nor,  exeept  the  Via 
Mala  on  the  Spliigen  road,  and  the  gorge  of  Oondo  on  tlse  Simplon  Pass, 
an  abyaa  more  profound.  Neither  of  these,  however,  can  compare  with 
the  Panwee  ka  Dhunka  in  the  extent  and  luxuriance  of  forest,  which  here 
cbthea  the  mountains  above  and  below,  to  the  right  and  to  the  left 
The  Skooling  falls  in  a  fine  cascade  doWn  to  the  right  at  such  a  depth, 
that  one  can  scarce  bear  to  glance  at  it,  save  from  such  "  coigne  of 
vantage"  as  a  tree  growing  from  the  cliSs.  "  The  least  obhquity  is 
fatal  here,"  and  no  one  should  attempt  the  passage  who  is  not  well 
assured  of  his  nerves,  or  weary  of  his  life.  Bossuet  has  a  passage  so 
doquent,  and  so  apt  to  such  a  situation,  that  my  readers,  if  any,  will 
be  pleased  at  its  insertion  here. 

*'  La  vie  humaine  est  semblable  k  un  chemin  dont  Tissue  est  un  pr^- 
piee  affireux.  On  nous  en  avertit  d^  le  premier  pas :  mais  la  loi  est 
port^,  il  faut  avancer  totgours.  Je  voudrais  rotoumer  en  arridre : 
Msrohe  I  marche  {  un  poids  invincible,  une  force  irresistible  nous  en- 
trs&ient;  il  faut  sans  cesse  avancer  vers  le  prMpioe.  Mille  traverses, 
miUe  peines  nous  fatiguent  et  nous  inquietent  dans  la  route.  Encore  si 
je  pouvais  ^ter  ce  pr^pice  affreux !  Non,  non ;  il  fsut  marcher,  il 
hxLt  courir ;  tdle  est  la  rapidit6  des  ann^es.  On  se  console  pourtant, 
psrce  que  de  temps  en  temps  on  rencontre  des  objets  qui  nous  divertis- 
Bsnt,  des  eaux  courantea,  des  fleura  qui  passent !  On  voudralt  s'arr^ter : 
Marche !  marche !  Bt  cependant  on  voit  tomber  derri^re  soi  tout  ce 
qu'oA  avait  pass^ :  fracas  effiroyable  !  iniSvitable  mine !  On  se  console, 
pafce  qu'on  emporte  quelques  fieurs  cueilUes  en  passant,  qu'on  voit  se 
fitter  entre  ses  mains  du  matin  au  soir,  et  quelques  fruits,  qu'on  perden 
les  go6tant :  enchantement !  illusion !  Toujours  entrsdnd,  tu  approches 
da  gouffine  affreux :  di^jk  tout  commence  fi  s'effaeer,  les  jardins  moins 
flenris,  les  fieurs  moins  brillantes,  leurs  oouleurs  moins  vives,  les  prairies 
moins  riantes,  les  eaux  moins  claires ;  tout  se  tnmit,  tout  s'efface.  L' 
ombre  de  la  mort  se  pr^iente ;  on  commence  £  sentir  Tapproache  du 
goufire  fatal.     Mais  il  friut  aller  sur  le  bord.    Encore  un  pas:  d^jk 


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104  LHary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

I'horreur  trouble  lea  sens,  la  t^te  tourne,  les  yeux  s'egarent.  U  faut 
marcher  :  on  youdrait  retoumer  en  arri^re ;  plus  de  mojens  :  tout 
est  tomb^,  tout  est  6vanoui,  tout  est  ^happ6 !"  and  it  was  our  fate  to 
escape  these  very  literal  precipices  by  an  abrupt  descent  to  Panwee,  all 
through  a  dense  and  lofty  forest,  excepting  the  last  500  feet,  which 
lead  to  the  village  through  terraced  cultivation.  l*he  forest  trees  occur  in 
the  following  descending  order — Picea  webbiana,  first  alone,  and  then 
mixed  with  P.  pindrow  and  Quercus  semicarpifolia  ;.then  Abies  smithiana 
and  Pinus  excelsa,  many  of  the  latter  fully  150  feet  high.  Lastly,  the 
cedar  feathers  all  the  bold  crags  about  the  village,  which  across  the 
Skooling  torrent  to  the  east  rise  precipitously  into  a  lofty  peak,  arguing 
no  easy  marches  ahead. 

We  encamped  by  a  temple  where  our  people  found  excellent  shelter 
from  the  brisk  showers  which  fell  in  the  afternoon.  A  thick  bush  of 
sacred  juniper  grows  in  the  enclosure,  and  the  vicinity  is  well  shaded 
by  horse  chestnut  (Pavia  indica),  elm,  peach,  apricot,  walnut,  and  mul- 
berry trees.  Panwee  is  a  middling- sized  village,  above  the  left  bank  of 
the  Skooling  river,  two  or  three  miles  from  Wangtoo  bridge,  and  from 
1,300  to  1,500  feet  above  it.  From  several  points  above  the  village,  the 
Sutluj,  with  the  road  to  Chegaon,  is  visible ;  as  well  as  the  wild  glen  of 
the  Wungur,  which  joins  at  the  bridge  in  one  succession  of  cataracts. 
By  visiting  Panwee,  we  have  enjoyed  some  of  the  sublimest  scenery  in 
the  world,  at  the  expense  of  a  stage  on  our  way  to  Sungla,  for  the 
direct  route  follows  the  Shatool  stream  to  Melum,  but  our  guides  were, 
or  pretended  to  be,  unacquainted  with  it,  and  on  enquiry  here,  we 
found  that  it  is  really  impracticable  to  men  with  loads ;  and  have  every 
reason  to  believe  it  must  be  extremely  difficult  without  that  encum- 
brance. 

September  I5th, — To  Melum  or  Rarnn^  (the  Melung  of  the  map), 
about  ten  miles  in  seven  hours,  by  a  difficult  route,  the  path  being  for 
the  most  part  as  rocky,  and  in  some  places  as  dangerous  as  any  we 
have  traversed.  At  one  almost  impassable  ledge,  one  of  our  dogs  fell 
and  had  a  narrow  escape.  (By  the  bye,  dogs  should  not  be  brought 
into  these  parts — being  perpetually  in  the  way,  to  the  risk  of  their  own 
and  their  master's  necks.)  In  several  places  jutting  crags  are  only  passed 
by  the  aid  of  the  ladders,  scaffoldings,  and  steps,  so  familiar  to  the  tra- 
veller in  Kunawur.     On  leaving  Panwee,  there  is  a  steep  declivity  to 


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1846.]  and  Boonm  Pastes  over  the  Hmulaya,  105 

the  torrent,  which  here  forms  a  pretty  cascade,  as  does  that  under 
Melum,  about  a  mile  short  of  the  viliage.  The  vegetation  here  consists 
of  rank  grass,  reeds,  &c.  Hence  there  is  a  considerable  ascent  to  a 
point  affording  an  interesting  view  of  the  Sutlaj,  and  its  picturesque 
rocky  gorge  where  spanned  by  the  Wangtoo  bridge.  Our  path  then  led 
us  down  to  the  left  bank  of  that  river,  now  rolling  along  an  impetuous 
torrent  of  milky  water.  A  long  ascent  succeeds,  with  the  river  from 
300  to  1,500  feet  right  below;  and  above  us  to  the  right  hand  long 
craggy  fii^ades,  bristling  with  cedar  which  abounds  hereabout.  The 
road  to  Cheenee  lies  down  on  the  opposite  bank  of  the  river.  From  the 
brow  of  the  last  ascent  our  path  turned  to  the  right  up  the  glen  of  Me- 
lum,  and  met  the  Shatool  Bus  torrent  in  about  two  miles,  where  it  has 
deposited  an  immense  accumulation  of  drift  timber,  the  spoils  of  the 
forests  above.  The  trees  on  its  banks  here  are  chiefly  Alnus  obtusifolia, 
Rhus  buckiamela,  and  Spiraea  lindleyana.  A  gentle  ascent  of  about  a 
mile  and  a  half  brought  us  to  Melum,  also  called  Ramn6,  a  small  but 
well  built  village,  about  7,000  feet  above  the  sea,  standing  on  a  plateau, 
closely  backed  by  steep  woody  mountains.  By  avoiding  the  last  steep 
ascent  to-day,  and  keeping  direct  on  to  the  mouth  of  the  Melum  river, 
we  might  perhaps  have  reached  Keelba ;  but  the  gentlemen  and  ladies 
who  carried  our  baggage  assured  us,  we  should  repent  if  we  tried  the 
very  bad  ascent  from  that  stream. 

September  16M. — ^To  Keelba,  about  nine  miles,  which  from  the 
excessive  ruggedness  and  difficulty  of  the  worst  path  in  the  world,  and 
its  manifold  steep  dips  and  rises,  we  only  accomplished  in  five  and  a  half 
hours.  First  we  descended  to,  and  crossed  a  torrent  below  Melum, 
and  then  mounted  by  Yana  or  Janee  village,  till  we  came  abreast  of 
Chegaon  or  Toling,  and  on  a  level  with  it,  7,225  feet  above  the  sea.  It 
consists  of  a  group  of  villages,  with  several  large  temples  and  extensive 
cultivation.  On  the  crags  at  this  point,  I  noticed  the  Incarvillea  diffusa 
of  Royle,  an  elegant  plant  which  is  also  found  on  the  Wangtoo  rocks. 
Hence  the  path  falls  to  the  Sutluj,  and  leaving  Poonung  above  to  the 
right,  continues  along  its  brink  for  a  few  miles  over  boulders,  gravel, 
and  sand,  overrun  by  a  shrubby,  silvery,  and  very  aromatic  Artemisia ; 
the  river  is  fringed  by  the  "  Wee,"  a  species  of  olive,  probably  Olea 
ferruginea.  The  toom  or  ash,  Fraxinus  xanthoxylloides,  is  common, 
but  of  no  great  size.     It  is  frequently  met  with  in  the  higher  parts  ot 


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106  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

Kunawar,  and  is  known  about  Rampoor,  as  the  Gaha  or  Ungah.  The 
▼erj  jaw-breaking  specific  name  is  very  justly  applied.  The  Daphne 
mucronata  of  Royle  here  becomes  a  common  shrub»  called  jeekoo ; 
and  near  Yana,  I  first  met  a  species  of  Celtis,  called  koo,  of  which  the 
drupe»  now  ripening,  of  the  size  of  a  small  cherry,  is  sweet  and  edible. 
There  are  two  species  or  varieties ;  one  a  large  tree  called  Ro-koo,  with 
black  or  dark  purple  fruit;  the  other,  Cho^koo,  smaller,  has  yellow  or 
orange  fruit.  This,  and  not  Elseagnus,  as  surmised  by  Royle»  I  take  to 
be  the  "  red  and  mawkbhly  sweet  berry,"  produced  on  a  shrub  in 
Hungrung,  as  mentioned  by  Herbert  (Asiatic  Researches,  XV.  392.) : 
as  his  "  yellow  and  acid  berry  about  the  size  of  a  currant,"  is  no  doubt 
the  fruit  of  the  Soorch  (Hippophae  salicifolia).  The  Koo  is  pretty 
common  nearly  up  to  Brooang,  at  Meeroo,  &c.  It  has  been  mention- 
ed to  me  by  a  friend  as  occurring  under  the  name  "  Kaksi"  near  Jungee, 
where,  however,  a  subsequent  enquirer  couid  hear  nothing  of  it :  in  all 
likelihood  because  the  first  had  been  misinformed  as  to  the  name; 
"  Kagshee"  being  the  Cornus  macrophylla,  which  has  a  leaf  like  the 
Celtis.  Both  the  Geltis  and  the  Zizyphus  have  been  identified  with  the 
famous  lotus  of  the  Lotophagi ;  but  assuredly  one  may  devour  any 
quantity  of  Koos  or  Bers,  without  risk  of  forgetting  one's  home  and 
friends.  A  little  below  Panwee,  and  generally  up  the  left  banks  of  the 
Sutluj  and  Buspa  to  Brooang,  at  an  average  of  6,000  feet,  there  is  abun- 
dance of  a  species  of  oak,  which  I  have  not  met  elsewhere,  though  it 
seemft  to  be  the  Quercus  cassura,  of  Don's  Prodromus.  The  leaves  are 
exceedingly  waved  and  spinous,  tomentose  below  (as  are  the  cups  of  the 
acorns,  which  are  produced  by  six  to  eight)  or  solitary,  on  spikes  or 
peduncles  of  five  or  six  inches.  They  are  now  nearly  ripe.  The  tree 
is  called  "  Br^,"  but  this  seems  to  denote  the  genus  only.  Pinus 
gerardiana  is  pretty  common,  but  not  very  large  on  the  crags,  during 
this  day's  journey : — and  in  the  coppice,  Abelia  triflora  occurs  abundant- 
ly, here  called  "  Spung :"  the  "  Takla"  of  Bulsun  and  Bhujee. 

From  the  river-bank,  the  path  now  ascends  for  two  miles  or  so,  to  a 
few  hundred  feet  above  its  level :  another  rainy  season  will,  to  all 
appearance,  render  it  impassable,  and  it  is  now  as  dangerous  as 
can  well  be  imagined,  crossing  a  vast  landslip  with  a  most  precarious 
footing  on  loose  sand  and  rocks,  highly  inclined,  where  each  step 
receives  and  requires  more  deliberation  than  an  act  of  Parliament. 


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1846.]  and  Boarm  Passes  over  ths  Himaiaya.  107 

What  has  been  done  once  may  be  done  agam»  but  no  reasonable  man 
would  attempt  this  a  second  time.  The  reward  consists  in  the  view 
of  the  river*  here  not  above  ten  yards  over,  *<  a  hell  of  waters"  rushing 
on,  like  Pyriphlegethon,  in  perfect  cataract,  boiling,  foaming,  and  tossed 
up  vertically  in  one  continuous  mass  of  spray  in  its  ungovernable  career, 
amidst  immense  boulders,  and  under  the  tremendous  precipices  of 
the  right  bank,  which  it  seems  bent  on  undermining.  What  an  anti« 
thesis  between  its  recent  quiescent  state  and  gentle  fall  as  ice  and  snow» 
and  this  unruly  turbulence,  and  then  its  almost  stagnant  course  onward 
to  the  ocean,  where  it  enters  on  its  final  probation  as  vapor,  realizing 
the  hell  imagined  by  Shakespeare  :— 

"  To  reside 
In  thrilling  regions  of  thick-ribbed  ice ; 
To  be  impriBoned  in  the  TiewleM  winds, 
And  blown  with  restless  violence  about 
The  pendent  world/* 

Above  this,  the  river  receives  an  affluent  from  Meeroo,  and  on 
an  isolated  rock,  just  above  the  junction,  stands  the  Raja's  Castle 
of  Gholing,  the  Chalgee  of  the  map  :  still  higher  up,  the  Channel 
widens,  and  the  river  flows  with  a  strong  uniform  current,  bounded  by 
a  broad  bed  of  shingle  on  its  right  bank.  The  Sutluj  may  here  be  said 
to  effect  its  passage  through  the  great  range,  and^  generally,  the  travel- 
ler cannot  fail  to  be  surprised  at  the  manner,  almost  resembling  instinct, 
in  which  the  river  finds  its  way  through  such  a  labyrinth  of  mountains. 
It  has  here  indeed  followed  the  natural  line  of  a  vast  echellon  formed 
by  the  Shatool  ranges  to  the  south,  and  those  of  Speetee  and  KooUoo  to 
the  north :  and  from  the  Thibet  frontier  at  Shipkee  to  Rampoor  has  an 
average  fall  of  sixty  feet  per  mile.  The  absence  of  lakes,  and  the  ex^- 
istence  of  so  general  and  efficient  a  system  of  natural  drainage  seems 
to  argue  the  vast  antiquity  of  the  Himalaya,  and  may  also  serve  to 
establish  Lyell's  theory  of  a  gradual  upheavement  of  mountain  chains, 
which  afforded  time  for  the  water  to  adjust  their  levels ;  and  to  fill  up 
the  basins  with  those  deep  deposits  of  gravel  and  boulders,  through 
which  they  are  so  often  found  to  excavate  their  beds.  The  planes  are 
indeed  still  far  from  uniformity ;  and  the  roar  of  the  torrent  and  the  cas» 
cade,  the  sound  of  many  waters,  is  rarely  out  of  our  ears  as  we  approach 
the  higher  mountains. 


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108  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

From  the  rapids  of  the  Sutlaj  an  abrupt  ascent  of  several  hundred 
feet  leads  to  the  cultivation,  chiefly  buck  wheat,  and  finally  under 
vineyards,  to  the  romantic  village  of  Keelba,  situated  immediately  above 
the  river,  surrounded  by  great  niunbers  of  fine  peach,  apricot,  walnut 
and  elm  trees ;  while  some  superb  weeping  willows  flourish  by  the 
beautifully  clear  rivulets  which  gush  down  on  every  hand  from  the 
lofty  mountains  to  the  south.  These  are  densely  wooded,  and  shew  a 
front  of  splendid  precipices  to  the  north  or  north-west,  ending  in 
a  high  bluff  of  rock,  which  seems' the  "  Yana  Bui"  of  the  map.  Seen 
from  near  Meeroo  across  the  river,  the  appearance  is  as  if  a  great  tract 
of  ground  had  here  subsided,  having  a  high  wall  of  rock  on  one  sidci 
reaching  up  to  the  Snowy  range  near  the  Boorun  Ghatee.  Meeroo 
itself  is  hidden  from  Keelba,  but  the  neighbouring  village  and  cul- 
tivated slopes  of  Oorinnee,  400  to  500  feet  above  us,  are  visible  to 
the  north-west ;  and  to  the  east,  the  snowy  peaks  of  the  Ruldung  just 
come  into  view.  The  grapes  here  and  at  Brooang,  &c.  have  totally 
failed  this  year,  probably  from  the  prevalence  of  unseasonable  rain, 
which  fell  in  drizzling  showers  to-day  and  yesterday,  but  cleared  up 
this  afternoon.  At  Melum,  a  good  room  was  placed  at  our  disposal, 
with  a  second  for  our  people :  and  we  have  the  same  advantage  at 
Keelba. 

September  17 th. — ^To  Brooung,  Booroo,  or  Brood,  eight  or  nine  miles. 
We  marched  at  20  minutes  to  8  a.  m.  and  descended  to  the  Sutluj, 
which  here  flows  in  a  broad  and  comparatively  calm  stream :  the  path 
generally  bad,  lying  up  and  down  the  crags,  which  are  finally  wooded 
with  ash,  olive,  and  neoza  pine  (P.  gerardiana.)  At  half  past  nine  we 
reached  the  confluence  of  the  Buspa,  which  flows  into  the  Sutluj  like  a 
mill-race,  and  is  equally  muddy,  marking  its  source  in  a  granitic  tract. 
'*  Pilgrim"  attributes  the  turbid  waters  of  the  Neelung  to  its  source 
amongst  mountains  of  slate  clay  (p.  33.)  but  on  inspection  of  the  Rul- 
dung cluster,  which  may  be  called  the  cradle  of  the  Buspa,  with  its  great 
scars  and  flaws  of  whitish  granite,  induces  me  to  conclude  that  the  dis- 
coloration is  due  to  the  decomposition  of  this  rock :  it  is  exactly  the 
same  with  the  Arveron  at  Chamouni.  The  bluff  crags  and  cliffs, 
feathered  with  cedar,  and  the  twisted  neoza,  are  very  grand  where  the 
rivers  unite :  the  Sutluj  comes  down  through  a  narrow  rocky  gorge, 
a  little  above  the  point  of  confluence ;  a  good  Sanga,  5,968  feet  above  the 


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1846.]  and  Boorun  Passes  over  the  Himalaya.  109 

sea,  is  thrown  across  the  Buspa,  for  the  Pooaree  and  Gheena  road ;  but 
our  route  lay  up  the  rough,  stony  path  on  the  left  bank— -the  river  a  per- 
fect torrent,  in  a  very  deep  confined  gully,  where  the  channel  is 
choked  by  huge  boulders.  At  the  fifth  or  sixth  mile,  we  should  have 
quitted  the  gorge,  and  ascended  to  firooung:  but  we  had  loitered 
behind  the  coolies,  and  proceeding  to  the  Brooung  stream,  were  in  fall 
route  to  Sungla,  when  we  fortunately  met  its  Mookheea  on  his  way  to 
Ralee,  who  shewed  us  our  mistake,  and  directed  us  back  up  a  steep 
ascent  of  about  800  feet,  where  we  lost  our  way  again  in  a  wilderness 
of  firuit  trees,  and  got  at  least  500  feet  above  the  village,  which,  after 
two  hours'  wandering  in  complete  uncertainty,  we  at  length  hit  on  quite 
accidentally.  It  is  a  poor  scattered  place,  just  above  the  left  bank  of 
the  stream  from  the  Boorun  Ghatee,  the  snows  and  peaks  of  which 
are  seen  above :  the  inhabitants  are  a  meagre,  sickly  race.  It  seems 
to  be  the  place  called  Soorung,  in  the  trigonometrical  map— <)ne 
of  its  manifold  errors  in  typography.  The  elevation  is  generally  given 
7,411  feet,  but  in  a  German  map,  publbhed  at  Berlin,  it  is  stated  to  be 
8,820  feet,  (Paris)  or  9,400  English,  which  is  certainly  too  much. 

On  rivulets  flowing  into  the  Buspa,  I  noticed  to*day  a  species  of 
Tussilago  (colts-foot)  with  the  habit  of  T.  petasites ;  it  is  said  in  May 
and  June  to  produce  fragrant  yellowish  flowers.  With  it  grew  the 
Polygonum  runcinatum  of  Don's  Prodromns. 

September  18rA.— From  Brooung  to  Sungla,  about  twelve  miles,  in 
seven  hours.  For  half  this  distance  the  path  rises  and  fidls  along  the 
left  bank  of  the  Buspa  through  beautiful  scenery,  the  precipitous  rocks 
feathered  with  the  neoza  pine,  here  generally  called  Shungtee  and  Ree. 
The  course  by  the  river  then  becomes  impracticable ;  and  a  steep  ascent 
of  2,000  feet  succeeds  nearly  up  to  Ghansoo,  with  a  line  of  stupendous 
precipices  to  the  right,  the  pents  and  ledges  of  which  are  clothed  with 
splendid  cedar  and  kail  (Pinus  excelsa,)  many  of  the  latter  not  under 
150  feet  in  height.  To  the  left,  the  Buspa  rages  in  a  series  of  cataracts 
through  a  tremendous  abyss,  which  succeeds  its  comparatively  level 
course  over  the  Sungla  valley.  Boisterous  indeed  is  the  career  of  this 
aquatic  Richard :  its  average  fall  being  250  feet  per  mile.  The  brink  and 
face  of  the  steep  on  this  side  is  fringed  with  many  superb  old  tabular- 
headed  cedars,  their  gigantic  boughs  thrown  about  in  wild  disorder,  like 
Lear,  with  outstretched  arms,  appealing  in  vain  to  the  unpitying  heavens. 


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110  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

The  tree  constantly  prefers  the  steepest  acclivities,  a  peculiarity  which 
must  be  respected  by  those  now  trying  to  naturalize  it  at  home :  it 
will  infaUibly  perish  if  planted. in  any  ground  approaching  a  swamp,  a 
condition  unknown  to  the  Himalaya.  Near  the  foot  of  this  ascent  there 
is  a  dogra  or  hamlet,  belonging  to  Chansoo,  with  orchards  of  apricot, 
walnut,  and  peach  trees,  of  which  last  the  very  abundant  fruit  was 
sweet  and  juicy.  The  people  and  the  bears  divide  the  prise ;  the  former 
securing  their  share  by  day,  which  is  dried  in  the  sun  for  winter  con- 
sumption. The  bears,  who  are  said  to  be  very  numerous,  devour  their 
portion  by  night.  Ghansoo  is  9,174  feet  above  the  sea,  and  is  a  most 
lovely  and  picture9que  spot ;  the  continuation  of  the  difb  before  men* 
tioned,  extending  behind  it  in  a  lofty  amj^theatre,  the  brow  of  which 
is  clothed  with  birch,  now  falling  into  the  sere  and  yellow  leaf  of  winter. 
The  fields  of  Ghansoo  are  shaded  by  very  large  walnut  and  cedar  trees : 
we  measured  an  elm  twcnty«niile  feet  round,  at  five  from  the  ground. 
From  Ghansoo  there  is  a  route  via  Soangor  Sheong.  (9,000  feet),  over 
the  Sheoo  Ghatee,  (13,350  feet),  to  Paneemor  and  the  Boorun  Gbatee. 
It  is  very  interesting  from  its  carrying  the  traveller  amongst  the  most 
splendid  cliff-scenery :  and  from  the  summit  of  the  Sheoo  Ghatee  seve- 
ral  shadowy  ranges,  covered  with  snow,  are  seen  to  occupy  the  horizon 
from  north  to  north-east^-^the  far  away  mountains  of  Ladakh  and  Thibet. 
Our  descent  towards  Sungla  was  amongst  huge  detached  masses  of 
gneiss,  and  at  about  one*third  the  height  ascended,  we  again  reached  the 
Buspa,  no  longer  roving  like  a  maniac  in  a  strait  waistcoat,  but  flowing 
rapidly,  and  frequently  in  three  or  four  streams,  along  the  open  valley 
of  Sungla :  Kumroo,  the  old  capital  of  Busehur,  is  seen  across  the  river, 
and  devated  several  hundred  feet  above  it:  it  is  about  a  mile  from 
Sungla;  the  intervening  tract  being  a  high  plateau,  a  forest  of  fruit 
trees.  The  rajas  found  themselves  Tartar  up  here,  and  determining  to 
become  Hindoo,  removed  to  Rampoor,  as-^arvM  componert  nui^fnu*^ 
Peter  the  Great  left  Asia  and  Moscow  for  Europe  and  Petersburg. 
The  banks  of  the  Buspa  are  here  fringed  with  the  willow  and  "  Soorch," 
(Hippophse  salicifolia) ;  and  in  three  or  four  miles  from  Ghansoo,  we 
crossed  to  the  right  bank  by  a  good  Sanga,  immediately  under  the 
village  of  Sungla,  close  to  which  we  encamped,  by  a  temple  adorned  as 
usual  in  these  parts,  with  many  beads  and  horns  of  wild  sheep,  deer,  &c. 
Some  of  them  belonging  to  an  animal  called  kin,  skin,  or  sikeeng,  are  of 


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1846.]  and  Boorun  Passes  over  the  Himalaya,  111 

monstrous  dimensioiis.  The  very  general  practice  of  deconitmg  the 
temples  (not  of  the  men  but)  of  the  gods,  with  horns,  which  prevails 
£ven  amongst  the  Mohammedans  of  the  Hindoo  Koosh,  reminds  ns  of 
the  expression-^"  horns  of  the  altar"-*-among  the  Jews,  as  well  as  of  the 
altar  of  Apollo  at  Delos,  which  is  reported  to  have  been  wholly  formed 
of  them.  There  is  perhaps  a  reference  to  the  rays  of  the  son,  which  are 
denoted  in  Hebrew  by  the  word  Kiran,  which  also  expresses  horns; 
hence,  when  it  is  said  "  Moses'  face  shone,"  the  Vulgate  chooses  to  render 
it — "  was  horned ;"  and  the  Italian  painters  have  ever  since  represented 
the  prophet  with  horns  just  as  Alexander  the  Great  ("  Dhul,"  Kamein) 
wears  them  in  right  of  his  father  Jupiter  Ammon.  The  sun  would 
naturally  play  a  prominent  rdle  in  the  primeval  worship  of  the  Himalaya, 
and  I  remember  once  at  Paikha,  on  the  upper  Pabur,  when  marking  out 
a  short  vocabulary,  having  "  Purmeshwur"  given  me  as  the  name  for 
the  sun :  a  significant  commentary  on  the  Gayatri ! 

Sungla  is  rather  a  large  village,  built  on  a  slope  facing  the  south- 
east, about  150  feet  above  the  Buspa,  and  8,600  above  the  sea.  There 
seems  no  medium  in  the  looks  of  the  inhabitants*  who  are  either  very 
handsome  or  very  ugly.  Of  the  extreme  beauty  of  the  valley  there  can 
be  but  one  opinion :  the  river  flows  swiftly  down  the  centre  over  gravel 
and  stones ;  above  this,  on  plateau  of  various  levels,  is  an  abundant  ter- 
raced cultivation  of  cheena,  bathoo,  tobacco,  kodah,  and  the  beautiful 
buckwheat,  diversified  by  occasional  woods  of  cedar,  poplar,  and  the 
usual  fruit  trees,  irrigated  ad  libitum  without  labour ;  the  difficulty  in  the 
hills  being  to  level  the  ground,  and  in  the  plains  to  water  it.  To  the 
south  the  base  of  the  outer  Himalaya  is  sloping  and  verdant,  with 
woods  of  cedar  and  kdil  firs :  and  immediately  above  the  valley  to  the 
north-east,  rise  the  enormous  bare,  grey,  rocky  scarps  and  pinnacles  of 
the  Ruldung  group,  with  considerable  snow  beds  wherever  the  slope 
allows,  and  still  resisting  the  force  of  the  southern  sun.  This  magni- 
ficent group  extends  far  up  the  Buspa  towards  and  beyond  Rukchum, 
above  which  a  single  pyramid  of  rock  springs  up  nearly  to  the  height 
of  the  loftiest  peaks  behind  Sungla,  21,500  feet :  but  to  see  the  valley 
and  its  setting  in  all  its  perfection  of  pinnacle,  crag,  and  fields  of  the 
purest  snow,  one  must  mount  to  the  highest  hamlet  towards  the  Roopin 
Pass.  The  scene  strongly  recalled  Chamouni  to  my  mkid  :  the  Buspa 
enacts  the  Arve  well,  and  in  each  situation  the  mountains  actually  rise 

Q 


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112  Diary  of  an  Eseursion  to  the  Shatooi  [No.  170. 

about  13,000  feet  right  above  the  spectator.  Seen  laterally  from  Gheenee 
at  only  seven  miles  distance,  the  Ruldung  presents  the  additional 
feature  of  dark  and  extensive  forests,  and  the  sharp  needles  are  there 
mingled  with  long  dome-shaped  ridges,  all  invested  in  perpetual  snow, 
from  which,  in  June  and  July,  is  heard  the  frequent  crash  of  the  ava- 
lanche. *'  Ruldung"  is  the  Kunawuree  name  for  Muhadeo,  who  resides 
here,  as  Jove 

*  On  the  snowy  top 
Of  cold  Olympus  ruled  the  middle  air, 
His  highest  heaven.' 

The  legend  is,  that  Ruldung  is  a  chip  of  the  true  Rylas  near  Mansoro- 
wur,  brought  here  at  the  desire  of  an  ancient  king  and  penitent :  and 
it  is  considered  meritorious  to  perambulate  the  mountain,  keeping  it 
always  to  the  right  hand,  exactly  as  the  cairns,  &c.,  are  circled  in  Scot- 
land and  Ireland,  and  for  the  same  reason,  i.  e.  because  the  sun  goes 
round  the  earth  in  this  direction."'  Amidst  all  this  superstition,  the 
sublimity  and  immaculate  purity  of  the  Ch'hota  Kylas  render  it  no 
mean.emblem  of  "the  high  and  holy  one  that  inhabiteth  eternity ;"  and 
we  may  quote  with  admiration,  if  we  do  not  adopt  with  conviction^  the 
lines  of  the  poet,  written  under  the  inspiration  of  similar  scenery— 

*  Mighty  Mont  Blanc  1  thou  wert  to  me 
That  moment  with  thy  brow  in  heaven. 
As  sure  a  sign  of  Deity 
As  ere  to  mortal  gaze  was  given,  &c.* 

There  does,  indeed,  appear  to  be  both  benevolence  and  design  in  the 
existence  of  these  great  mountain  chains,  and  we  may  consider  the 
Himalaya  as  nature's  vast  reservoir  for  the  irrigation  of  empires ;  opened 
every  spring  by  PhcBbus  Apollo,  when  like  Amram's  son,  he  ascends  from 
the  south  and  causes  the  waters  to  gush  from  the  flinty  rock.  It  is 
probable,  that  a  portion  of  the  Hindoo  veneration  for  the  range  is  owing 
to  its  containing  the  springs  of  so  many  of  the  rivers  which  fertilize  their 
country. 

When  at  Sungla,  the  traveller  should  not  fail  to  ascend  the  Harong 
Ghatee,  over  a  brown  sterile  spur  of  the  Ruldung,  on  the  route  to  Me- 

*  I  have  seen  a  Sikh  soldier  go  through  exactly  the  same  ceremony  at  a  shrine  near 
Makhowal  Anundpoor.  From  how  much  superstition  would  a  knowledge  of  the  aolar 
system  hfive  rescued  the  world ! 


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1846.]  and  Bowrun  Passes  over  the  Himalaya,  113 

bur  and  Cheenee,  for  the  view  of  the  snowy  range  and  Passes  to  the 
south.  The  scenery  on  the  Buspa  at  Rukchum  is  said  to  be  of  the 
finest  description :  want  of  time  prevented  our  seeing  them.  At  Sungla  is 
first  met  the  petit  shrine  called  Chasiun  by  the  Buddhists ;  in  one  of  the 
four  sides  a  small  cylinder  revolves  on  an  axis,  which  the  passenger 
puts  in  motion.  Such  a  cylinder  on  a  great  scale  may  be  seen  in  the 
temple  at  Soongnum,  inscribed  all  over  with  '  om  mane  pudme  hom/ 
which  Klaproth  interprets  '  oh !  the  Jewel  is  in  the  lotus :"  of  which  the 
esoteric  meaning  is  very  deep.  The  prayer  is  considered  as  good  as  said 
by  each  revolution ;  an  idea  which  could  never  have  originated  but  in 
the  mechanical  and  material  mind  of  the  Mongolian  race. 

This  day,  the  18th,  was  cloudy,  and  snow  fell  on  the  Passes  to  the 
southward,  but  the  afternoon  was  fine.     We  halted  on  the  19th. 

September  20th. — From  Sungla  to  Nooroo  Bassa,  about  ten  miles, 
in  six  hours,  generally  up  an  easy  ascent  by  a  path  which  is  perfection, 
compared  with  any  between  this  and  the  Shatool :  traversing  first  some 
woods  of  cedar  and  koil,  and  then  over  the  cultivated  slopes  of  one  or 
two  small  hamlets,  where  the  wheat  and  barley  were  being  cut,  and  sent 
down  to  Sungla.  Above  this,  the  path  lies  over  grassy  mountains, 
with  wooded  crags  across  the  torrent  to  the  left-hand;  the  whole 
somewhat  tame  after  what  we  have  seen,  but  for  the  Ruldung.  The 
Chough  abounds  amidst  the  cliffs  in  all  this  and  the  upper  portion 
of  Kunawur.  On  the  way  to-day«  we  met  a  herd  of  the  Yak,  which 
supplies  the  Chownree.  In  Thibet,  or  the  neighbouring  districts  of 
Toorkistan,  we  have  the  origin  of  the  Pashas  of  one,  two,  three,  or  many 
tails,  who  once  carried  terror  over  Europe.  About  1,000  feet  below 
Nooroo,  the  path  turns  to  the  right,  the  glen  of  the  Nu^oon  Pftss  being 
straight  ahead.  About  here  large  beds  of  ligularia  amicoides  were  in 
seed  fully  ripe,  while  on  the  south  side  of  the  range,  it  is  still  in  fiill 
blossom :  700  feet  higher,  the  declivities  are  covered  with  Anagyris 
barbata ;  the  seed  nearly  ripe,  but  much  injured  by  grubs.  The  roots 
are  much  branched,  and  extend  several  feet  under  ground.  The  plant 
is  here  called  Bkaloo  ka  buroot;  it  flowers  in  May  and  June,  and 
resembles  a  lupine  of  the  deepest  purple.  Nooroo  Bassa  is  an  extensive 
open  piece  of  grassy  land,  12,985  feet  above  the  sea,  and  a  few  hundred 
feet  above  the  highest  birches,  which  afford  abundance  of  fuel.  A 
stream  flows  about  100  feet  below  to  the  south  amongst  beds  of 


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1 14  Diary  of  an  Eacuraion  to  the  Shatool        '    [No.  170. 

snow;  its  right  bank  is  rugged  and  craggy;  the  left  sloping  and 
covered  with  Cyananthus,  &c.,  the  general  prospect  limited  and  rather 
uninteresting.  A  bitterly  cold  storm  of  sleet  came  down  from  the  Pa88» 
just  as  our  tents  arrived,  and  we  had  hard  frost  all  night,  fully  a 
month  before  it  is  thought  of  at  Simla. 

September  2l8t. — Over  the  Roopin  Pass  to  Rasur  or  Rasrung.  called 
also  Si^a  Peechoo,  distance  eleven  or  twelve  miles.  We  left  Nooroo 
at  twenty  minute  past  six  a.  m.,  and  by  an  easy  ascent  reached  the 
crest  of  the  Pass  at  a  quarter  past  nine,  including,  as  elsewhere,  several 
stoppages  to  collect  seeds,  &c.  Heavy  and  suspicious  masses  of  douda 
accelerated  our  departure,  but  the  sun  soon  dispelled  them,  and  re* 
vealed  the  gigantic  forms  which,  surrounded  us — the  embodied  frost — 
giants  of  the  Edda,  and  very  unlike  the  guardian  angels  seen  by 
Gehazi  to  encompass  the  prophet.  The  northern  declivity  of  the  Pass 
is  quite  a  trifle  in  comparison  with  that  of  the  Shatool.  On  the  20th 
of  September  1833,  it  was  an  unbroken  and  extensive  sheet  of  snow,  but 
to-day  we  only  met  two  beds  of  it  near  the  summit ;  nor  is  there  any 
Moraine,  so  terrible  at  the  Shatool  (torn  its  chaos  of  sharp  gneiss 
masses.  Here  the  rock  is  chiefly  flat  micaceous  slate,  sometimes  ap- 
proaching to  sandstone,  and  therefore  of  easy  passage^  though  not 
macadamized.  The  grand  cliffis  of  the  Shatool  are  also  wanting  here, 
but  on  the  left  or  east,  there  are  some  flue  shivered  pinnacles  of  rock, 
plentifully  strewed  with  snow- beds  and  sufficiently  high 

•  To  shew, 
That  earth  may  reach  to  hea?en, 
Yet  leave  vain  man  below.' 

And  nowhere  does  he  appear  vainer  and  more  insignificant  than 
here,  if  we  regard  only  his  physical  strength  and  size ;  at  the  same 
time,  the  mind  of  a  Shakspeare  or  a  Newton  is  more  truly  wonderful 
and  sublime  than  all  the  Ossas  heaped  on  all  the  Pelions  in  the  world. 
The  glory  of  the  Roopin  Pass  consists  in  the  cascades  on  its  south  side, 
in  its  lovely  valley,  and  in  the  views  of  the  Buspa  Dell  and  the  Ruldung 
pinnacles,  which  (torn  this  point  are  seen  from  N£.  to  E.  rising  from 
great  fields  x)f  the  purest  snow,  untrodden  by  man,  and  probably  by  any 
living  thing.  On  the  21st  September  1833,  the  thermometer  boiled  on 
the  summit  of  the  Roopin  at  186^:  the  elevation  is  reckoned  to  be 
15,460  feet :  and  on  that  day  about  noon  it  stood  in  the  shade  at  49**, 


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1846.]  tmd  B&onm  Passes  wer  the  Himalaya,  1 15 

uid  in  the  sun  at  68^.  It  is  the  Pass  marked  Goonaa  in  the  map, 
which  is  another  error,  the  Ooonaa  being  more  to  the  west.  "  Pilgrim" 
refuses  to  all  this  range  the  honour  of  being  the  veritable  Himalaya,  and 
Captain  Herbert  considered,  that  the  true  continuation  of  this  latter 
was  in  the  Ruldung  group,  penetrated  by  the  Sutluj  near  Murung :  it 
is  however  merely  a  question  of  more  or  less ;  and  there  is,  at  all  events, 
no  denying  that  from  the  Shatool  Pass  eastward,  there  is  a  snowy 
range,  inasmuch  as  even  on  its  south  exposure,  the  snow  never  dis- 
appears :  nor  can  the  ftict  of  its  gradually  declining  below  the  zone  of 
perpetual  snow  in  the  Moral  ka  Kanda,  between  the  Sutluj  and  the 
Pabur,  detract  from  its  claim ;  though  it  must  be  allowed,  that  the  moun* 
tains  and  Passes  are  inferior  in  altitude  to  those  of  Kemaon ;  nor  can  the 
north-western  mountains,  any  more  than  the  whole  world,  furnish  the 
prospect  of  overwhelming  sublimity  which  the  spectator  enjoys  from 
the  Gragur,  Binsur,  and  many  more  points  near  Almorah.  Still  the 
easternmost  Pass  into  Kemaon  from  Thibet,  the  Byans,  is  under 
16,000  feet  elevation,  and  of  so  gentle  ascent,  that  it  is  crossed  on  horse- 
back :  and  the  Chinese  invasion  of  Nepal  proves  that,  still  more  to  the 
east,  the  Passes  can  scarcely  be  so  difficult  as  the  Shatool. 

Like  Dean  Swift,  the  mountains  die  at  top  first,  and  except  a  small 
white  Heliehrysum  and  the  fragrant  Centaurea,  the  vegetation  on  and 
near  the  Pass  is  now  being  rapidly  burnt  up  by  the  frost :  two  or  three 
Gentians,  the  Aconitum  dissectum,  and  the  Delphinium  vestitum,  seem 
alone  to  defy  its  power :  but  few  flowers  remain  of  Saxifraga  pamassiae- 
folia  (orglandulosa  ?),  Sieversia  elata,  Ligularia  amicoides,  the  yellow 
Tanacetum,  common  Senecio,  and  a  Polygonum  like  the  bistort  of  the 
Alps.  On  the  crest  of  the  Pass  grow  the  Aplotaxis  gossypina,  Poten- 
tilla  inglesii,  HymenolsBua  govaniana,  Corydalis  meifolia,  and  Saxi- 
fraga imbricata;  the  last  two  in  flower. 

We  quitted  the  crest  at  quarter  past  10  a.  m.,  the  wind  being  bitterly 
cold,  and  descended  800  feet  or  so,  over  loose  stones  and  frozen  snow, 
by  a  steep  rocky  kloof  to  a  kind  of  oval  basin,  extending  in  length 
from  NNW.  to  SSE.  from  six  to  eight  miles,  by  two  or  three  across* 
enclosed  by  a  barrier  of  black  broken  crags,  debris,  and  snow  beds ;  the 
8ur£ace  covered  with  snow  and  mica  slabs,  thrown  about  in  great  con- 
fusion ;  a  scene  of  utter  silence  and  desolation.  Here  and  there,  there  is  a 
pool  of  water,  and  a  multitude  of  tiny  rills  trickled  under  the  stones,  the 


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116  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

sources  of  the  Roopin  river,  of  which  the  glen  below  this  valley,  is 
found,  after  a  long  and  steep  descent,  to  be  completely  blocked  across 
by  a  precipitous  wall  of  black  rock,  from  250  to  300  feet  high.  Over 
this  the  accumulated  streams  leap  down  by  two  falls,  which,  to  the  best  of 
my  memory^  surpass  in  beauty  the  finest  in  Switzerland :  the  water 
perfectly  clear,  and  reduced  to  white  mist  like  the  Staubbach,  falls  in 
the  softest  wreaths  over  succesive  tiers  of  ledges,  and  about  a  mile  lower 
down,  where  the  two  falls  are  brought  into  one  line,  the  effect  is  exceed- 
ingly fine.  The  path  has  hitherto  kept  on  the  right  bank  of  the  stream, 
but  crosses  between  the  falls,  where  in  1833,  a  deep  snow-bed  supplied  a 
bridge ;  but  this  year,  it  is  much  melted  here,  though  at  the  base  of 
the  lower  fell,  the  river  passes  under  an  enormous  mass  of  it.  Here  the 
path  improves,  following  the  narrow  glen  alongside  the  river,  now 
flowing  gently  for  a  few  miles  as  if  to  rest  after  its  great  leap.  The 
mountain-cataract,  which,  having  leaped  from  its  more  dazzling  height, 

*  Even  in  the  foaming  strength  of  ita  abyss, 
(Which  casts  up  misty  columns  that  become 
Clouds  raining  from  the  re- ascended  skies,) 
Lies  low  but  mighty  still.' 

The  lateral  cliffs  all  down  to  Rasrung  are  continuous  on  each  side  of  the 
valley,  and  so  whitened  with  cascades,  that  the  scene  considerably 
resembles  Lauterbrunnen,  in  the  Canton  Bern,  and  fully  deserves  that 
name — **  nothing  but  springs."  There  is  here  indeed  no  wood,  the  whole 
being  quite  above  the  region  of  forest ;  but  the  grassy  or  rocky  talus  at 
the  base  of  the  crags,  as  well  as  the  small  levels  by  the  water,  are  richly 
enamelled  with  flowers : — such  as  Primula  stuartii,  purpurea,  and  glabra : 
Sieversia  elata,  Aconitum  dissectum,  Ligularia  amicoides  and  another, 
Polemonium  cseruleum,  Scrophularia  urticsefolia,  the  blue  Meconopsis, 
and  a  host  of  Compositse  and  Labiatae,  especially  near  the  falls;  the 
Greek  valerian  is  very  common,  and  in  full^  bloom,  as  is  a  very  pretty 
species  of  Forget-me-not ;  these,  and  the  Lotus  comiculatus  are  amongst 
the  many  examples  which  in  these  mountains  frequently  replace  us  for 
a  moment  or  two  in  our  native  land : 

*  And,  as  in  forts  to  which  beleaguerers  win 
Unhoped-for  entrance  through  some  friend  within, 
One  clear  idea  wakened  in  the  breast, 
By  Memory's  magic,  lets  in  all  the  rest.' 


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1846.]  and  Boarun  Passes  over  the  Himalajfa.  117 

Many  of  our  Himalayan  tourists,  especially  the  earlier  ones,  have  allow- 
ed their  imaginations  to  run  away  with  their  judgments,  and  have 
dressed  up  their  descriptions  more  in  the  style  of  Macpherson  or  of 
Harris  than  of  sober  prose :  but  it  must  be  admitted  in  extenuation, 
that  the  reality  of  the  scenery,  and  the  champagne  atmosphere,  able  to 
drive  all  sadness  but  despair,  have  an  inevitable  tendency  to  exalt  the 
spirit  to  the  etherial  regions,  which  there,  Ghamaeleon-like,  naturally 
assumes  the  tint  of  their  deep  native  blue.  Even  in  the  physical  de- 
partment of  the  man,  a  greatly  diminished  dose  of  alcohol  will  suffice  to 
produce  intoxication.  The  daily  repetition,  however,  of  the  sublime 
and  beautiful,  is  very  apt  to  create  a  revulsion  of  feeling,  till  at  length, 
to  get  rid  of  the  perilous  stuff  which  preys  upon  the  heart,  we  take 
refuge  in  apathy,  and  perhaps  fall  so  low  as  to  adopt  the  Frenchman's 
panegyric,  '*  Grande,  magnifique,  superbe — pretty  well  I"  or  at  least  to 
swear  with  Akenside— * 

*  Mind,  mind  alone,  bear  witness  heaven  and  earth. 
The  proper  foantains  in  itself  contains 
Of  beauteous  and  sublime.' 

After  many  delays  from  seed  and  plant-collecting,  and  a  heavy  storm 
of  lain  and  hail  at  the  falls,  we  reached  Rasrung  at  half-past  3  p.  m.  ;  a 
small  sloping  plot,  covered  with  grass  and  flowers,  just  below  the  highest 
birches  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Roopin,  which  is  here  crossed  by  a 
natural  bridge  of  snow,  still  from  twenty  to  twenty-five  feet  thick. 
The  usual  encampment  is  a  little  lower  down  and  on  the  opposite  (or 
left)  side  of  the  river,  under  a  high  cliff  called  Jeyral,  where  water 
boils  at  194®,  which  gives  an  elevation  of  10|,800  feet.  Rasrung  is  about 
11,000.  The  sward  here,  and  at  Seetee,  is  much  cut  up  by  an  animal 
like  "a  rat  without  a  tail,"  which  is  figured  in  Royle's  Illustrations, 
and  is  also  found  on  the  choor.  It  takes  two  hours  to  reach  the  upper 
water-fall  from  Jeyral,  and  four,  the  crest  of  the  Pass.  We  had  frost 
all  night  at  Rasrung. 

September  22nd. — To  Jaka,  ten  miles,  in  six  and  a  quarter  hours.  A 
a  cloudless  morning,  but  we  only  reached  our  tents  at  2  f.  m.  in  time 
to  escape  a  heavy  rain,  which  fell  in  snow  on  the  Passes.  The  climate 
up  here  is  as  "  perfidious"  as  that  of  England :  a  sky  without  a  speck 
at  six  A.  M.  is  overcast  by  noon :  at  2  or  3  p.  m.  we  have  a  storm,  and  all 
is  blue  again :  often  however — and  the  phenomenon  seems  hitherto  unex* 


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118  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

plained-^no  rain  falls,  but  heavy  clouds  rest  on  all  the  mountains,  which, 
notwithstanding  the  increase  of  cold,  altogether  disappear  during  the 
night.  In  Kemaon,  when  all  else  is  perfectly  serene,  a  fine  thin  wreath 
of  cloud  may  be  seen  to  issue  from  the  summits  of  Nunda  Devee  (No. 
XIV.  of  the  great  map)  and  the  Panch  Choola  (No.  XIX.)  which  has 
led  Europeans  to  the  conclusion  that  a  volcano  exists  there :  while  the 
natives  solve  the  appearance  by  the  supposition  that  culinary  operations 
are  going  on  amongst  the  immortals. 

The  route  to-day  was  by  a  very  rocky  and  often  tree-encumbered 
path,  but  never  difficult  to  a  footman,  following  for  some  miles  the 
right  bank  of  the  river,  which  is  then  crossed  by  a  snow-bridge.  It 
continues  for  a  greater  distance  on  the  opposite  bank,  and  finally  re- 
turns to  the  right  side  by  another  snow  bed,  which  must  be  perma- 
nent, being  entered  in  the  Trigonometrical  Survey  map^  made  about 
twenty-five  years  ago.  For  the  first  half  or  better,  the  glen,  about  200 
yards  wide,  is  bounded  on  each  side  by  noble-bastioned  crags,  in  several 
places  rising  vertically  from  the  river  full  1,500  feet,  and  terminating 
in  picturesque  shattered  pinnacles.  The  vegetation  though  luxuriant  is 
still  herbaceous,  only  consisting  of  Aplotaxis  aurita,  Polygonum  moUe, 
Aconitum  heterophyllum,  Cynoglossum  uncinatum,  Sedum  purpureum. 
Spiraea  kamtchatkica  (Meadow-sweet),  Polemonium  cceruleum.  Gera- 
nium wallichianum,  PotentUla  atrosanguinea,  Corydalis  govaniana, 
Scabiosa  candolleana,  Achillcea  millefolia,  a  straggling  Cerastium  with 
flowers  like  Stellaria  holosteum,  called  Gundeeal,  and  used  as  a  vege- 
table.  But  the  birch  soon  clothes  the  cliffs,  and  then  fine  clumps  of  the 
dark  silver  fir  (Picea  webbiana)  like  so  many  gigantic  cypresses, 
appear  and  become  the  predominant  tree,  with  maple,  and  a  rich  under- 
wood of  lilac  or  "  Shapree"  (Syringa  Emodi),  the  lemon-scented  Lau- 
rustinus,  "  Tealain"  or  "  Thelain"  (Viburnum  nervosum  of  Royle),  Rho« 
dodendron  campanulatum,  Lonicera  obovata  and  bracteata,  Rosa  seri- 
cea,  Ribes  glaciale  and  acuminata,  several  Salices,  &c.  Amongst  the 
shady  rocks  here  and  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  Ghangsheel,  &c.  grows 
a  large  tall  composite  plant  of  the  Gorymbifene,  with  a  very  strong 
smell  of  raw  carrots ;  and  on  the  cliffis  of  the  right  bank  I  found  large 
tufts  of  a  very  elegant  Dianthus,  in  full  bloom,  of  a  pink  colour. 

The  levels  on  the  river  banks  are  delightfully  wooded  with  birch, 
pine,  maple,  &c. :  the  scenery  is  so  exquisitely  beautiful,  combined  with 


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1846.]  and  Boorun  Passes  over  the  Himalaya.  119 

the  grandeur  of  the  rocks,  that  one  is  tempted  to  reverse  the  Persian 
proverb  and  ask  what  was  the  purpose  of  creating  heaven  while  this 
vaUey  existed  ?  The  Roopin,  occasionally  bridged  and  banked  by  snow- 
bedsy  and  clear  as  crystal,  dashes  on  from  rock  to  rock,  augmented  every 
half  mile  by  rivulets  firom  the  lateral  cliffs  and  glens.     These  are  gene- 
rally constituted  of  mica-slate,  but  at  the  lowest  snow- bed,  the  rock 
alters  to  quartzose  strata,  with  a  corresponding  change  in  the  scenery. 
Crossing  to  the  right  bank,  the  path  ascends  a  steep  of  800  to  1,000  feet, 
and  the  silver  fir  gives  place  to  a  dense  and  lofty  forest  of  koil  and 
pindrow  pines,  yew,  hazel,  Rosa  webbiana,  &c.     The  glen  narrows  to  a 
gorge,  the  left  bank  presenting  a  wall  of  magnificent  cliffs,  perhaps 
2,000  feet  high,  facing  WSW.,  the  brow  splendidly  wooded  with  pine. 
These  cliffs  soften  down  opposite  Jaka  into  steep  declivities,  covered 
with  forest  and  spacious  grassy  glades.     The  river  raves  below,  and 
is  no  more  approached  in  this  stage.      On  leaving  the  forest,   we 
reached  Jaka  by  about  a  mile  of  more  open  country,  interspersed 
with  thickets  of  Rosa  sericea,  Berberis  brachybotrys,  &c.    The  pasture 
is  covered  with  Iris  kemaonensis,  Inula  royleana,  the  scarlet  and  orange 
varieties  of  Potentilla  atrosanguinea,  ^&c.  Jaka  is  but  a  small  village, 
overhanging  some  huge  crags,  and  surrounded  by  great  horse -ch^snuts, 
wahiuts,  peaches,  &c.  under  which  we  pitched,  but  found  their  shade 
much  too  chilly.     Water  boiled  at   198,  which  gives  under  8,000 
feet:  but  the  place  is  probably  higher.     We  found  the  people  very 
dvil;  a  frank,  rough,  good-humoured  set,  the  Mookheea  especially, 
bemg  a  pattern  of  these  excellent. adjectives,  and  like  Democritus,  meet- 
ing every  difficulty  with  a  laugh  or  a  loud  whistle,  the  Lillibullero  of 
the  Himalaya.     The  people  are  of  small  stature  and  dark  complexion, 
negroes  almost  compared  with  the  fair  faces  of  the  vallies  below  Simla, 
which  proves,  if  proof  be  wanted,  that  the  colour  is  not  entirely  depen- 
dent on  climate. 

September  23n}.-*To  Kooar,  nine  miles,  in  four  and  a  quarter  hours, 
an  easy  stage  in  this  direction.  For  about  a  mile  and  a  half  the  path 
18  execrably  bad,  rocky,  and  steep,  descending  about  1,500  feet  to  the 
river,  and  reaching  its  bed  by  a  short  but  rather  difiicult  ledge  of  rock, 
known  as  the  Tunkoor  Ghat,  which  reminded  us  in  a  small  way  of  the 
Panwee  ka  Dhunka.  The  Roopin  seems  here  to  have  several  names, 
Sheelwanee,  Gosung,  Tous,  &c.  We  soon  quitted  its  bed,  and  re-ascend- 


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120  Diary  of  an  Eseurtion  to  the  ShatoQl  [No.  170. 

ed  some  800  or  1,000  feet,  through  forests  of  pindrow,  large  hazel 
trees  (Corylus  lacera),  Grewia  (or  Celtis),  Rhur  buckiamela.  Milling* 
tonia  dillenifolia,  Staphylea  emodi  (nagdoun,  the  snake-subdner),  Sym* 
plocos  panicolata,  Betola  cylindrostachya,  elm,  and  maple ;  the  vege- 
tation of  Nagkunda.  The  opposite  bank  is  one  series  of  huge  crags 
and  cliffs,  falling  sheer  down  to  the  riyer,  with  a  "  boundless  conti« 
guity"  of  pine  above.  A  large  tributary  here  joins  the  Roopin  from  the 
wild  shattered  glen  of  the  Nulgoon  Pass.  Open,  grassy,  and  rather 
warm  mountains  succeeded,  on  which  the  path  gradually  declines  to 
the  river,  where  we  reached  the  left  bank  by  the  sanga-^called  in  the 
map,  Wodar — from  an  impending  rock,  used  as  a  sheep-fold.  From 
this  an  easy  ascent  of  two  miles,  shaded  by  elm,  Horn-beam  (Carpinua 
viminea),  horse-chesnut,  Comus  macrophylla,  rhus.  Alder  birch, 
maple,  and  Mohroo  oak— brought  us  to  Poojalee,  a  very  well-built 
village,  one  of  the  group  of  four  or  five  collectively,  called  Kooar,  situat- 
ed on  the  sunny  slope  of  the  mountains,  amidst  a  profusion  of  the  usual 
fruit  trees,  and  with  a  spacious  tract  of  terraced  cultivation,  now  one 
rich  glow  of  the  splendid  carmine,  orange,  and  yellow  hues  of  the 
Bathoo,  and  the  more  delicate  pink  of  the  Phuphur  or  Buck- wheat.  A 
fine  stream  rattles  past  the  village  from  the  mountains  above,  which 
extend  from  N£.  to  SB.  covered  with  forest,  and  reaching  the  region  of 
birch.  They  slope  up  easily,  but  from  N.  to  NB.  several  bold  peaks 
and  bluff  rocky  promontories  stand  out  in  all  the  "  wild  pomp  of 
mountain  majesty." 

Though  now  uncommonly  low,  the  Roopin  is  here  quite  unfordable ; 
its  general  temperature  from  Rasrung  down  to  Kooar,  is  in  the  day-time 
from  46®  to  50®  at  this  season ;  from  the  clearness  of  its  water  and  the 
beauty  of  its  banks  is  most  likely  derived  its  name,  which  I  think 
signifies  **  beautiful/'  as  "  Pabur"  means  "  clear" — ^Tous  (or  Tamasa) 
"  dark  blue,"  &c.  All  the  advantages  indeed,  of  this  valley,  Paradise  are 
counterbalanced  by  some  serious  drawbacks,  one  of  which,  the  goitre, 
deforms  rather  than  afflicts  almost  every  inhabitant  of  Kooar ;  for  while 
it  shortens  the  breath,  it  does  not,  they  say,  shorten  life  or  cause  pain. 
In  so  far  as  it  disables  its  subject  from  climbing  the  mountains,  nature 
may  seem  to  fail  in  adapting  man's  organization  to  his  circumstances : 
but  I  could  not  learn  that  with  his  breath  she  takes  away  his  mind  too. 
as  in  those  shocking  samples  of  humanity,  the  cretins  of  the  Valais,  &c. 


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1846.]  and  Boorun  Pa»$es  over  the  Himalmfa,  121 

Water  boils  ha«  at  198,  which  would  give  about  8,000  feet  elevation. 
The  villagers  are  of  dark  complexion.  They  keep  numerous  bee-hives, 
as  usual  located  in  the  walls  of  the  houses,  which  are  very  substantial, 
of  atone  and  timber,  roofed  with  thick  slabs  of  mica^slate, 

September  24M.— To  Kala  Panee,  ten  miles  or  perhaps  more,  in  five 
hours  and  fifty  minutes,  of  which  the  minutes  were  spent  at  Doodoo« 
The  path  fslls  in  about  600  feet  to  tiie  Roopin,  passes  it  by  a  sanga,  and 
continues  for  about  a  mile  on  the  right  bank  through  grass ;  then  crosses 
a  torrent  firom  the  Changsheel  PaM,  and  finally  quits  the  Roopin  river 
and  gkn  by  an  ascent  of  1,200  feet  up  the  steep  grassy  mountain  to 
Doodoo  or  Doodrah,  a  considerable  village,  reckoned  8,732  feet  above 
the  sea,  and  the  chief  place  of  the  district  called  Ruwain  in  NW. 
Ghirhwal ;  the  locality  of  which,  I^insep  in  his  account  of  the  Ghoor- 
ka  war  declared  himself  unable  to  assign.  The  Iris  nepalensis  is 
plentiful  here  on  the  damp  shady  ground,  as  Iris  decora  is  on  the 
sunny  meadows  below.  The  Mohroo  oak  (Quercus  dilatata)  grows  at 
Doodoo  in  great  beauty  and  perfection  :  one  specimen  by  the  wayside 
measured  nineteen  feet  round  at  five  from  the  ground,  and  possesses  so 
superb  and  verdant  a  head,  that  it  would  have  been  deified  in  the  time 
of  the  Druids.  It  does  not  appear  that  any  superstition  attaches  in 
these  mountains  to  the  oak  similar  to  those  which  made  the  Greeks 
people  it  with  dryads  and  oracular  demons,  and  the  Celts  to  regard  it  as 
the  habitation  of  Damaway,  their  Jupiter  Tonans,  as  apostrophized  in 
masonic  strains  by  one  Vettius  Valens  Antiochenus ; 

'  By  the  bright  circle  of  the  golden  sun, 
By  the  bright  coarses  of  the  errant  moon, 
By  the  dread  potency  of  every  star, 
In  the  mysterious  Zodiac's  burning  girth**- 
By  each  and  all  of  these  supernal  signs, 
We  do  adjure  thee,  with  this  trusty  blade, 
To  guard  yon  central  oak,  whose  holy  stem 
Involyefl  the  spirit  of  high  Taranis  :~ 
Be  this  thy  charge.' 

Our  mountaineers  are  too  much  accustomed  to  lop  oak  branches  and 
leaves  for  their  cattle  to  beUeve  there  can  be  any  thing  very  sacred 
about  it. 

At  Doodoo,  the  path  turns  to  the  right,  and  after  rising  for  a  mile  or 
more  through  an  open  cultivated  country,  enters  the  forest,  in  which  it 


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122  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

contiimeB  generally  ascending,  for  three  miles  more  to  Kala  Panee, 
which  is  a  very  damp  confined  spot,  so  closely  hemmed  in  by  the 
trees  as  scarcely  to  afford  space  for  a  tent.  This  forest,  covering  the 
north  side  of  a  spur  from  the  Changsheel,  is  very  dense  and  chilly, 
consisting  for  the  most  part  of  tall  pindrow  firs,  yew,  maple,  hazel, 
cherry  (Cerasus  comuta),  white-beam  (Pyrus  lanata),  with  a  very  rank 
undergrowth  of  Nepeta  govaniana  (a  very  aromatic  plant),  Adenostem- 
ma,  and  a  tall  shrubby  species  of  Strobilanthes,  which  also  abounds  on 
Huttoo  and  Muhasoo,  and  which  the  hillmen  fancifully  assert  to  flow- 
er only  on  the  year  of  the  Muha-koomb  at  Hurdwar.  The  truth  is,  that 
the  plant  is  greedily  eaten  by  sheep,  and  that  perhaps  not  one  in  a 
myriad  escapes  being  browsed  too  low  to  admit  its  flowering,  which 
this  season  occurred  from  August  till  October. 

Water  boils  here  at  197^,  and  the  elevation  is  probably  about  9,000 
feet.  There  is  no  village  nearer  than  Doodoo,  from  which  supplies 
must  be  brought  on.  Heavy  storms  of  rain,  hail,  and  thunder  all  the 
afternoon  from  2  p.  k.  made  this  uncomfortable  spot  doubly  wretched. 

September  25th, — Over  the  Changsheel  Pass  to  Looloot  or  Lourrot, 
about  eleven  or  twelve  miles,  which  took  us  eight  hours,  including 
many  stops  and  a  long  rest  on  the  Pass :  the  marph  may  be  easily 
performed  in  six  hours.  The  route  continues  up  the  forest,  which 
abounds  in  streams  ;  path  rather  rocky,  and  blocked  up  by  fallen  trees. 
The  black  bear  is  common  and  dangerous  :  we  saw  a  man  at  Doodoo 
who  had  been  terribly  torn  by  one  without  any  provocation ;  the  white 
or  yellow  species  is  also  said  to  abound,  but  frequents  the  crags  on  the 
heights  above  the  forest.  Emerging  at  length  from  its  chilling  shade, 
we  reached  an  alpine  glade,  like  all  the  higher  parts  of  the  Changsheel, 
a  perfect  carpet  of  flowers  of  all  forms  and  colours  ;  the  Botanic  Garden 
of  Asia.  Amongst  them  were  conspicuous  the  Anagyris  barbata,  Morina 
longifolia,  and  Codonopsis  rotundifoUa;  and  now  the  Picea  webbiana,  Rosa 
webbiana,  lilac,  currant,  &c.,  appear,  followed,  as  we  rose,  by  Dolomiaea 
macrocephala,  Cassiope  fastigiata,  Ldgularia  arnicoides,  sweet  Centaurea, 
Polygonum  vacciniifolium,  tansy,  and  other  plants  of  the  snowy  range. 
On  the  western  side,  the  Caltha  govaniana  (or  Himalensis),  the  marsh 
marigold  of  England,  the  azure  Meconopsis,  and  a  large  Cynoglossum 
(grandiflorum)  resembling  the  common  English  hounds-tongue,  are 
abundant,  as  the  Cyananthus  lobata  is  on  both  sides.     The  crest 


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1846.]  a$ui  Boonm  Passei  aver  the  Himalaya.  123 

of  the  Pass,  12,871  feet  above  the  sea  line,  is  attained  after  a  consider^ 
able  ascent  in  the  region  above  the  forest,  with  lofty  grey  crags  and 
spires  of  gneiss  and  mica  slate  above  on  the  right  hand ;  and  is  conside- 
red high  enough  to  be  worthy  of  the  stone  cairns  which  mark  the  fear 
and  the  gratitude  of  the  mountaineer.  Being  fortunate  in  a  cloudless 
day,  we  rested  a  considerable  time  on  the  summit  to  inoculate  our 
minds  with  the  most  extensive  and  magnificent  panorama  around  us. 
The  snowy  range,  that  embodied  eternity,  <*  shining  like  truth"  or 
rather  considerably  more  brilliant,  is  seen  to  perfection,  and  not  looking 
the  worse  for  a  good  sprinkling  of  snow  yesterday;  the  Changsheel 
itself  is  perceived  in  this  direction  emanating  from  the  parent  mass  in  a 
ridge  of  shattered  crags  and  pinnacles,  on  which  summer  may  be  fimded 
to  have  been  just  impaled  by  the  frost-giants ;  and  the  range  from  the 
Boorun  to  the  Shatool  Pass,  with  its  lofty,  shelving,  and  now  russet- 
tinged  continuation  towards  Rampoor  and  Huttoo.  It  is  interesting  to 
observe  how  regularly  the  forest  all  round  ceases  at  a  regular  level,  or 
at  best  creeps  beyond  the  line  of  demarcation  a  little  in  the  ravines,  to 
be  succeeded  by  the  zone  of  grass  and  flowers.  Kooar  is  seen  below 
to  the  east,  and  on  the  west  the  view  reaches  down  the  vale  of  the 
Pabur  to  Chergaon  and  Rooroo.  To  the  SW.  is  a  great  reach  of  the 
Changsheel,  the  rounded  and  almost  tabular  summits  rising  consider- 
ably  above  the  luxuriant  forest  which  clothes  their  lower  declivities,  and 
presenting,  a  gently  sloping  surface  of  the  finest  yellow  autumnal  tints ; 
a  most  inviting  though  rather  remote  site  for  a  settlement.  The  supply 
of  wood  for  fuel  and  timber  is  inexhaustible ;  and  the  rice  of  Chooara 
would  supply  abundance  of  one  important  element  of  food : — at  all  events, 
it  would  furnish  a  most  eligible  spot  for  the  head- quarters  of  a  summer 
party  from  Simla.  The  circle  of  vision  is  completed  on  the  south  by 
a  dreamy,  mystic,  "  multitudinous  sea,"  with  the  snowy  range  for  the 
bounding  surf,  the  swelling  outlines  melting  into  each  other,  and  the 
whole  seeming  as  if  it  reposed  to  all  eternity  after  the  enormous  efforts 
by  which  it  was  upheaved.  The  Himalaya  is  seen  to  the  best  advantage, 
not  at  noon,  but  a  little,  before  sun-set,  when,  especially  in  the  cold 
season,  its  whole  extent  is  at  once,  and  most  gloriously  lit  up  to  a  rose 
or  copper  colour,  <*  one  living  sheet  of  burnished  gold."  Gradually  the 
"sober  livery  of  grey  twilight"  creeps  up  towards  tHe  loftiest  peaks, 
extinguishes  all  their  *<  bright  lights"  and  replaces  them  with  the  deadly 


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124  Diary  of  an  E»cwr$uM  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170, 

pale  hue  of  a  corpse ;  the  soul  of  the  mountaina  has  departed ;  and  if 
the  spectator  be  contemplating  the  rai^s  north  of  Simla,  he  says  or 
MDgs  its  requiem  with  the  pun — "  Sic  transit  gloria  Mundi  / 

The  descent  from  the  Changsheel  Pass  to  Looloot  is  by  the  south  side 
of  a  great  spur  of  the  mountain,  and  is  so  gradual  and  winding  that  the 
forest  is  not  reached  for  above  two  miles;  the  first  trees  met  are  the 
birch,  the  homed  cherry,  the  mountain  ash,  the  Kurshoo  oak,  the  silver 
fir,  and  most  abundant  coppice  of  Rhododendron  campanulatum  and 
Rosa  webbiana.  The  oak  and  far  soon  predominate;  lower  down  the 
forest  is  almost  exclusively  pindrow,  with  koil,  rai,  cedar  and  the  sweet 
Viburnum :  and  lastly,  the  usual  thickets  of  Rosa  sericea,  Berberis,  and 
Indigofera,  lead  to  the  arable  tracts.  Except  in  the  pindrow  forest, 
where  it  is  steep  and  slippery,  the  path  is  generally  very  good  this 
stage«  Water  boils  here  at  198^,  indicating  an  elevation  of  from  8,000 
to  8,500  feet :  but  the  thermometer  had  not  been  verified,  nor  the  water 
distilled,  both  very  necessary  to  the  accuracy  of  the  process.  Looloot 
is  an  insignificant  place,  and  the  inhabitants  seem  a  poor,  filthy  and 
rather  ill-looking  race.  They  have  had  however,  the  spirit  to  introduce 
the  cultivation  of  the  potato,  of  which  we  obtained  a  small  but  wel- 
come supply.  This  is  the  only  site  beyond  Muhasoo  where  we  observed 
any.  A  stream  fiows  towards  the  Pabur  below  Looloot;  the  opposite 
side  of  the  glen,  to  the  S  W.,  is  thickly  peopled,  and  beautifuUy  cultivated* 
the  Bathoo  as  usual  in  the  greatest  proportion.  With  all  its  brilliuicy, 
the  bread  made  from  its  flour  seems  bitter  and  unwholesome. 

September  26th, — ^To  Chergaon,  eight  or  nine  miles,  in  three  hours : 
the  first  part  of  the  toute  is  a  descent  of  from  1,500  to  2,000  feet  down 
grassy  mountains  to  the  Pabur,  which  we  crossed  by  a  sanga  of  two 
spars  opposite  Tikree.  The  path  then  keeps  the  right  bank  to  Chergaon, 
and  is  good,  except  in  one  place  where  it  passes  for  a  few  hundred 
yards  on  a  narrow  rocky  ledge,  about  200  feet  above  the  river.  Here, 
in  1833,  a  friend  of  mine  lost  his  ghoont  by  the  Ml  of  a  small  bridge, 
and  in  general,  it  is  not  advisable  to  take  ponies  beyond  Chei^j^n. 
In  May  and  June,  when  the  glen  of  the  Pabur  is  excessivdj  warm, 
the  traveUer  to  the  Shatool  and  Boorun  Passes  may  avoid  it  by  keeping 
the  heights  above  the  right  bank  by  a  route  from  Huttoo,  given  by 
Captain  Hutton,  in  one  of  the  volumes  of  the  Journal  of  the  Asiatic 
Society  of  Bengal.     Even  at  this  season  we  found  the  temperatnie 


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1846.]  and  Boorun  Pastea  over  the  Himalaya.  125 

disagreeably  warm,  till  the  Bunny  forenoon  was  succeeded  by  a  cool 
doody  day.  On  the  27th  we  walked  to  Rooroo  Kothee  in  two  and  a 
half  hours. 

September  28f  A.— To  Thana  Kashain,  ten  and  a  half  miles,  in  four 

hoars  and  forty  minutes :  the  road  is  good,  chiefly  through  cultivation ; 

quits  the  valley  of  the  Pkbur  about  three  miles  below  Rooroo,  and  in 

two  more,  by  an  ascent  of  1,000  feet,  reaches  Krassa,  an  exceedingly 

well-built  and  comfortable  looking  village ;  the  Kunaits,  or  descendants 

of  the  Rajpoots  and  aborigines  occupying  one  department,  and  the 

Kholees,  or  Helots,  a  separate  one.    These  poor  outcasts  are  held  in 

great  contempt,  and  are  never  allowed  to  mix  in  society  with  their  liege 

k>rds,  the  Kunaits.   In  a  pine-wood  here,  the  downward  traveller  should 

hreakfisst  and  pass  the  heat  of  the  day.    Hence  the  road  undulates  up 

the  left  bank  of  the  alder-fringed  Pursrar  or  Dogra  Nuddee,  formed 

by  two  branches  which  unite  below  Kuskain.     We  ascended  the  fork 

for  600  or  800  feet,  and  encamped  a  little  above  the  village  in  a  very 

airy  spot,  shaded  by  some  fine  cedars,  with  the  twin-village  Thana 

a  little  below  to  the  west.    The  elevation  is  probably  7,000  or  7,200 

feet,  which  ensures  a  delicious  climate  after  Rooroo.    About  500  feet 

higher,  and  a  mile  distant  on  the  ridge  above  to  NW.,  is  the  small  but 

rather  inaccessible  fort  of  Tikhur,  formed  by  two  square-roofed  bas« 

tions,  connected  by  curtains,  all  of  good  masonry,  and  held  by  a  garrison 

of  one  man,  who  refused  to  surrender  till  my  companion  climbed  over 

the  wall  and  opened  the  gate.      The  walk  command  an  interesting 

view  of  spacious  and  well-cnltured  mountain  slopes,  with  several  large 

vilkges,   above  which  the  koil  pine  abounds,  erowned  by  the  lofty 

Ghumba  ridge  and  Suraroo  Pass.     This  is  the  Nawur  District,  rich  in 

iron  ore,  which  is  found  disseminated  in  grains  like  iron*filings  in  a 

grey,  friable  micaceous  sandstone,  which  is  quarried  from  mines  a  little 

below  the  village,  pulverized,  and  then  washed  in  running  water,  which 

carries  off  the  earthy  matter ;  the  ore  is  then  smelted,  and  as  much  as 

a  thousand  maunds  are  said  to  be  made  in  favourable  years :  most  of 

which  is  carried  on  mules  to  Simla  and  the  plains.    The  shafts  or  mines 

dip  at  all  angles,  and  are  very  like  the  dens  of  wild  beasts ;  they  are 

more  or  less  inundated  during  the  rains,  and  the  work  can  consequently 

only  be  carried  on  during  the  cold  and  dry  seasons.     Some  of  the  ore 

is  sent  to  Shyl  to  be  smelted,  probably  to  economize  wood.     The  usual 


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L 


126  Diarff  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

rock  here  is  a  silvery  grey  mica  slate,  containing  a  very  large  proportion 
of  quartz.  There  is  also  a  blue  clayslate,  with  which  the  houses  are 
roofed  in  the  concave  style. 

September  29/A.— -To  Shyl  or  Hurrela»  ten  miles,  in  six  hours  ;  we 
had  considerable  difficulty  in  getting  coolees ;  Kushain  brought  np  its 
quota  punctually,  but  on  applying  to  Thana,  we  found  that  the 
Mookheea,  having  forgotten  or  disregarded,  if  he  had  ever  heard,  the 
precept  of  the  Temperance  Societies — 

*' There's  not  a  joy  this  world  can  give  like  that  it  takes  away, 
When  the  glow  of  slight  excitement  yields  to  drunkenness  the  sway," 

lay  gloriously  or  hopelessly  drunk — '  o'er  all  the  ills  of  life  victorious ;' — 
so  that  we  were  compelled  to  assume  his  official  functions,  and  use  a 
little  gentle  coercion.  The  route  lies  up  the  mountain  a  little  to  the  left 
of  Tikhur,  and  on  reaching  the  crest  of  the  Ghumbee  range,  continues 
along  it  to  the  right,  gradually  ascending.  The  mountain,  hitherto 
smooth  and  grassy,  with  a  mica  slate  basis  here  changes  to  gneiss, 
which  occurs  in  a  labyrinth  of  great  blocks  and  crags,  with  a  coppice  of 
Kurshoo  oak.  Viburnum  nervosum,  cotoneaster,  &c.  The  more  common 
plants  are  Nepeta  govaniana,  Impatiens  (glandulosa  ?),  Potentilla  atro- 
sanguinea.  Polygonum  moUe,  Delphinium  vestitum,  several  umbelliferae, 
and  the  Anemone  discolor,  "  Kukra,"  which  in  May  covers  the  moun- 
tains with  its  white  and  blue.  The  acrid  leaves  are  used  by  the  moun- 
taineers to  raise  blisters ;  but  they  are  said  to  produce  bad  sores,  leaving 
a  permanent  scar.  The  "  Chitra"  or  Drosera  muscipula — "  Sundew" — 
a  curious  little  plant  which  abounds  between  Kotgurh  and  Simla  is 
applied  in  the  same  way.  The  elevation  of  the  Suraroo  Pass  is  9,875 
feet,  commanding  a  glorious  and  extensive  view,  which  includes  the 
Koopur  and  Kunchooa  ranges,  the  Moral  and  Changsheel  up  to  the 
snows,  with  a  long  segment  of  the  great  range  itself,  in  which  the  posi- 
tions of  the  Shatool  and  Boorun  Passes  are  well  fixed  by  their  p3n:amid8. 
On  the  other  side  the  huge  wooded  and  grassy  range  of  Huttoo  is  the 
most  prominent  object,  its  base  watered  by  the  Chugountee  Nuddee,  the 
opposite  or  western  bank  of  which  presents  one  of  the  most  beautiful  and 
extensive  sheets  of  cultivation  in  these  mountains.  Chumba,  Chumbee,  or 
Chamee  is  a  term  very  generally  used  in  the  Himalaya  to  express  a  moun- 
tain range.  The  road  to  the  summit  of  this  Ghumbee  is  good,  and  we 
reached  it  in  three  hours  very  quiet  walking ;  but  the  descent  to  Shyl  is  the 


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1846.]  amd  Boorun  Passes  aver  the  Himalaya,  127 

very  reverse,  the  path  being  very  steep,  bad,  and  rocky,  oyer  a  most  daz- 
zling decomposing  micaceoos  shale  near  the  top,  and  with  some  awkward . 
steps  near  the  bottom,  where  several  streams  are  passed — the  head  waters 
of  the  Chngountee,  one  of  the  main  feeders  of  the  Girree.  Shyl  is  a 
considerable  village,  or  rather  group  of  villages  between  two  of  these, 
and  possesses  a  good  share  of  arable  land.  It  belongs  to  Basehnr,  and 
is  about  8,000  feet  above  the  sea.  Passing  the  villages  we  descended 
by  a  rough  flight  of  stone  steps  to  a  stream,  and  then  re^ascended  the 
opposite  or  Huttoo  side,  till  about  100  feet  above  Shyl.  where  we 
pitched  our  tents  by  a  Bowlee  amidst  woods  of  young  cedar.  Supplies 
are  got  with  difficulty  from  Rutnaree,  a  village,  about  one  mile  south, 
which  shares  alternately  with  Shyl.  the  charge  of  hospitality,  and  which 
would  apparently  transfer  to  it  willingly  the  whole  honor  and  merit  of 
entertaining  strangers,  perhaps  from  having  hitherto  been  so  unlucky 
as  to  chance  on  few  or  no  angels  amongst  them. 

September  30M. — ^To  Nagkunda,  eight  or  nine  miles,  over  Huttoo 
mountain,  of  which  we  reached  the  summit,  10,670  feet,  (water  boiling 
at  IQO'')  in  1  h.  50  m.  by  the  Pugdundee  route,  which  keeps  to  the  left  of 
and  below  the  made  road,  and,  which  from  precipitous  rocks,  is  impractica- 
ble for  ponies.  The  made  road  passes  under  a  ruined  fort  called  Kurena, 
and  then  over  the  north  shoulder  of  Huttoo,  within  400  feet  of  the 
Bttmmit,  on  which  we  passed  some  hours.  Huttoo  or  Whartoo,  may  be 
called  the  Righi  of  the  Himalaya ;  but  it  must  be  confessed,  that  we  are 
here  totally  deficient  in  three  main  constituents  to  the  attractions  of  the 
Alps:  first,  their  exquisite  lakes;  second,  their  equally  exquisite  hotels 
and  markets ;  and  third,  their  historical  or  legendary  associations,  such 
as  those  of  William  Tell,  and  the  confederates  of  Griitli.  In  Hindooism 
the  gods  interpose  so  constancy,  that  man  is  nothing.  But  so  far  as 
natural  scenery  is  concerned,  I  do  not  know  a  more  delightful  walk  than 
that  along  the  rounded  swelling  knolls  of  the  Huttoo  range,  with  its  edg- 
ing of  "  castled  crags"  of  gneiss  rock  to  the  north-west,  its  alternate 
coppices  of  Kurshoo  oak,  and  meadows  enamelled  with  flowers,  and  its 
spacious  views.  Those  of  the  snowy  range  are  inferior  to  few,  extending 
from  (probably)  the  Peer  Punjal  of  Kashmeer  by  the  Chumba,  KooUoo, 
and  Shatool  ranges,  to  and  beyond  Jumnootree,  which  rises  over  the  high 
slopes  of  the  Ghangsheel  like  a  double-poled  tent.  Choor,  Koopur,  Kun- 
phooa,  Moral,  are  all  conspicuous  features ;  Huttoo  itself  being  protract- 


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126  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

ed  towards  the  last  in  the  darkly  wooded  summit  of  Kot,  below  which  to 
the  right  is  Nowagurh,  once  a  garrison  of  the  Ohoorkas,  who  had  also 
several  posts,  now  dilapidated,  on  Hattoo,  and  who  indeed,  Kenite-like, 
made  their  nests  on  the  rocks  of  every  commanding  height  in  these  pro- 
vinces. Half  way  between  the  Ghoor  and  Kunchooa  range  in  Tiroch  (the 
Ootroj  of  the  map,)  appears  an  isolated -summit,  probably  Deobun,  on  the 
Mussooree  road,  between  the  Tons  and  the  Jumna.  On  the  W.  and  SW. 
are  the  Shallee  and  Muhasoo  mountains,  and  on  a  clear  day  the  houses 
of  Simla  may  be  discovered  on  the  distant  and  hummock-like  Jaka, 
which,  after  the  grander  features  of  the  interior,  looks  small  indeed.  All 
around  is  the  same  ocean  of  summits  and  ranges  which  render  the 
Himalaya  rather  one  vast  mountain  of  1,500  or  2,000  miles  in  length, 
than  a  series  of  mountains ;  for  no  where  do  we  find  the  comparatively 
broad  rallies  of  other  systems,  and  this  character  may  be  best  expressed 
by  a  different  reading  of  one  of  Campbell's  lines,  *'  its  peaks  are  a  thou* 
sand,  their  bases  are  one.''  In  the  absence  of  lakes  it  is  apparently 
parallel  to  the  Andes.  Including  the  charming  walk  from  the  summit 
of  Huttoo  down  to  Kotgurh,  and  the  ascent  thence  to  Nagkunda,  the 
ix)tani8t  will  enjoy  a  rich  treat  on  Huttoo  and  its  great  buttresses.  The 
summit  pastures  are  alive  with  Fritillaria  verticillata,  Morina  longifolia, 
Aster  alpina.  Anemone  discolor,  Corydalis  govaniana,  Potentilla  atrosan- 
guinea,  Viola  reniformis,  Hemiphragma  heterophylla,  Veronica,  &c.  &c. ; 
and  the  crags  with  Lloydia  Himalensis,  Saxifraga  ligulata  and  parnas* 
sisefolia,  the  shrubby  PotentiUa  rigida  or  arbuscula,  Anemone  villosa 
(which  is  very  common  on  the  rocky  banks  of  rivulets  above  the  forest 
belt  of  the  great  range),  two  species  of  Lonicera,  one  of  which  greatly 
resembles  L.  alpigena,  Ribes  acuminata,  Pyrus  fdiolosa  and  lanata, 
and  a  few  very  stunted  specimens  of  Rhododendron  lepidotum.  The 
Roscoea  alpina  is  found  up  to  9,500  feet.  The  declirities  of  the  monn* 
tain  are  clothed  by  a  magnificent  forest  of  Abies  smithiana,  Picea  pin* 
drow,  Quercus  semicarpifolia,  maple,,  yew,  and  towards  Nagkunda, 
sweet  scented  Viburnum  (Thelain),  Kadsura  grandiflora,  Deutzia  corym- 
bosa,  Philadelphus  tomentosa,  Symptocos  paniculata  (Lodh,  Loj — a  sheet 
.(5f  white  bloom  in  May),  the  scanitent  Hydrangea,  (H.  altissima),  Rhus 
buckiamela,  Jasminum  revolutum,  and  many  species  of  Desmodium, 
Indigofera,  Berberis,  Clematis,  &c.  form  a  dense  brushwood  or  coppice ; 
while  the  mossy  rocks  and  shady  banks  are  covered  with  Wulfenia  am- 


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1846.]  and  Boarun  Passes  over  the  Himalaya.  129 

hentiaaa.  Primula  dentioulata,  Pedicolaris  megalantha,  Gypsophila  oeras- 
tioides,  "  Bhatlee,"  several  beautiful  species  of  Impadens ;  and  in  the 
deepest  recesses  of  the  woods  Actsoa  acuminata,  AcoBitum  palmatum, 
Angelica  glanca,  Adenostemma,  Strobilanthes,  Liliom  giganteum,  called 
*'  Book,"  and  Arum  speoiosum,  '*  Oangsh  or  Jungoosh/'  a  curious  plant, 
the  spathe  of  which  beautifully  striated  with  green*  and  ending  in  a  long 
thread,  bears  an  alarming  resemblauoe  to  the  hood  of  the  cobra  di  capello. 
In  autumn  the  bushes  towards  Kotgurh  are  matted  with  the  leafless  and 
sweet-scented  Dodder  (Cuscuta  grandiflora),  which,  having  no  root,  the 
natives  may  safely  promise  boundless  wealth  to  the  ludcy  man  who  finds 
it.  The  Akash-bel,  or  heavenly  twiner  of  the  plains,  Cuscuta  refleza, 
may  be  considered  the  Mistletoe  of  the  Brahmans. 

Huttoo  only  requires  a  deep  lake  and  a  slide  of  Alpnach  to  be  a  mine 
of  wealth  in  its  timber ;  at  present  it  lives,  dies,  and  roU  uselessly.  In 
several  places  large  tracts  of  pine  have  been  killed,  perhi^s  by  lightning, 
and  remind  us  of  Milton  :«- 

'*  As  when  heaven's  fire 
Hath  scathed  the  forest  oaks  or  mountain  pine^, 
With  singed  top,  their  stately  growth,  though  bare, 
Stands  on  the  blasted  heath." 

The  Berbery  at  Nagknnda,  &o.  is  a  distinct  species,  which  is  now 
covered  with  the  most  profuse  crop  of  fruit,  of  a  fine  blue,  with  a  bloom 
of  a  pink  or  lilac  colour.  It  makes  excellent  jam,  and  I  have  had  the 
pleasure  of  seeing  young  plants  raised  in  Dublin  from  seeds  which  had 
undergone  that  fiery  ordeal  unscathed. 

The  descent  to  Nagkunda  occupied  us  one  hour  and  twenty- five 
minutes ;  there  is  a  good  bungalow,  and  two  or  three  buneeas.  As  is 
frequently  the  case  in  this  direction,  the  waters  flow  on  one  side  to  the 
Bay  of  Bengal,  and  on  the  other  to  the  Arabian  sea.  The  elevation  of 
the  bungalow  is  9,000  feet.  In  one  of  the  shady  glens  to  the  north, 
snd  about  1,000  feet  below,  there  is  a  most  copious  chalybeate  spring, 
known  as  the  Lal-panee. 

Hie  Polygonum  molle  or  polystachyium  is  very  luxuriant  about 
Nagkunda. 

October  \st, -^From  Nagkunda  to  Muteeana,  by  the  Pugdundee  route, 
over  the  back  of  the  Kumuloree  or  Sheerkot  mountain,  about  ten  miles, 
which  we  walked  in  three  and  three-quarter  hours.     The  path  rises 


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130  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

through  brushwood  immediately  behind  the  bungalow  for  about  4,000 
feet,  or  10,000  above  the  sea.  and  in  about  two  miles  enters  the 
forest  of  pindrow,  yew,  maple,  white*beam,  Cerasus  comuta,  Co- 
toneaster  affinia  (Rous)  and  acuminata,  with  occasional  glades  covered 
with  the  richest  beds  of  flowers,  Potentilla  atrosanguinea.  Anemone  dis- 
color, Gkranium  wallichianum,  Aplotaxis  aurita,  Spirsea  kamtchatkica, 
Campanula  latifolia.  Ranunculus,  &c.  In  the  forest  we  find  Erysimum 
alliaria,  Strobilanthes  wallichii,  Nepeta  govaniana,  Aconitum  palma- 
turn,  Callimeris  flexuosa,  and  a  species  of  Diplopappus  resembling  it, 
Senecio  canescens,  and  a  very  elegant  species,  perhaps  asplenifolius,  also 
common  on  the  north  side  of  Huttoo :  on  the  rocks,  Mulgedium  macror* 
hiza,  Saxifraga  ligulata,  mucronulata,  and  another :  and  under  the 
shadiest  crags,  the  may-apple  of  N.  America,  Podophyllum  emodi, 
and  the  enchanter's  night-shade,  Circaea  interknedia,  whose  only  connec- 
tion with  the  black  art  seems  to  be  the  fact  of  its  loving  the  absence  of 
the  sun.  The  views  of  the  Chumba  and  KooUoo  snowy  ranges  are 
magnificent,  seen  over  and  through  the  primeval  forest,  with  the  great 
range  of  Mundee  to  the  right  or  north,  the  base  covered  with  villages 
and  cultivation,  and  the  crest  reaching  up  to  about  1 1 ,000  feet,  reported 
to  afford  cedar  of  the  first  dimensions.  Huttoo  lies  on  the  left  hand, 
and,  latterly,  Shallee,  Muhasoo,  and  Simla,  in  front.  At  an  abrupt 
turn,  a  path  strikes  down  to  the  right  towards  the  Sutluj  and  Koolloo, 
which  must  be  carefully  avoided,  as  well  as  another  a  little  further  on 
to  the  left,  which  will  equally,  though  not  so  fatally,  mislead  the  way* 
farer,  and  beguile  him  of  his  summum-bonum,  which,  under  present 
circumstances,  is  probably  his  breakfast.  A  convenient  and  most 
romantic  spot  for  this  is  on  some  crags  about  half  way,  where  there  is 
a  small  spring  just  below  the  path  to  the  north.  So  far  the  difficulties 
of  this  route  have  consisted  mainly  in  the  fallen  trees ;  but  beyond  this, 
both  in  and  out  of  the  forest,  it  becomes  so  rocky  in  several  places,  as 
to  be  totally  inaccessible  to  ponies,  and  very  difficult  to  jumpans.  On 
leaving  the  forest,  there  is  a  rapid  descent  of  about  600  feet  to  some 
crags,  under  which  a  multitude  of  sheep  are  tended,  and  on  which  will 
be  found  a  very  pretty  white  Sedum  or  Sempervivum,  and  the  shrubby 
Polygonum  graminifolium :  after  this  four  miles  of  pleasant  walking 
along  and  down  the  southern  and  grassy  face  of  the  mountains,  latterly 
through  cultivation,  lead  to  Muteeana  bungalow,  7,900  feet,  which 


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1846.]  and  Boorun  Passes  aver  the  Himalaya.  131 

having  neither  doors  nor  window-frames,  offers  bat  a  cold  welcome, 
with  a  roof,  too,  resembling  the  sieve  of  the  Danaides :  they  manage 
these  things  better  in  the  plains  and  in  Kemaon ;  but  a  decree  has 
I  believe  gone  forth  for  the  erection  of  a  new  bungalow  in  a  more  con- 
venient site  than  the  present,  which  is  more  suited  to  the  herald  Mer« 
cnry  than  to  the  mortal,  weary,  and  thirsty  traveller.  It  was  the  full 
intention  of  the  late  Major  Broadfoot,  C.  B.,  to  open  the  Pugdundee 
nmte,  so  greatly  superior  in  scenery  and  shade  to  the  made  road, 
which,  besides  being  nearly  two  miles  longer,  dips  deeply  into  the  hot 
glen  below  Muteeana,  and  is  uninteresting  till  within  a  few  miles 
of  Nagkunda.  It  will  always,  nevertheless,  be  necessary  as  the  winter 
medium  of  communication  with  Kotgurh,  when  the  northern  exposure 
of  the  mountain  is  buried  in  snow.  In  this  warm  glen,  and  in  that  of 
the  Girree,  grows  the  shirsha,  a  species  of  Acacia,  perhaps  A.  smithiana, 
with  flowers  in  May  of  the  size  of  A.  speciosa  or  Lebekh,  the  Siris  of 
the  plains,  except  that  its  long  tassels  of  stamens  are  rose-coloured,  and 
that  it  has  not  the  delightful  lemon  fragrance  of  the  latter.  The 
shirsha  greatly  resembles  A.  julibrissi^  (i.  e.  gul-i-reshm  or  silk-flower), 
a  Persian  species,  which  is  naturalized  about  Como.  In  the  same  glen 
will  be  found  the  pretty  little  Parochetus  oxalidifoha  or  communis,  the 
Cedrela  serrata,  Populus  ciliata;  and  in  the  cornfields  on  the  way  side, 
the  Nepal  wall-flower  (Erysimum  robustum),  Silene  inflata,  Carduus 
nutans  (the  fine  purple  thistle),  &c. 

October  2nd, — To  Fagoo,  fifteen  miles  in  five  hours :  the  road  rises 
to  die  Punta  Ohatee,  8,500  feet,  100  feet  above  which  to  the  right, 
stands  a  ruined  post  of  the  Ghoorkalees,  who  near  this  inflicted  a 
decisive  defeat  on  the  mountaineers.  Hence  it  descends  and  makes  a 
great  circuit  to,  and  up  the  Kunag  Ghatee,  8,400  feet,  with  the  Teeba, 
^00  feet  higher  to  the  right ;  it  then  passes  a  little  under  Theog,  and 
leaches  Fagoo  by  a  long  but  gentle  ascent.  Except  some  koil  and 
oak  woods  below  Theog,  and  the  forest  of  Mohroo  oak  on  the  Kunag 
mountain,  there  is  but  little  wood  in  this  stage ;  the  Mohroo  oak  (Quercus 
dilatata)  considerably  resembles  the  beautiful  evergreen  oak  of  Nynee 
Tal,  and  the  Binsur  and  Gagur  ranges  in  Kemaon,  where  it  is  known 
as  the  Illonj,  Kilonj,  or  Timsha :  it  is  the  Quercus  kamroopii  of  Don's 
prodromus :  this  botanist  was  afterwards  inclined  to  identify  the  two 
trees,  but  they  differ  considerably  in  several  particulars.   A  few  specimens 


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132  Diary  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

of  QuercuB  kamroopii  may  be  seen  on  a  south  aspect  at  Simla  on  the 
lower  bazar  road,  near  Lord  Combermere's  bridge :  and  far  down  in  the 
▼allies  grows  the  "  Banee/'  (the  Funiyat  of  Kemaon),  or  Qaercos  annu* 
lata,  which  Don  calls  Quercus  phollata.  T|}e  handsome  globe-thistle,  the 
Echinops  cornigera,  is  very  abundant  on  the  sunny  rocks  of  the  Punta  and 
Kunag  ghats,  and  Morina  longifolia  flourishes  on  the  Kunag  Teeba :  net* 
ther  of  these  plants  occurs  nearer  Simla,  though  Muhasoo  would  at  first 
sight  promise  them :  but  the  neighbourhood  of  the  plains  seems 
inimical  to  many  Himalayan  plants  :  just  as  thyme  is  plentiful  at 
Almorah,  but  unknown  at  Nynee  Tal  and  the  Gagur,  with  a  much 
more  favourable  elevation.  The  Iris  decora  is  common  on  the  grassy 
slopes  of  the  Kunag  mountain,  and  towards  Fagoo,  the  Spiraea  cunei* 
folia,  "  Takoo,"  in  May  and  June,  whitens  as  the  roadside*like  haw- 
thorn. The  red  Potentilla  (P.  nepalensis)  and  the  deep*blue  Gynoglossum 
furcatura  abound  at  Theog,  and  tufts  of  the  delicate  little  Androsaoe 
sarmentoea  hung,  as  at  Simla,  from  the  sunny  rocks. 

This  stage  is  generally  decried  as  the  most  uninteresting  near  Simla, 
BX^d  it  is  assuredly  rather  bare  :  yet  the  views  are  fine ;  the  bold  bare 
precipitous  peak  and  ridge  of  Shallee,  like  a  lion  couchant,  are  no 
where  seen  to  such  advantage,  and  are  novel  features  in  the  more 
usual  scenery  of  Simla.  On  the  left  hand  are  the  snowy  range,  Jum- 
mootree,  and  the  Choor ;  and  latterly  in  the  same  direction  the  great 
northern  spur  of  this  last  "cloud  compeller"  with  its  seamed  and 
scarped  flanks,  pleasant  meadows,  and  beautiful  woods,  reminds  the 
traveller  towards  Mussooree,  of  one  of  the  most  picturesque  excursions 
short  of  the  snows ;  and  the  botanist,  of  Trillium  govanianum,  Actaea 
acuminata,  Paris  polyphyllum.  Podophyllum  emodi,  and  several  Poly* 
gonatums  and  Smilacinas,  which  Fraser,  by  a  pardonable  deviation  from 
botanical  orthodoxy,  calls  the  lily  of  the  valley.  The  mountaineers 
commonly  distinguish  the  Choor  as  the  "  Choor ochandnee"  or  "  crest  of 
silver,"  the  original  having  no  reference  to  any  abstraction  of  silver 
spoons,  as  some,  impelled  thereto  by  Indian  experience,  have  supposed. 
The  summit  exhibits  the  only  granite  hitherto  discovered  amongst  the 
outer  ranges  of  the  NW.  mountains,  and  is  apparently  a  continuation 
of  the  line  of  granitic  out-breaks  traced  by  Mr.  Batten  in  Kemaon, 
inside  of  the  Gagur,  which,  in  all  likelihood,  owes  its  superior  altitude  tor 
the  vicinity  of  this  great  natural  lever.    The  granite  of  the  Choor  is* 


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1846.]  and  Boorun  Passes  over  the  Himalaya,  133 

however,  aomewhat  different  from  that  of  Kemaon  and  the  snowy 
range ;  and  it  is  a  remarkable  fact,  that  this  last  (1  speak  from  specimens 
of  the  vast  precipices  of  Sookhee.  near  Gungootree)  is  identical  in  its 
abundance  of  felspar  and  black  schorl  crystals,  with  the  granite  of  the 
Ajmeer  hills;  where,  by  the  way,  is  an  example  never  yet,  I  think,  pub- 
lished,  fully  as  conclusive  on  the  igneous  origin  of  this  rock  as  the  more 
celebrated  Olentilt  in  Perthshire.  The  exact  locality  is  three  or  four 
miles  west  of  Nusseerabad,  on  the  way  to  Rajgurh,  where  the  granite  is 
seen  penetrating  the  stratified  rocks  in  a  complete  and  very  extensive 
network  of  veins,  and  in  several  places  imbedding  large  masses  of  them» 
in  a  manner  that  must  satisfy  the  most  sceptical,  it  was  once  in  a  state 
of  fusion.  The  Choor  also,  which  like  another  Briareus,  with  a  hun- 
dred arms,  domineers  over  the  outer  Himalaya,  is  the  nearest  point  to 
Simla,  where  we  meet  with  the  silver  fir ;  and  separated  as  it  is  by  com- 
paratively low  ridges  from  the  great  ranges  which  form  the  natural 
habitat  of  the  tree,  the  fact  necessarily  gives  rise  to  speculations  on  its 
origin,  and  as  in  the  similar  case  of  the  Alpaca  and  Llama  of  the  isolated 
Cordilleras  of  the  Andes,  and  its  own  Lagomys  or  tailless  rat,  induces 
the  question  whether  nature  does  not  necessarily  and  independently 
give  birth  "  automate"  to  like  forms  of  organization  under  similar  cir* 
cumstances.  Every  traveller  in  the  colder  tracts  of  the  Himalaya  must 
remark  the  resemblance  of  the  genera  to  those  of  Europe :  while,  with 
very  few  exceptions,  the  species  are  different ;  so  much  so,  that  as  Mr. 
Batten  observes,  though  our  oaks  have  acorns  all  right,  the  absence  of 
the  sinuous  leaf  of  the  English  tree  is  enough  almost  to  excommuni' 
cate  our  spinous  brethren.  The  only  exception  to  the  above  rule  appears 
to  be  in  New  Holland,  as  compared  with  a  like  soil  and  climate  in  South 
Africa,  where  her  productions,  animal  and  vegetable,  are  so  dissimilar 
in  plan  from  those  of  all  the  world  besides. 

The  homeward  route  from  Muteeana  to  Simla  may  be  agreeably 
varied  by  a  diversion  to  the  Shallee  mountain.  From  Muteeana  to 
Bhogra»  1,500  to  2,000  feet  below  its  summit,  is  a  walk  of  six  or  seven 
hours  by  a  path  scarcely  practicable  for  ponies.  Back  to  'Fagoo,  via 
Kiarree,  is  about  the  same  distance,  including  a  long  and  tiresome  ascent 
from  the  Nawul  Khud :  or  one  may  return  to  Simla  direct  by  Deotee  in 
the  Kotar  state.  Bhogra  is  the  most  southern  of  the  cluster  of  &ve 
villages  visible  from  Fagoo,  on  the  east  face  of  Shallee,  the  property  of 


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134  Diary  of  an  Exwrsian  to  the  Shatool  [No.  170. 

the  Thakoor  of  Kiaree  Mudhan.  Though  very  steep  and  rocky,  there  is  no 
difficulty  in  the  ascent  to  the  summit,  (9,623  feet  above  sea  level,)  where 
Bheema  Kalee  or  Devee  *  towers  in  her  pride  of  place',  in  a  small  octa- 
gonal temple,  and  as  nature  personified,  enjoys,  when  she  pleases  to 
look  out,  an  exceedingly  extensive  and  impressive  view  of  her  own 
woiks  and  votaries.  Her  character  and  attributes  seem  as  severe  as 
those  of  the  Taurian  Diana ;  and  the  mountaineers,  who  scarcely  acknow- 
ledge any  other  god  or  goddess,  hold  her  in  such  awe,  that  I  have  known 
one  of  them  positively  refuse  to  approach  nearer  than  300  or  400  yards  to 
her  fane,  though  it  was  our  only  shelter  from  a  cutting  blast.  Hence, 
no  doubt,  she  is  said  in  Hindoo  mythology  to  be  the  daughter  of  Hima- 
laya. The  entire  northern  face  of  Shallee  is  covered  with  dense  forest, 
amongst  which  the  Cupresseus  torulosa  is  found  in  considerable  quantity, 
being  the  only  site  in  these  Provinces  where  it  appears  to  be  truly  indige- 
nous. The  day-lily,  Hemerocallis  disticha,  is  common  by  the  water- 
courses, as  is  the  Abelia  trifiora  on  the  warmer  exposures.  On  the  sum- 
mit grow  Ephedra  saxatilis — *'  syr" — and  a  silvery  Artemisia,  very  like 
the  A.  rupestris  of  the  Rhine. 

"  All  things  are  full  of  error"  said  one  of  the  ancients ;  and  it  is  at  best 
but  a  quixotic  procedure  to  wander  out  of  one's  way  to  refute  it»  at  the 
imminent  risk  of  encountering  controversial  wind-mills,  Biscayans,  or 
Crowderos ;  and  truth  when  found,  may,  like  Mademoiselle.  Cun6gonde, 
prove  less  attractive  than  had  been  anticipated.  All  that  can  be  done 
discreetly  is  to  knock  an  error  on  the  head  when  met  privately ;  and  it 
may  be  accomplished  with  the  less  scruple  on  this  occasion,  as  the 
present  is,  so  far  as  I  know,  the  only  one  into  which  the  late  Captain 
Herbert  has  fallen.  I  allude  to  his  Geological  Map  of  our  Himalayan 
Provinces,  where  Shallee  is  included  in  the  micaceous  slate  district; 
whereas  it  is  in  fact,  one  great  mass  of  very  compact,  splintery,  light-blue 
Hmestone,  apparently  very  pure,  with  the  exception  of  a  small  proportion 
of  magnesia.  Several  plants  will  be  found,  which  are,  I  think,  peculiar 
to  limestone,  as  Cytisus  flaccidus.  The  mountain  is  very  deficient  in 
springs,  and  in  the  warm  season  is  dependent  for  water  on  the  pits 
called  "  Jors,"  which  is  of  so  vile  a  quality,  that  all  Hudor-men-ariston 
men  should  carry  up  a  supply  from  the  Nawul  stream. 

October  Srd. — To  Simla.  The  distant  view  of  the  hospitable  homes 
of  our  countrymen  identifies  our  feelings  with  those  of  the  Mesopo- 


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1846.]  and  Boonm  Passes  aver  ike  Himalaya.  135 

tamian  soothsayer,  and  we  adppt  afiur  off  his  exclamation-—'  How  goodly 
are  thy  tents,  O  Jacob,  &c/  but  the  nearer  and  beatific  vision  of  the 
bazaar  and  its  brimful  stores,  exalts  our  enthusiasm  to  the  pitch  of  the 
wizard  of  the  north,  and  we  end  our  pilgrimage  by  a  gastronomic  ap- 
plication of  his  famous  lines. — '  Breathes  there  the  man,  &c.'  Those 
heaps  of  flour  and  Shajehanpoor  sugar  are  worth  more  than  the  purest 
cones  of  snow  in  the  frosty  Caucasus ;  those  gram-fed  fleeces  than  its 
shaggiest  woods;  those  cases  of  aqua-vitae,  more  soul-satisfying  than  its 
loudest  water-falls.  Rapt  into  future  dinners,  the  Deotahs  of  the  un- 
friendly rocks  and  snows  of  Emaus  descend  to  insipid  nonentities  in 
comparison  of  Messrs.  Barrett  and  Company,  who  are  confessed  the  true 
dispensers  of  the  good  things  of  this  life  to  all  who  can  pay  for  them 
and  to  some  who  cannot. 


Rough  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar  and  the  neighbouring  Districts. 

By  Captain  Thomas  Hutton,  of  the  Invalids,  Mussoori ;  with  Notes 

by  Ed.  Blyth,  Curator  of  the  Asiatic  Society's  Museum. 
(Continued from  Vol.  XIV,  p.  354 J 

No.  20.  The  Wild  Hog.  These  are  plentiful  among  the  high  rushes 
at  the  lower  extremity  of  the  Bolan  Pass,  where  they  conceal  themselves 
during  the  day,  but  issuing  forth  at  night,  they  proceed  to  ravage  the 
cultivation  around  Dadur.  They  are  also  numerous  in  similar  covers 
on  the  Helmund  and  in  Seistan  around  the  lake. 

They  are  hunted  but  not  eaten.  They  do  not  appear  to  differ  from 
the  common  wild  hog  of  the  Upper  Provinces  of  India.^' 

%.  In  Mr.  Gray's  catalogue  of  the  specimens  of  mammalia  in  the  British  Museum, 
the  "Indian  wild  boar"  is  styled  Sus  indicus:  and  Mr.  Elliot  had  previously 
pointed  out  the  following  differences  between  it  and  the  European  one.  "The 
Indian  wild  hog,"  remarks  the  latter  naturalist,  **  differs  considerably  from  the  Ger- 
man. The  head  of  the  former  is  longer  and  more  pointed,  and  the  plane  of  the  fore- 
head straight,  while  it  is  concave  in  the  European.  The  ears  of  the  former  are  small 
and  pointed,  in  the  latter  large,  and  not  so  erect.  The  Indian  is  altogether  a  more 
active-looking  animal ;  the  German  has  a  stronger  heavier  appearance.  The  same 
differences  are  perceptible  in  the  domesticated  individuals  of  the  two  countries." 
{Madr.  Journ.  No.  XXV,  219.)  Vide  Curier's  •  Ossemens  Fossiles*,  pi.  Ixi,  for  figures 
of  the  skull  of  the  European  boar,  but  which  would  seem  to  have  been  taken  from  a 
domestic  individual. 

In  the  Society's  Museum  are  two  very  different  forms  of  Indian  wild  boar  skulb, 
especially  characterised  apart  by  the  contour  of  the  vertex  and  occiput.     In  a  particu- 

T 


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136  Ro9§k  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahtar.         [No.  170. 

I  beard  of  an  animal^  however,  which  had  boeB  killed  near  Waaher, 
OB  the  frontier  towards  Herat,  and  at  the  death  of  ^riiich  my  informant 
was  present,  which  leads  me  to  suppose  (if  the  story  be  tme,)  that  the 
*'  Babaronssa"  {Sua  babmrouooa,  Luin.)f  or  some  alUed  species,  is  an  in* 
habitant  of  those  parts.  My  informant  was  one  of  the  party  who  ae- 
companied  the  Gandahar  Sirdars  as  fieur  as  Washer,  on  their  disastrons 
expedition  against  Herat  in  the  years  1838-9.  He  described  the  animal 
as  like  a  hog,  with  tusks  and  two  homt  on  tho  nose;  now  the  Babaronssa, 
according  to  Fred.  Guvier,  haa  four  tusks,  two  of  which,  by  piercing 
through  the  skin  of  the  muzzle,  give  the  animal  the  appearance  des- 
cribed by  my  informant.  He  declared,  that  it  charged  the  party  of 
hunters  and  overthrew  a  horse,  but  was  shot  and  speared  before  it  could 
do  further  injury.  I  have  seen  no  spoils  of  the  animal,  and  merely  give 
the  story  as  I  heard  it,  from  one  who,  by  the  way,  was  found  in  other 
respects,  like  most  of  his  countrymen,  to  be  an  unblushing  fobulist.'^ 

Wild  hogs  are  plentiful  in  Scindh,  and  especially  around  Shikarpore. 

No.  21.  Hystrue  cristata.    Common  Porcupine. 

This  animal  is  very  abundant  around  Candahar  and  in  the  neigh- 
bouring districts ;  it  hides  in  the  deep  fissures  and  caves  which  abound 
in  the  limestone  ranges  that  divide  the  valleys,  and  issuing  forth  at 
night-foU,  they  commit  sad  havoc  in  the  grain-fields  and  gardens.  They 
are  entrapped  in  pit-falls^  and  likewise  shot.  I  once  asked  an  Afghan  if 
he  would  eat  one,  and  he  replied  with  a  start  of  astonishment-—'*  toha, 

larly  fine  fpecimsii,  ttom  Catftack,  measuring  fourteen  inches  and  a  kalf  above,  along 
the  mesial  line  to  tip  of  nasal,  and  the  lower  tusks  of  which  (withdrawn  from  their 
sockets)  measure  seven  inches  and  a  half  long  following  their  curvature,  the  vertex 
narrows  posteriorly  to  an  inch  and  three-eighths ;  whereas,  in  another  skuU  of  the 
same  length,  or  a  trifle  longer,  with  lower  tusks  measuring  six  inches  and  a  quarter, 
the  vertex  is  two  and  a  quarter  across  where  narrowest,  and  the  whole  vertical  aspect 
of  the  cranium  is  broader  and  more  convex.  Where  the  latter  specimen  was  obtained 
1  cannot  learn;  but  1  have  seen  others  like  it  from  Bengal  and  Arracan. 

Wild  hpgs  are  very  generally  diffused  throughout  India,  and  they  occur  in  the 
Himalaya  at  all  altitudes.  Mr.  Hodgson  informs  us  that  there  are  not  any  in  Thibet; 
but  in  the  country  of  the  Usbegs  they  would  appear  to  be  very  numerous.  Thus,  Lieoft. 
Wood,  in  his  *  Journey  to  the  Source  of  the  Oxus,'  mentions  that^**  Descending  the 
eastern  side  of  Junes  Durrah,  our  march  was.  rendered  less  fatiguing  by  following 
hog-tracks  in  the  snow.  So  numerous  are  these  animals,  that  they  had  trodden  down 
the  snow  as  if  a  large  flock  of  sheep  had  been  driven  over  it."  They  are  also  < 
in  Persia,  and  in  the  countries  eastward  of  the  Bay  of  BengaL— Gur*  As*  Soc, 

23.  Possibly  a  species  of  PhachochiBrei.^Cur,  As»  Soc» 


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1846.3  ^^9^  ^^^^  ^  ^^  Zochff  of  Candalur.  137 

Ma,  look  at  the  animal'B  feet ;  do  you  not  peroeiTe  the  iimilitnde  to 
your  own  ?"  And  be  then  proceeded  serionsly  to  inform  me,  that  onoe 
upon  a  time,  there  lived  a  race  of  men  so  exceedingly  wicked,  that 
God  at  length  laid  hit  corse  npon  them  and  changed  their  forms  to  that 
of  the  porcapine,  oUiterating  all  trace  of  the  human  form  divine,  except 
the  feet,  whidi  were  left  to  mark  the  accursed  and  fallen  race,  and  to 
serve  as  a  warning  to  other  evil  doen.  The  hoUow  ({oiUs  which  form 
a  tuft  OB  the  tail,  are  said,  by  the  marvel-loving  vulgar,  to  be  used  for  the 
purpose  of  carrying  a  supply  of  water,  but  bow  the  animal  is  to  make 
use  of  tbe  same  is  not  stated ;  their  true  use,  however,  appears  to  be  to 
give  warning  of  approaching  danger,  and  to  alarm  an  assailant,  as  they 
emit  a  loud  rattling  noise  when  shaken.-^"  Sahee^'  of  Indm.'^ 

No.  22.  lAlactapa  acontivm,  (Pallas):  A.  indica*^  Ghray,  Jn.  and 
Moff.  Nat.  Hi8t.  Vol.  X,  362].  The  Jerboa.  This  beautiful  little  animal 
IS  abundant  over  all  the  stony  plains  throughout  the  country,  burrowing 
deeply,  and  when  unearthed,  bounding  away  with  most  surprising  agility 
after  the  manner  of  the  Kanganx).  It  was  known  throughout  the 
srmy  by  the  name  of  the  Kangaroo-rat.  They  are  easily  tamed,  and 
live  happily  enough  in  confinement  if  furnished  with  plenty  of  room  to 
leap  about.  They  sleep  all  day,  and  so  soundly,  that  they  may  be  taken 
from  their  cage  and  examined  without  awaking  them,  or  at  most  they 
vill  half*open  one  eye  in  a  drowsy  manner  for  an  instant,  and  immedi- 
ately close  it  again  in  sleep.  The  Afghans  call  it  "  Khanee.**  It  retires 
to  its  burrow  about  the  end  of  October,  and  remains  dormant  till  the 
Mowing  April  when  it  throws  off  its  lethargy  and  again  comes  forth. 
It  is  doubtless  the  *'  desert  rat'*  mentioned  by  my  friend  the  late  Cap- 
tam  Arthur  Conolly,  in  his  Overland  Journey  to  India,  (page  54,  Vol.  1.) 
No.  23.  GerbiUus  Indieue.    The  Indian  Gerbil.«« 

M.  Tke  speeks  tt  Hffttritt,  aa  the  genvs  it  mom  tiMted,  bm  groafkly  in  nMd  of  eliici- 
4atiiHi ;  1  am  ol  opiaiom,  that  several  are  at  preaent  confounded  nnder  S,  crutata 
and  fl.  lemcura,  and  1  have  been  endeaivouriag  for  iome  tiBM  peat  to  odleet  moro 
ezteiMive  data  far  determining  thoae  ef  India.  The  AJj^haaiitan  speeiet,  aa  figarad  by 
Bones,  has  aUack  crest,  and  a  nmcb  longer  tail  than  the  trae  €ri8te4a,  or  than  either 
of  the  Indian  species  with  which  1  am  at  present  aeqnainled,  which  latter  sre  at  least 
twe^  if  not  three,  in  number.— Clur.  A»*  See- 

25.  It  cerlMftly  does  not  occur  in  *<  India.  *'-**€lMr.  As,  See* 

%,  Twospecies  of  Indian  Gerbib  hare  been  indieated,  but  their  distinctions  are  by  no 
meaos  satisfactorily  mndeout  Mr.  Waterhowe^  in  Free.  Zed.  See.  1S38,  p.  96,  has 
eadeavoured  to  characterise  n  O.  Cmvkri,  with  tarse  an  inch  and  three-quarters  long, 
though  smsUer  th«a  a;  speeiman  of  O,  muUous,  in  which  tho  tarse  measured  but  one 


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L^ 


138  Rough  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar.         [No.  170. 

These  beautiful  field  rats  abound  at  Neemuch  and  about  Muttra ;  as 
likewise  in  the  sandy  tracts  north  of  the  city  of  Bhawulpore,  where  the 
country  is  absolutely  riddled  with  their  burrows.  I  think  I  have  some- 
whei^e  read  that  they  live  singly,  i.  e.  that  each  pair  is  found  separately 
and  widely  scattered  over  the  pluns;  but  this  is  incorrect,  for  they 
form  large  colonies  like  rabbits,  and  live  in  regular  warrens  wherever 
they  are  located ;  these  colonies  are  usually  situated  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  cultivation,  which  suffers  much  injury  from  their  depreda- 
tions.    It  has  also  been  said  that  they  do  not  venture  out  in  the  day- 

and  a  half.  He  remarkf,  also,  that  **in  the  specimen  of  (?.  mdicus,  and  that  of 
O,  Cuvierif  belonging  to  the  Zoological  Society's  Museum,  there  is  a  considerable 
difference  in  the  colouring,  the  latter  being  paler,  and  of  a  much  brighter  hue  than 
the  former;  but  whether  this  difference  is  constant,"  he  adds,  **  I  am  not  aware." 

Mr.  J.  B.  Gray,  in  his  *  Catalogue  of  the  Mammalia  in  the  British  Museum/  identifies 
Mr.  BUiot's  G.intUcus  of  S.  India  {Madr,  Journ.  No.  XXV,  p.  211),  with  the  6. 
nuUcus  of  Waterhouse,  but  applies  to  it  the  name  Hardwickii  ;  reserving  the  appellation 
indicus  for  some  Bengal  specimens  presented  by  the  late  Major  Gen.  Hardwicke, 
while  he  makes  no  allusion  to  6.  Cuvieri  of  Waterhouse,  as  if  regarding  this  as  a  third 
Indian  species,  not  in  the  British  Museum  collection.  Specimens  from  S.  India,  how- 
ever, presented  to  this  Society  by  Mr.  Walter  BUiot,  of  the  Madras  C.  S.,  (who  also  sup- 
plied the  British  Museum,)  differ  in  not  the  slightest  respect  from  at  least  one  Gerbil 
of  Lower  Bengal.  Of  two  specimens  of  the  latter,  from  the  vicinity  of  Berhampore, 
(for  which  the  Society  is  indebted  to  the  obliging  exertions  of  my  friends  Capt. 
Thomas,  39th  N.  !•,  and  Dr.  Young,)  and  which  accord  in  their  general  dimensions, 
one  has  the  tarse  to  end  of  claws  fully  an  inch  and  three-quarters,  the  other  but 
an  inch  and  five-eighths ;  though  the  former  is  the  more  usual  admeasurement  in  tha 
full  grown  animal. 

It  would  seem,  however,  that  we  have  a  second  species  in  Lower  Bengal,  which  1 
take  to  be  0»  Cuvieri  of  Waterhouse,  and  the  skull  of  which  corresponds  exactly  with 
that  of  Capt*  Button's  species,  No.  24:  having  the  auditory  bulla  considerably  mor« 
voluminous  than  in  (?.  indicus,  and  the  incisive  tusks  larger  and  longer,  and  fronted 
with  much  paler  enamel.  Long  ago,  as  mentioned  in  Jour.  As.  Soe.  XI.  890,  1  found 
the  remains  of  one  of  these  animals  in  a  paddy-field,  half  devoured  by  some  carnivore: 
of  this  I  preservfd  the  skull,  and  what  I  could  of  the  skin,  with  the  tail  and  limbs ;  but 
I  unluckily  gave  the  fragment  afterwards  to  some  sMkarree  who  was  to  have  endeavoured 
to  procure  others,  but  of  whom  I  never  heard  again.  At  that  time  I  had  no  suspicion 
of  the  existence  of  a  second  species  of  Bengal  Gerbil,  and  it  is  only  very  recently  that 
I  have  succeeded  in  procuring  Bengal  specimens  of  the  other. 

Captain  Button's  species.  No.  24,  agrees  so  very  nearly  with  the  common  Indian 
Gerbil,  that  I  can  perceive  no  very  satisfiEtctory  external  distinctions.  The  tarse, 
however,  to  end  of  claws,  of  an  adult  male,  barely  exceeds  an  inch  and  a  half  long; 
the  general  colour  is  also  much  paler,  both  of  young  and  adults ;  and  the  fur  generally 
is  longer,  especially  that  growing  on  the  tail :  the  anterior  limbs  are  either  white,  or 
have  but  a  faint  tinge  of  colour;  whereas  the  hue  of  the  back  is,  I  think,  always  toler- 
ably deep  on  the  fore-limbs  of  (?.  indicus.  The  surface  hue  of  the  upper  parts  is  of 
that  light  arenaceous,  so  very  prevalent  among  the  animals  of  Scinde  and  Afghanistan, 
as  among  those  of  Bgypt  and  other  sandy  and  stony  countries.— C^.  As,  Soe, 


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1846.]  Rough  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar.  139 

time,  but  this  too  is  incorrect,  for  they  may  be  seen  the  whole  day 
through,  popping  out  of  their  holes,  nibbling  the  long  grasses,  and 
bounding  off  from  hole  to  hole.  This  is  the  desert  rat  of  Elphinstone's 
Cabal.   (See  Introduction.) 

No.  24.  Gerlnilus  [Cuvieri  (?),  Waterhouse.]'^  This  species  is  plen^ 
tifiilly  scattered  over  the  arid  and  stony  pbuns  of  Afghanistan,  but  they 
do  not  form  colonies  like  the  last  named.  The  Afghans  call  it  "  Juwee." 
A  full  grown  male  specimen  measured  nine  inches,  and  the  tail  seven 
inches  and  a  half,  equal  to  sixteen  inches  and  a  half  over  all.  This,  like 
the  last,  although  perhaps  strictly  speaking  nocturnal;  is  nevertheless  ac- 
tive during  the  day,  popping  occasionally  out  of  its  hole  to  feed.  They 
form  no  colony,  but  are  numerously  scattered  in  pairs  over  the  plains. 

No.  25.  Gerbillus  [erythroura,  Ghray,  An,  and  Mag.  Nat,  Hist,  Vol. 
X.  266].  This  likewise  is  abundant  over  the  same  tracts  as  the  last, 
and  goes  by  the  same  name ;  it  is  more  abundant  around  Quettah,  while 
the  former  affects  the  tracts  around  Candahar.  All  burrow  in  the 
ground,  and  are  seen  during  the  day  at  times.  The  naUs  of  the  feet  in 
this  last  are  black,  but  in  the  former  (No.  24)  they  are  white  or  colour- 
less in  living  specimens. 

N.  B. — You  will  see  one  specimen  of  Gerhillus  distinguished  by  a  X 
on  the  enveloping  papers.  No.  25^.  It  is,  I  consider,  the  same  as  No.  25, 
the  black  colour  of  the  nails  being,  however,  the  consequence  of  death, 
for  in  tlie  living  specimen  they  were  colourless.  Found  in  wide  stony 
plains  with  the  habit  of  the  last.*^ 

No.  26.  Arvicola  IMus  Huttoni,  Blyth.]^^    I  am  doubtful  whether 

27.  Vide  preceding  note,  No.  26.^ Cur.  As,  Soc, 

28.  I  do  not  think  that  it  differs  from  No.  25.-^CIur.  As.  Soc, 

29.  This  belongs  to  a  particular  and  very  separable  division  of  Mus,  having  much 
the  appearance  and  also  the  habits  of  Artieola,  Among  Indian  species,  it  comprises 
the  Al.  ffiganteus  of  Hardwicke,  or  great  Bandicoot-rat,  and  the  presumed  Af.  intU' 
eus,  Geoff,  (v*  Arvicola  indica,  Hardw.,  M,  kok  of  Gray,  and  M.  (Neotomaj  prtmdens 
of  Mr.  Elliot's  catalogue.)  The  latter  naturalist  having  expressed  to  me  his  intention 
of  appljring  a  particular  name  to  this  group,  1  shall  not  forestall  him  in  so  doing ;  but 
1  entirely  agree  with  him  in  the  propriety  of  the  separation.  Mr.  Gray  (in  Af.  N*  H, 
18S7,  p.  585,)  regards  it  as  the  typical  form  of  Mus, 

In  size  and  proportions  the  present  species  bears  a  near  resemblance  to  M.  indicus 
(v.  kok),  but  the  tail  is  shorter,  and  the  general  colour  much  lighter,  resembling  that 
of  the  Gerbils.  On  comparison  of  the  skulls,  the  zygomatic  arch  is  seen  to  be  conspi- 
eaously  broader  anteriorly ;  and  the  palate  is  much  narrower,  and  contracts  to  the 
front:  but  the  most  obvious  distinction  consists  in  all  the  teeth,  both  incisive  tusks 
and  grindert,  being  considerably  broader  and  stronger.    In  other  respects  the  skulls  of 


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140  Rwgh  Notes  on  the  Zoolofy  b/  Candahar.         [No.  170. 

tliu  is  A.  uuHem  of  Hardwioke  or  not.  It  oocura  south  of  Bhowolpore, 
and  is  abundant  in  Afghanistan  from  Quettah  to  Oirishk,  throwing  op 
the  mould  after  the  manner  of  the  mole.  It  feeds  on  herbs  and  seed, 
and  burrows  in  the  ground  beneath  hedge-rows  and  bushes,  as  well  aa 
along  the  banks  of  ditches.  Its  nest  is  deep-seated,  and  it  constmcts  so 
many  false  galleries  immediately  below  the  surfaee,  that  it  is  diffi- 
cult to  find  the  true  passage  to  its  retreat,  which  dips  down  auddenly 
from  about  the  middle  of  the  labyrinth  above.  In  the  gardens  and  along 
the  sides  of  water-courses  in  the  fields  at  Candahar,  their  earth-heaps 
are  abundant. 

No.  27.  Mus  [baetruMus,  Blyth,  n.  mJ]^  This  is  the  common  house 
mouse  of  Candahar,  but  the  house  rat  is  I  believe  unknown  there ;  at 
least  so  all  my  informants  agreed  in  stating,  and  I  certainly  never  saw 
one,  although  for  two  years  I  was  in  charge  of  extensive  grain  godowns, 
which  would  naturally  have  attracted  them  had  any  existed. 

No.  38.  Lagomys  Iru/eseene,  Gray,  An.  (md  Mag,  Nat.  HiH.  X, 
266.]" 

these  two  species  bear  a  very  close  resemblance.  Length,  minus  the  tail,  about  six 
inches':  the  tail  (vertebras)  four:  tarsus,  with  toes  and  claws,  an  inch  and  three- 
eighths  :  ears  posteriorly  half  an  inch ;  to  anteal  baa«  lhree*qaarters  of  an  inch. 
Fur  soft  and  fine,  blackish  for  the  larger  basal  half  of  the  piles,  the  surface  pale  ra- 
fescent-brown,  deepest  along  the  crown  and  back,  pale  below,  and  whitish  on  the 
throat:  whiskers  small  and  fine,  and  chietfy  black:  tail  naked:  feet  light  brown : 
incisive  tusks  buff-coloared,  the  enamel  of  tkia  hue  partially  worn  away  on  these  ef  the 
upper  Jaw.— Q«r.  As,  Soc, 

30.  This  little  animal  presents  a  very  close  approximation  to  A/,  musculus  in  size, 
proportions,  and  structure,  inclusive  of  the  confonnatiott  of  the  skull;  but  the  fur  is 
much  denser  and  longer,  and  its  colouring  absolutely  resembles  that  of  a  pale  specimen 
of  QerbiUus  indicus^  except  that  there  is  no  whitish  about  the  eyes,  nor  ia  the  crown  of 
a  deeper  hue,  and  the  tail  is  thinly  clad  with  short  pale  hairs  to  the  end.  CoBspariaoa 
of  recent  spacimens  would  probably  elicit  some  further  diatinctioas  from  M,  muscuitu, 
especially  in  the  larger  eye,  and  somewhat  more  predaced  muaile ;  but  1  eannet  ve** 
tare  upon  describing  such  differences  from  a  single  skin.  The  entire  under-parts  and 
feet  are  white;  and  the  upper  parts  light  isabeliine,  with  dusky  extreme  tips  to  the 
hairs,  and  their  basal  two-thirds  deep  ashy.— (^r.  At.  Soc, 

31 ,  Length  about  six  inehes :  tanus  to  end  of  claws  an  iiach  and  tfatae-eighths.  The 
skull  exhibits  good  specifieal  differences  from  that  of  L,  Hodffeoni,  nobis,  J.  A.  S. 
X,  816;  being  in  particular  much  narrower  between  the  erbits.  Mr.  Gray,  in  his 
« Catalogue  ef  Mammalia  in  the  Bcitish  Museum,'  refeis  L.  H^djfsom  to  X.  RtiyUi 
with  a  mark  of  doubt;  and  alfcerwaiids  seeoM  to  identify  it  with  L,  ntpelsfUM,  Hodgson 
— a  very  different  species ;  but  the  plates  te  accompany  the  descriptions  of  L.  Btdf* 
sami  and  L.  nipaknsis  were  unfortunately  transposed.  L.  r^tttem  exhibits  the  same 
sandy  colouring  so  pievalent  aneng  the  animals  of  Seinde  and  Afghanistan,  and  also 
those  of  Egypt— C«r.  A^  Soc. 


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1846.]  Bmigh  Naie$  am  tie  Zooh99  of  CmuMttr.  141 

This  species  inhabits  the  rocks  of  A^hanistsu  from  the  Bolan  Pass, 
where  they  were  first  sees,  to  Oirishk  and  elsewhere  northerly.  They 
shelter  beneath  ledges  of  rock,  and  make  their  nests  in  the  fissures, 
where  it  is  next  to  impoesttile  to  get  at  them;  and  althomgh  I  psid  high 
for  all  specinieas,  and  kq>t  two  men  porposely  to  faring  me  the  produc* 
tions  of  the  oottntry.  I  only  succeeded  in  proenring  two  examples  of  this 
animal,  one  of  which  escaped  during  the  night;  the  other  I  send  for 
in^[)eetion.    It  is  probably  the  "  Coney"  of  Scriptore.^ 

No.  29.  [MyotptiUs  fiueoou^lbu;  Qtarychmt  fiueocainlluB,  Blyth, 
/.  A.  S,  XI,  887.]^^  The  Quettah  Mole,  ss  it  was  commonly  called,  is 
I  think,  a  species  of  A$feia» ;  it  barrows  like  the  mole,  throwing  oat 
heaps  of  earth.  It  is  difficult  to  dig  out,  and  is  said  to  make  long 
horizontal  galleries,  with  earth-heaps  thrown  up  at  intervals.  It  pro- 
bably feeds  v^n  bulbous  roots  with  which  the  plains  around  Quettah 
abound,  such  as  red  and  yellow  tulips,  &c.  I  never  saw  or  heard  of  the 
animal  except  around  Quettah  in  the  valley  of  Shawl,  about  6,600  feet 
above  the  sea  level,  and  I  am  indebted  to  the  kindness  of  Lieutenant 
Holroyd,  43rd  Light  Infantry,  for  the  specimens  which  are  sent  for  in- 
spection. 

No.  30.  Lepus  ?     Hares  are  common  all  over  the  plains, 

and  I  kept  several  tame  ones  at  Candahar.  I  have,  however,  unfortunately 
lost  my  notes,  and  have  preserved  no  specimen.  It  is  said  by  several 
who  have  written  upon  Afghanistan,  that  there  are  two  species,  a  large 
and  a  small  one.  the  latter  somewhat  like  a  rabbit.  I  cannot  positively 
deny  the  correctness  of  this  assertion,  although  I  have  strong  doubts  on 
the  subject ;  the  small  hares  that  I  saw  both  at  Quettah  and  Candahar, 
being  nothing  more  than  immature  specimens  or  leverets  of  the  same 
i^iecies,  and  I  suspect  that  observers  have  mistaken  the  Lagomya  for  a 
small  hare,  an  error  by  no  means  of  infrequent  occurrence.  They  are 
said  to  be  remarkably  strong  and  swift  m  some  parts  of  the  country, 
and  the  dog  that  can  catch  one  single-handed,  is  reckoned  a  good  one. 
Having  neither  notes  nor  specimens  to  refer  to,  I  cannot  pronounce  upon 
the   species,  though  it  appears  from  memory  to  correspond  with  the 

32.  The  **  Coney"  of  our  Englifh  version  is,  beyond  doubt,  the  Hyrtut  syrktcut, 

!  Bchreber.*- Cur.  As^  Soe. 

\  33.  This  type  differs  from  Myodes^  or  the  Lemminjjf  genns,  in  the  much  greater  size 

and  strength  of  the  feet,  in  the  elongation  and  protrusion  of  its  upper  incisive  tusks, 
&c.    I  will  describe  it  more  particularly  with  some  other  new  rodents.— >Ctir.  ds,  Soe, 


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142  Rough  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar.  [No.  170. 

common  hare  of  the  Deyra  Dhoon.     [L.  rufictmdaius.  Is.  Oeoff.]   This, 
however,  is  conjecture.    "  Khor-gosli/'  i.  e.  Ass^eared.^ 

No.  31. — Bo8  6«Wt».— The  Buffido  is  scarce  and  does  not  occnr 
wild ;  the  few  that  are  kept  are  evidently  from  the  east  of  the  Indus,  and 
are  precisely  the  same  as  the  domestic  bnffido  of  the  Bha^ulpore  conn- 
try,  where  they  occur  in  immense  herds  along  the  bankfe  of  the  Ghurra. 
There  they  are  kept  for  the  sake  of  the  milk  and  ghee,  and  during  the 
heat  of  the  day  they  forsake  the  jungles  and  repair  to  the  river,  where 
they  immerse  themselves  in  the  water,  leaving  only  the  head  on  the  sur- 
face. I  know  not  if  it  be  the  same  as  the  Mysore  bufiiEdo,  but  it  differs 
greatly  in  its  horns  from  those  commonly  met  with  in  our  Provinces. 
They  are  of  large  size,  chiefly  black,  sometimes  with  a  white  forehead 
and  white  tip  to  the  tail,  which  reaches  to  the  fetlock,  hairy  on  the 
neck  and  shoulders ;  withers  not  raised  above  the  rump.  Some  are  dun- 
coloured,  and  among  these,  also,  the  white  forehead  is  occasionally  seen. 
Irides  often  white ;  forehead  prominent ;  the  horns  in  all  curving  up 
strongly  and  closely  from  the  base,  and  forming  a  curl  at  the  side  of  the 
head  instead  of  lying  back  along  the  neck,  as  in  those  of  the  Provinces. 
The  only  domestic  buffaloes  that  I  saw  in  Afghanistan  were  a  few  kept 
at  Candahar,  for  the  sake  ol  the  milk  and  ghee.^^ 

34.  From  the  skull  of  an  immature  specimen  of  the  Afghan  Hare  in  Capt.  Hutton's 
collection,  it  is  easy  to  perceive  that  the  species  differs  from  the  northern  Indian  one : 
as  is  especially  shewn  by  the  greatly  diminished  horizontal  elongation  of  the  descend- 
ing angle  of  the  lower  jaw,  by  the  difference  of  the  condyle,  &c.  It  is  only  within 
a  comparatively  recent  period  that  the  common  hare  of  Bengal  and  of  the  Upper  Pro- 
vinces has  been  recognised  as  a  peculiar  species  by  Zoologists.  According  to  the  ob- 
servation of  Mr.  Vigne,  it  is  remarkable  that  there  are  no  hares  in  Kashmir.  "One 
of  the  most  singular  facts  connected  with  the  natural  history  of  the  valley,"  writes 
that  gentleman,  <*  is  that  of  there  being  no  hares  there.  As  a  sportsman,  I  could  not 
have  believed  it  to  be  the  case,  as  I  have  nowhere  seen  more  likely  ground.  I  am 
assured  that  they  do  not  exist  there,  and  I  have  never  seen  one  myself,  although  I 
have  traversed  every  quarter  of  the  valley.  It  is  probably  too  cold  for  the  Indian 
hare ;  and  that  of  the  valleys  of  Thibet  is  an  Alpine  hare  [L»  oistoius,  Hodgson, 
V.  iibetanuSt  Waterhouse,]  that  has  its  dwelling  amongst  rocks,  sand,  and  Taitarian 
furze.  1  should  think  that  the  European  hare  would  thrive  very  well  there."— Cter. 
As.  Soc. 

35.  The  above  description  applies  better  to  the  tame  buffaloes  of  Italy  and  Hun- 
gary, than  to  those  ordinarily  met  with  in  India ;  the  former  having  besides  a  longer 
tail,  and  they  are  very  commonly  more  or  less  marked  and  splashed  with  white.  A 
skull  of  this  race  is  figured  in  the  *  Ossemens  Fossiles.*  An  Egyptian  cow-buffalo 
which  I  saw  in  London  approached  more  to  the  degenerate  tame  Indian  breed,  and  had 
small,  but  elongated  horns,  similarly  directed ;  and  the  late  Mr.  John  Stanislaus  Bell, 
(of  *  Vixen*  celebrity,)  who  favoured  me  with  some  interesting  particulars  respecting 


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1846.]  Romgk  Noiei  on  the  Zoology  of  Candakar.  143 

No.  32,  fi.  tmama.'^Tht  Cow  is  a  handsome  animal,  and  generally 
a  good  milcfaer ;  this  is  doubtless  owing  in  a  great  measure  to  the  rioh 
artificial  pastures  on  whieh  they  feed;  the  hump  is  generally  reduced  to 
an  almost  imperoeptihle  rise  at  the  withers,  and  in  many  it  is  not  at  all 
presoAt.  They  are  shoit-legged,  and  have  good  barrels,  being  altoge- 
ther a  fox  more  Buroptan*looking  breed  than  any  native  cattle  on  this 
aide  of  the  Indus.  They  do  not  appear  to  give  the  same  quantity  ef 
milk  in  India,  unless  well  fed. 

No.  33.  B.  p&ephagui.-^The  Yak  is  seen  to  occur  wild  in  the 
Huzara  ranges,  but  for  this  I  cannot  vouch  ;'^  it  has  been  said,  by 
more  than  one  traveller^  also  to  occur  wild  in  the  higher  parts  of 
Kunawur  and  Tartary,  and  Lieut.  Smith  is  quoted  by  Mr.  Qg^by  as 
having  seen  them  wild  on  the  confines  of  Bhootan;  but  these  herds, 
I  suspect,  were  nothing  more  than  the  tame  y^ks  turned  adrift,  ac- 
cording to  the  custom  during  the  summer,  and  left  to  roam  at  hvge 
until  the  winter  sets  in,  when  they  are  reclaimed  and  housed.  The 
same  custom  may  probably  prevail  among  the  Huzarrahs,  and  so  have 
given  rise  to  the  tale  of  wild  herds.^^  (Perhaps  this  is  the  "  Gow^cohi*' 

many  of  tke  animalf  of  Circaasia,  informed  ma,  that  the  Circaaiian  bui&loet  **  agree 
with  the  Italian  in  their  bombed  forehead,  maasive  and  ponderoui  eonformation,  and 
also  in  the  abundanoe  of  excellent  milk  afforded  by  the  female*  often  for  two  yean  ; 
but  the  horns,  especially  those  of  the  female,  are  very  large,  inolined  backwards,  mu<:h 
curved,  annnlated  and  serrated.  The  oommon  aUitude  ii  that  of  the  Indian  buffalo, 
with  the  head  horiiontaUy  held  out;  and  the  tail,  with  its  terminal  tuft,  does  not  reach 
mnoh  more  than  half  way  to  the  ground.  The  young  are  of  a  dusky-brown  colour; 
but  the  full  grown  are  almost  invariably  bUok,  without  a  tpot  of  white.  Their  stature 
fxeeeds  conaiderabiy  that  of  the  largest  British  cattle. 

U  should  have  been  premised,  that  I  furnished  Mr.  Bell  with  tketches  from  life  of 
the  Italian  and  common  domestic  Indian  buffaloes,  the  principal  distinctions  of  which 
races  1' pointed  out  to  him,  and  this  drew  his  attention  to  the  minuUie  which  he  has 
partifiuiamed.  Certainly,  the  Italian  tame  buffalo  is  a  very  different  looking  animal 
fiom  that  of  Bengal,  and  the  buffeilo  of  Afghanistan  if  evidently  the  same;  but  this 
Circassian  would  seem  identical  with  the  ordinary  (and  wild)  Indian  race.^C't<r.  4^. 
Soe, 

36.  My  friend  the  late  Sir  ▲.  fiumes  replied  to  my  inquiries  on  thif  tubject*  **  The 
Yak  is,  i  hear,  wild  in  Pamir,  or  some  animal  very  like  it*"~T.  H, 

37.  Various  authors  have  mentioned  wild  Yaks,  though  some  at  least  of  them  haf  e 
beea  doubtlew  misled  by  the  circumstance  mentioned  by  Captain  HuUon,  of  the  tame 
herds  being  turned  loose  in  summer  upon  the  mountains.  According  to  Lieut.  Irwin, 
**  Yaks  are  found  in  a  wild  sUte  on  the  Pamir,  and  on  the  upper  parts  of  Budukhihun." 
Mr.  Vigae  also  informs  us,  that  there  are  wild  Yaks  on  the  northern  slope  of  the  moun- 
laina  towanis  Yarkund ;"  and  Timkowski  mentions,  that  this  species  '*  is  found,  both 
wild  and  tame,  in  the  western  frontiers  of  China,  in  all  Tangout  and  Thibet."  So 
Captain  Broome  assured  me,  that  he  heard  of  wild  Yaks  being  seen  about  Hodok,  aaid 
lo  be  in  herds,  and  exceedingly  savage  and  dangeroui  to  travellers  in  the  passes. 


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144  Rough  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar.        [No.  170. 

of  the  Persian  physicians,  also  Gowzen;  vide  Cuvier's  'Synopsis  Mam- 
mahum.') 

No.  34.  To  the  Horses  I  paid  no  attention,  but  believe  there  is  no 
good  breed  proper  to  Afghanistan,  or  at  least  not  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Candahar ;  all  coming  from  other  countries,  as  Herat,  Toorkistan,  &c. 

No.  35.  Asset  are  as  common  at  Candahar  as  elsewhere,  and  do  not 
differ  from  their  brethren  of  other  more  civilised  countries ;  they  aie 
used  as  beasts  of  burthen,  and  have  no  more  mercy  shown  to  them  than 
elsewhere. 


Of  the  many  notices  I  have  seen  of  the  habits  of  this  animal,  one  of  the  moat 
interesting  is  that  given  by  Lient.  Wood.  *'  The  Yak/*  he  remarks,  **  is  to  the  inha- 
bitants of  Thibet,  and  Pamir,  what  the  Rein-deer  is  to  the  Laplander  of  Northern 
Europe.  Like  the  Elephant,  he  possesses  a  wonderful  knowledge  of  what  will  bear 
his  weight  If  travellers  are  at  fault,  one  of  these  animals  is  driven  before  them, 
and  it  is  said,  that  he  avoids  the  hidden  depths  and  chasms  with  admirable  sagacity. 
His  footing  is  sure.  Should  a  fall  of  snow  close  a  mountain  pass  to  man  and  hone,  a 
score  of  yaks  driven  ahead  answer  the  purpose  of  pioneers,  and  make,  as  my  informant 
expressed  it,  a  *  king's  highway.'  In  this  case,  however,  the  snow  must  have  recent- 
ly fallen,  for  when  its  surface  is  frozen  over  and  its  depth  considerable,  no  animal  can 
force  its  way  through  it.  Other  cattle  require  the  provident  care  of  man  to  subsist 
them  through  the  winter;  but  the  Kash^gow  is  left  entirely  to  itself.  He  frequents 
the  mountain  slopes  and  their  level  summits.  Wherever  the  mercury  does  not  rise 
above  zero,  is  a  climate  for  the  yak.  If  the  snow  on  the  elevated  flats  lies  too  deep 
for  him  to  cross  the  herbage,  he  rolls  himself  down  the  slopes,  and  eats  his  way  up 
again.  When  arrived  at  the  top  he  performs  a  second  somerset,  and  completes  hit 
meal  as  he  displays  another  groove  of  snow  in  his  second  ascent  The  heat  of  summer 
sends  this  animal  to  what  is  termed  the  old  ice,  that  is  to  the  regions  of  eternal  snow; 
the  calf  .being  retained  below  as  a  pledge  for  the  mother  returning,  in  which  she  never 
fails.*  *  *  The  Kash-gows  are  gregarious,  and  set  the  wolves,  which  here  abound, 
at  defiance.  Their  hair  is  dipt  once  a  year  in  the  spring.  The  tail  is  the  well 
known  ehowry  of  Hindoostan ;  but  in  this  country,  its  strong,  wiry,  and  pliant  hair, 
is  made  into  ropes,  which,  for  strength,  do  not  yield  to  those  manufactured  from  hemp. 
The  hair  of  the  body  is  woven  into  mats,  and  also  into  a  strong  fabric,  which  makes 
excellent  riding  trowsers.  The  milk  of  the  yak  is  richer  than  that  of  the  common  oow, 
though  the  quantity  it  yields  is  less." 

It  is  a  very  prevalent  opinion,  that  the  Yak  has  never  yet  been  taken  alive  to  Europe. 
But  Captain  Turner  long  ago  stated,—-**  1  had  the  satisfaction  to  send  two  of  this 
species  to  Mr.  Warren  Hastings,  after  he  left  India,  and  to  hear  that  one  reached 
England  alive.  This,  which  was  a  bull,  remained  for  some  time  after  he  landed  in  a 
torpid  and  languid  state,  till  his  constitution  had  in  some  degree  assimilated  to  the 
climate,  [or  had  got  over  the  effects  of  the  long  voyage,]  when  he  recovered  at  once, 
both  in  health  and  vigour :  he  afterwards  became  the  sire  of  many  calves,  which  all 
died  without  reproducing,  except  one,^a  cow,  which  bore  a  calf  by  an  Indian  bull. 
Though  naturally  not  intractable  in  temper,  yet  soured  by  the  impatient  and  inju- 
dicious treatment  of  his  attendants,  during  a  long  voyage,  it  soon  became  dangerous  to 
suffer  this  bull  to  range  at  liberty  abroad,  for  which  reason,  after  destroying  a  valuable 
horse,  he  was  finally  secured  alone.".— CWr.  At.  Sec* 


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1646.}  Roufh  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar.  145 

Dozens  of  these  aQimals  are  driven  into  Candahar  every  morning  dar- 
ing the  fmit  season,  each  carrjring  a  pair  of  panniers  loaded  with  grapes, 
figs,  pears,  peaches,  apricots,  nectarines,  plums,  cherries,  green-gages, 
and  melons.  Latterly,  also,  from  the  difficulty  and  expense  of  procuring 
cameb  for  commissariat  purposes,  we  used  to  hire  asses,  and  found 
them  to  be  quick  travellers,  under  loads  of.  two  puckah  maunds  each, 
(160ft8).  The  Bokhara  breed  is  very  large  and  often  white.  These 
animals  are  subject  to  swellings  or  tumours  in  the  throat,  from  which 
secretions  of  lime  are  extracted,  often  as  large  as  a  pigeon's  egg^  and 
formed  similar  to  the  gravel  stones  in  the  human  bladder.  I  send  one 
for  analysis.'^ 

No..  36.  Mules  are  good,  and  often  high-priced,  especially  riding 
mules,  which  sometimes  seU  from  250  to  300  Go's.  Rs.  each.  I  do  not 
think  any  are  bred  in  Afghanistan,  but  suspect  they  come  from  Mooltan 
and  the  Punjab. 

No.  37.  Equus  hemiomu.  The  Oorkhur,  or  wild. Ass,  I  never  saw,  but 
it  occurs  in  the  southern  deserts,  and  in  Ghirmsail ;  also  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Herat  and  in  Persia.  It  is  difficult  to  capture  alive.  They  occur 
also  in  Cutchee  and  in  Ouzerat.  I  heard  a  Bombay  Engineer  Officer 
state  as  a  fact,  which  he  backed  moreover  by  the  authority  of  Capt. 
Harris,  of  the  same  Presidency,  (Author  of  '  African  wild  Sports')  that 
stallions  of  the  wild  ass  were  very  seldom  met  with,  and  the  reason 
assigned  was,  that  as  soon  as  the  young  one  was  bom,  the  old  sttUlion 
immediately  castrated  it  with  his  teeth! !  This  very  marvellous  story 
was  evidently  believed  by  the  gentleman  from  whom  I  heard  it,  but  I 
strongly  suspect  that  if  it  really  originated  with  Captain  Harris,  that 
Officer  must  have  been  quizzing.     One  very  simple  reason  against  the 

38.  Of  this,  Mr.  Laidlay  has  favoured  me  with  the  following  report  :— 
**  The  calculus  submitted  for  examination  weighed  237  grains,  and  had  a  specific 
gravity  of  1.81.    Exactly  in  its  centre  was  found  what  appears  to  be  the  husk  of  some 
grain,  (paddy  ?)  which  served  as  a  nucleus  around  which  the  chalky  deposit  accreted 
in  concentric  layers.    Its  composition  is 

Carbonate  of  lime,     •  •        •  ^        •  •        •  •      89'0 

Carbonate  of  magnesia, 1  *9 

Phosphate  of  lime, 1*6 

Animal  matter  (mucus  and  albumen,)    ..        7*5 

100*0 

Corresponding  with  the  ordinary  composition  of  salivary  concretions.*'— Gmt*.  Am,  Soc. 


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146  Rwgh  Noh$  en  the  ZO0IO fy  9/  CkifUhhar.         [No.  170. 

trath  of  the  »t)ory  ariMS  from  the  fact»  that  in  newly  bora  ammalB*  the 
testiclee  are  not  apparent,  nor  do  thej  drop  for  some  time  after  their 
birth;  nor  is  it  at  all  likely  that  tiie  fttallion  is  in  attendance  as  accoa*- 
dieur,  for  the  female  knowing  the  propensity  of  the  male  to  attack  her 
offspring,  would  assuredly  take  Ite  necessary  precaution  to  prevent  it. 
Besides,  if  this  be  the  rule,  the  continuance  of  the  race  of  wild  aneB» 
mast  be  altogether  fortuitous !  The  story  speaks  ft^r  itself ;  but  I  men- 
tiou  it  as  iUttStrative  of  what  people,  and  clever  people  too»  will  swallow 
frdm  thd  mou^  of  one  supposed  to  be  an  orwA:^  '*  Ok&rkkm'"  quere 
from  '*  Ghora*'  a  horse,  and  '*  Kkur,"m  ass^  literaHy  "Equus  Asiaus/' 

No.  38.  Cervida.  Of  the  true  Deer  there  are  none  in  the  lower  tracts 
^  Afghanistan  around  Candahar,  nor  is  there  any  cover  for  animals  of 
thin  tribe,  the  whole  country  being  a  sucoeMioB  of  bare  hills  and  arid 
stony  plains,  with  scarce  a  shrub  of  any  kind  larger  than  the  camels 
thora.  I  was  once  informed,  that  the  Fallow  deer  occurred  near  Herat, 
but  acting  on  the  hint  and  making  every  enquiry  from  competent 
authorities,  I  failed  to  get  th^  least  ccmfirmation  of  the  report,  and 
believe  my  informant  had  nefver  seen  the  fallow  deer  even  in  Europe.^ 

it  may  not  be  amiss  to  eay  a  word  here  regarding  the  Hippelaphtts 
of  Aristotle,  whidi  Mr.  Ogiiby  has  applied  to  tiie  Nylghau  (Partejr 
jfdctia),  I  should  not  have  ventured  on  the  subject  had  not  that  gentle- 
man pointed  to  the  modern  Punjab,  as  i^rsc^osie,  which  Aristotle  gives 
as  tkt  habitat  of  Hippekphus.  Finding  no  other  animal  in  the  Punjab, 
to  which  the  description  will  apply*  Mr»  Ogiiby  decided  that  the  Nylghau 

39.  Aristotle,  as  quoted  by  Colonel  Hamilton  Smith,  remarks  of  the  common  Ass, 
that  the  more  poweffol  males  thus  attack  t)ie  weaker,  **  Tandiu  illtim  perteqauntai' 
donee  aiseeuti  ore  int^r  poBteiiora  crura  tuserto  testicuies  ^vs  e?tU«it.*'  And  isr  this 
reason,  observes  Colonel  Smith,  it  is  held  dangerous  to  allow  a  male  ass  to  pasture  ia 
the  same  field  where  there  is  a  stallion.  With  the  Ghorkhur,  as  with  the  Ass,  the  males 
%ht  with  the  teeth  rather  than  with  their  hoofs ;  nor  are  they  the  only  animals  which 
evince  a  propensity  fo¥  gelding  their  antagonist.  Br.  Bachman  relates  the  same  of 
certain  of  the  American  Squirrels;  tfnd  1  hare  observed  it  in  Shrews,  fhers  is  sa 
interesting  notice  somewhere  in  the  *  Asiiitic  R«v^ew,'  of  a  number  of  Qborkhuts  takea 
in  pit-falls  in  Scinde  or  Guzerat;  among  which,  I  think  it  is  remarked  tibat  not  a  siB|^e 
entire  male  occurred.  In  a  note  to  Vol.  XI,  p.  286,  I  expressed  doubt  respecting  the 
alleged  identity  of  the  **  Kyang*'  of  Tibet  with  the  QkorkhMr;  but  the  Society  has 
recently  received  (from  6.  T.  Lushington,  Esq.,  of  Almorah,)  a  nearly  perfect  skin  of 
a  Kyang,  which  completely  settles  the  question  in  the  affinnatiTe«*^0<r.  At.  Soc. 

40.  There  is  a  magnificent  true  Elaphoid  stag  in  Persia,  known  as  the  Moral,  of 
which  a  pair  were  taken  to  England  by  Sir  John  McNeill,  and  deposited  in  the 
Zoologtcal  Gaidens.^Cter.  As,  SifC. 


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1846.]  Roufk  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  CantUikar,  147 

iiiiwt  be  the  specks  sUuded  to.     To  this  view  of  the  ease,  I  hxw  to 
oSbt  the  folbwiog  objections  and  suggestions  ; 

U^.— As  regards  tike  country  called  *'  ArfhoHa"  it  would  appear 
firom  various  sources,  and  among  others  from  Professor  Lassen,^'  that 
Arachosia  was  part  of  the  country  called  **  Aritma,"  and  situated  in 
that  part  of  Afghainstan  of  which  Candahar  is  the  capital.  Such  being 
the  ease,  it  is  at  once  evident*  that  the  aninud  alluded  to  by  Aris^ 
tolie  under  the  name  of  Hippelaphus,  could  not  have  been  the  Nyl* 
gfara,  inasmudi  as  that  animal  does  not  anywhere  occur,  within  the 
Ihaiti  of  A%haiU8tan,  and  hi  all  probabiUty  it  does  not  even  cross 
the  Indus.  The  same  remark  will  equally  apply  to  the  Saumer 
deer  of  India,  and  indeed  to  all  the  deer  tribe,  as  none  of  them,  as 
te  as  I  could  learn  after  two  years'  inquiry,  are  found  in  that  part  of 
the  country ."M  It  would  seem  proved,  therefore,  that  neither  the  Saumer 
■or  the  Nylghni  can  be  the  Hippelaphus  of  Aristotle.  Mr.  Ogilby  says, 
the  name  Hippelaphus  is  now  applied  to  the  Saumer,  but  in  the  English 
'  R^ne  AramaU'  t^e  specific  title  of  **  ArvUote&i*'  is  given  to  that  animal. 
It  is  «B  yet  undetermined,  I  beJieve,  whether  the  Saumer  and  Jmrrew  are 
the  same  species  or  not,  and  until  such  is  proved,  the  name  of  <'  ArietoteUi" 
mnit  ap^y  to  the  latter  deer,'*' 


4K  JtQtttasl  ▲«.  Soo.  BM^ftl,  Nm*  86  and  101  paisiia. 

42.  The  'AradiMian  Ox'  of  Aristotle  ig,  beyond  doubt,  the  Bufialo.— CVr.  A». 
Soc, 

4S.  Vide  Jtmrn,  As.  Soc.  XI,  449,  for  some  remaits  on  this  subject,  which  further 
ebserrattOB  has  confifsnd,  as  regards  the  distinctness  of  the  *  iurrow'  (ۥ  ArittoteUsJ, 
the  *  Saumer*  (C,  hippelaphtu,  Cuv.^,  and  the  Malayan  Busa  (C.  equinus.  Cuv.J 
The  Jurrow  is  peculiar  to  the  Himalaya,  and  iu  antlers  are  always  much  larger,  and 
more  ditergent  than  in  theotheie;  and  the  prongs  composing  their  terminal  fork  are 
generally  about  equal  in  length  $  sometimes  the  inner  and  sometimes  the  outer,  being 
the  longer.  In  the  Saumer,  which  inhabits  Bengal,  Arracan,  and  the  hill  forests  of 
Peninsular  India  (it  being  doubtless  also  the  Cingalese  species),  the  antlers  very 
rarely,  if  ever,  exceed  two  feet  and  a  half  in  kngth,  and  are  mudi  less  massive  than 
those  of  the  Jurrow  ;  of  the  prongs  of  their  terminal  fork,  the  outer  is  usually  the 
longer.  In  the  Malayan  Husa,  inhabiting  the  Malay  Peninsula  and  Java,  the  con- 
tiiryebtaitts;  the  iimer  prong  lieing  nsaally  much  the  longer,  and  the  reverse  of  this 
is  observable  in  a  still  greater  degree  an  the  conuaon  Axis  or  epotted  deer«  In  addition 
to  series  of  each  of  the  above  in  the  Society's  museum,  are  three  pairs  of  antleis  of  a 
Busa,  now  common  in  the  Mauritius,  and  which  nearly  resemble  those  of  the  Malayan 
C.  tgMMisi^  but  are  remaricable  for  a  strong  sigmoid  flicxsosily  of  the  beam.  There 
are  also  two  frontlets  from  Assam,  which  eeem  to  be  referrible  to  the  Saumer,  having 
the  antlers  unusually  robust  but  short,  and  (as  hi  ordinary  Saumer  J  much  less  diverg* 
Mt  than  those  of  the  Jurreit0.^Cur.  As.  Soc. 


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148  Rough  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahnr.        [No.  170. 

2Hd. — From  Aristotle's  description  of  the  animal,  and  the  habit 
furnished  by  him,  as  well  as  from  Mr.  Ogilby's  remarks  thereon,  I 
would  beg  to  suggest,  that  the  Hippelaphiis  is  nothing  more  than  the 
**  Copra  €sgagru8** 

I  found  this  opinion  on  the  following  facts,  namely : — 

1«^.— Hippel8{^us  inhabits  the  country  of  Arachosia,  in  which  the 
C  0igagru8  abounds,  but  where  neitiier  the  Nylghau  nor  the  Sammer 
occurs. 

2nd, — "  The  Hippelaphus,"  says  the  Qteek  philosopher,  *'  has  a  mane 
(like  a  horse)  above  the  shoulders,  but  from  this  to  the  head,  along  the 
top  of  the  neck,  it  is  very  thin;  it  has  likewise  a  beard  on  the  hrynM; 
it  is  about  the  size  of  a  stag— the  female  has  no  horns — thone  of  the 
male  resemble  the  horns  of  the  Dorcas  (Gagella  dorcasj  : — ^it  inhabits 
Arachosia."  (Royle's  Him.  Bot.,  Mamm.,  p.  74.)  Now  a  reference 
to  the  figure  of  C  ^ogrus  given  in  the  *  Calcutta  Journal  of  Natural 
History,'  No.  8,  will  show  the  nume  and  beard  alluded  to  by  Ariatode ; 
in  the  figure,  however,  the  hair  on  the  shoulders  or  withers.is  not  repre- 
sented  long  enough,  nor  so  thick  as  in  the  living  animal.  This  animd 
therefore  possesses  precisely  such  a  mane  as  Aristotle  describes,  it  bong 
longest  on  the  shoulder  and  growing  thinner  and  shorter  towards  the 
head :  it  has  likewise  a  long  and  bushy  beard  depending  from  the  throat. 

Mr.  Ogilby,  after  declaring  that  it  can  be  easily  proved,  that  the 
Dorcas  is  the  OazeUe  of  Egypt,  goes  on  to  say  that—'*  Theodore  Gaza, 
himself  a  Greek,  and  the  first  translator  of  Aristotle,  very  properly  ren-^ 
ders  the  word  by  Capra."  Here  then  is  a  corroboration  of  my  opinion, 
for  according  to  Aristotle  and  his  first  translator,  the  Hippelaphus  inha- 
bited Arachosia,  i.  e.  Candahar ;  it  had  a  mane  and  beard ;  so  has  C. 
agagrus :  it  has  horns  like  the  Dorcas  or  goat ;  C.  agagrus  is  a 
horned  goat.  The  only  dissimilitude  is  in  the  female  having  no  horns, 
whereas  all  the  specimens  I  have  seen  of  the  female  agagrus  were 
homed.  Even  this,  however,  is  in  a  measure  nullified  by  the  statement 
in  the  English  RSgM  Animal,  that  the  female  has  "  short  or  nio  honu.*' 
If,  therefore,  the  horns  are  sometimes  wanting,  it  may  have  been  from  a 
hornless  specimen  that  Aristotle's  description  was  drawn  up. 

The  Capra  agagrus  will  consequently  be  found  in  every  respect  to 
answer  the  description  of  Hippelaphus,  both  as  to  its  appearance  and 
habitat ;  while  in  the  latter  respect  at  least,  neither  the  Portax  picta  nor 


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1846.]  Eougk  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar.  149 

any  of  the  Riua  tribe,  can  possibly  agree,  fornone  of  them  occur  across 
the  Indus  or  in  Arachosia.  The  only  wild  ruminants  that  I  could  hear 
of  in  the  country,  were  C.  mgugrus,  C.  megaeeroo  (nobis),  Qvw  Vignei 
(Blyth),  Gazdia  oubgutiurooa,  and  in  Gutchee  and  Upper  Scindh,  west 
of  the  Indus,  the  Cenms  poremus,  GoMelia  Bemioitii,  and  G.  Christiu 
To  none  of  these,  with  the  exception  of  the  first,  can  the  description  above 
quoted  vppLj ;  and  if  it  be  rejected,  then  there  remains  no  animal  in 
Arachosia  to  which  we  can  refer  that  notice.  In  the  '  Penny  Cyclopae- 
dia,' art.  Ariana,  we  are  informed  that  "  Ariana  was  the  general  appel* 
lation  given  by  andent  authors,  subsequent  to  the  age  of  Alexander  the 
Great,  to  the  eastern  portion  of  those  countries  which  form  the  high- 
land of  Persia.  According  to  Eratosthenes,  Ariana  was  bounded  on  the 
north  by  the  Paropanmsus  mountains,  and  their  western  continuation 
as  far  as  the  CaspisB  Fylse ;  on  the  south  by  the  great  sea  (the  Indian 
Ocean) ;  on  the  east  by  therwer  Indus ;  and  on  the  west  by  the  chain  of 
bills  which  separate  Parthyene  from  Media,  and  Karmania  from  Parai- 
takene  and  Persis.  Its  shape  is  by  Strabo  compared  to  that  of  a  paral- 
lelogram, the  dimensions  of  which,  reckoned  from  the  mouths  of  the 
Indus  to  the  Paropanmsus,  he  estimates  at  12,000  or  13,000  stadia; 
and  in  a  straight  line  from  the  upper  Indus  to  the  Caspise  Pylse,  on  the 
authority  of  Eratosthenes,  at  14,000  stadia;  the  length  of  the -southern 
sea  coast  from  the  mouths  of  the  Indus  to  the  entrance  of  the  Persian 
Ghilf  is  stated  at  12,900  stadia.  The  countries  properly  belonging  to 
Ariana  are,  according  to  Strabo,  in  the  east,  the  Paroparmisadse,  the 
Arachoti,  and  Gtedroseni,  along  the  Indus  proceeding  from  north  to 
south ;  the  Drangse  towards  the  west  of  the  Arachoti  and  Gedroseni ; 
the  Arii  towards  the  west  of  the  Paroparmisade,  but  extending  consi- 
derably to  the  west  and  south,  so  as  nearly  to  encompass  the  Drangse, 
the  Parthyaei  west  of  the  Arii,  towards  the  Caspise  Pylse ;  and  Karmania 
to  the  south  of  the  Parthyaei." 

From  this  it  becomes  abundantly  evident,  that  Mr.  Ogilby  is  altoge- 
ther wrong  in  placing  the  modem  Punjab  within  the  ancient  Arachosia, 
and  consequently  that  his  views  with  regard  to  the  identity  of  Hippela* 
phus  and  Porta*  picta  or  Nylghau,  are  wholly  inadmissible. 

If  therefore  we  reject  the  Capra  egagrus  ba  Aristotle's  Hippelaphus, 
the  matter  is  left  in  more  doubt  than  ever,  for  there  is  now  no  other 


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150  Rough  Notes  m  the.  Zoology  of  Candakar.         [No.  170. 

ruminant  inhabiting  Arachosia  to-  which  his  deseription  can  posaibly 
apply. 

No.  39.  Cervttf  porcimu/  Hog  deer — Parah.  Thia  species  occurs 
abundantly  in  the  preserves  at  Shikarpore,  and  is  also  found  in  the  jangles 
of  the  Bhawulpore  territory.  While  returning  to  Ferozepore  by  water 
from  Sukkur,  I  saw  a  hog  deer  some  miles  below  Ooeh^  suddenly  spring 
off  the  bank  into  the  river»  and  strike  out  for  the  opposite  shore ;  short- 
ly afterwards,  the  reason  for  this  was  apparent,  as  a  common  village  dog 
took  the  water  at  the  same  place  in  pursuit  of  the  deer.  The  river  was 
here  very  broad,  and  must  have  been  dose  upon  two  miles  across  aa  the 
animals  were  steering ;  the  deer  made  good  way,  and  kept  well  np 
against  the  current,  which  was  running  strong ;  the  dog  seemed  tired 
and  was  carried  far  down  the  stream,  and  while  he  was  still  struggling 
in  the  middle  of  the  river,  the  deer  had  gained  the  shore  and  galloped 
off  to  the  jungle.  I  did  not  see  whether  the  dog  got  across  or  not,  as  a 
turn  in  the  river  shut  him  out  from  view. 

This  animal  does  not  occur  in  Afghanistan. 

No.  40.  The  Nylghau-^-For/ajr  picta.  This  is  said  to  be  found 
in  the  northern  poition  of  the  Bhawulpore  country.  It  is  not  found  in 
Afghanistan. 

No.  41.  Antilope  certncopra— •Sarsinee,  or  Indian  Antebpe.  It  is 
said  to  occur  in  the  northern  portion  of  the  Bhawulpore  country,  but 
does  not  appear  to  cross  the  Indus,  and  none  are  found  in  Afghanistan. 
It  is  common  in  the  Upper  Provinces  of  India  and  also  at  Neemuch.  I 
do  not  think  that  this  species  is  an  inhabitant  of  the  countries  west  of 
the  Indus,  and  in  Cutchee  it  appears  to  be  replaced  by  the  Gaxelim 
Benmttii  and  G.  Ckriatii,  while  again  these  two  do  not  cross  the  moon* 
tain  barrier  into  Afghanistan,  but  are  there  represented  by  G.  «ic6. 
guiiurosa,  which  extends  into  Persia.  If  this  conjecture  be  true,  it  is 
probable  that  A,  cora  and  arahica  are  distinct  from  A.  Betimttii? 
This  is  hazarded  however  as  a  mere  surmise. 

No.  42.  Gazella  ^f»M/^tt-^Ravine  deer.  Ooat-antelqie  of  Euro* 
peans ;  '*  Chikara**  of  Neemuch ;  Kalaeepee  of  Mahrattas.  GtuteUa  Co. 
ra  ?  Antilope  Arabiea  ? 

This  species  is  abundant  at  Neemueh,  where  it  roams  over  the  wide 
and  sterile  plains  in  small  groups  of  five  and  six.    The  natives  there  oali 


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1 846.]  Rtmgh  Note$  on  the  Zoology  of  Condakar.  151 

it  "  Chikara"  or  "  Shikara/'  a  name  which  is  elsewhere  applied  to  the 
Four-horned  Antelope.  Tlie  female  has  horns,  but  these  are  very  short 
and  slender,  and  invariably  crooked  in  growth ;  they  are  blackish  and 
smooth,  with  alight  indications  of  wrinkles  at  the  base.  The  same  spe- 
cies likewise  occurs  in  Gutchee,  but  does  not  pass  the  mountains  into 
Afghanistan. 

No.  43.  GozoUa  Ckristii,  Gray. — ^This  species  approaches  very  nearly 
to  the  last  named,  and  occurs  in  Gutchee  also,  but  not  in  Afghanistan. 
A  fine  specimen  was  brought  to  me  at  Dadur,  and  the  skull  was  carefully 
preserved  and  brought  to  this  country  with  my  other  collections ;  but 
since  my  arrival  at  Mussoorie  it  has  most  unaccountably  disappeared.^^ 

No.  44.  Gagella  st^ttwroBa.-^The  Ahu.  (N.  B.  The  word  "  oAv," 
though  applied  to  this  species  by  the  Afghans,  is  used  only  as  a  generic 
term ;  the  specific  name  I  cannot  now  remember,  and  my  note  is  mislaid.) 

Althou^  I  have  referred  the  Afghan  Gazelle  to  G.  tubgutturosa,  still 
I  do  so  with  diffidence,  on  account  of  the  remarkable  difference  between 
the  horns  of  my  specimens  and  the  figure  of  a  skull  given  in  the  English 
'lUgne  animal.'  In  that  work  the  horns  bend  outwards  at  the  tip,  and 
it  is  said  in  the  text  that  such  is  their  direction  in  the  Persian  Antiiope 
tubgutturosa,  I  am  strongly  inclined  to  think,  that  the  horns  on  the  skuU 
figured  in  the  '  R^gne  animal'  have  been  transposed,  namely,  the  right 
horn  on  the  left  core,  for  if  they  were  again  changed  they  would  exactly 
represent  the  horns  of  the  Afghan  species.  In  my  largest  specimen  the 
horns  are  fourteen  inches  long  measured  over  the  curve;  they  have 
twenty  annulations,  and  are  seven  inches  and  a  quarter  apart  at  the  tips, 
which  turn  inwards  and  almost  form  a  hook ;  indeed,  with  the  exception 
of  the  above  difference  in  the  direction  of  the  horns,  the  two  animals 
precisely  correspond.^^  The  Ahu  of  the  Afghans  is  found  from  Quettah 
to  Candahar  and  Girishk,  and  it  probably  extends  thence  vik  Herat  into 
Persia ;  they  are  found  in  small  flocks  of  six  or  seven,  and  roam  over 
the  wide  and  sterile  plains  of  Afghanistan,  occasionally  committing  great 
havoc  in  the  grain-fields. 

I  do  not  know  whether  it  extends  upwards  to  Gabool,  though  such  is 
probably  the  case,  as  I  heard  of  its  occurrence  near  Ghuznee.     In  the 

41  For  Mme  notice  of  thii  species,  vide  XI,  452.— Cur.  As,  Soe, 
45.  The  honu  are  those  of  a  typical  CfatfeUa,  rather  stout,  and  abruptly  hooked  in 
It  the  tip.— G<r.  As,  Soc. 

X 


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152  Rough  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar,  [No.  170. 

winter  time  they  travel  farther  south,  and  skirt  the  sandy  desert  wl^ich 
stretches  along  from  the  Sooliman  ranges  into  Persia.^^ 

In  the  young  males,  the  horns  nearly  touch  at  the  apex  in  consequence 
of  their  inward  turn,  but  they  afterwards  separate  and  diverge  as  the 
animal  advances  to  maturity. 

As  regards  the  female,  however,  if  mine  be  in  reality  the  Persian 
Gazelle,  there  is  still  greater  difference  between  the  Afghan  species  and 
the  published  description  in  the  English  edition  of  Guvier's  '  R6gne 
Animal ;'  for  it  is  there  stated,  that  **  the  females  have  smaller  horns, 
and  are  destitute  of  lachrymary  sinus  and  of  tufts  on  the  knees;" 
In  the  Afghan  Gazelle,  on  the  contrary,  the  female  is  hornless ;  she  has 
a  lachrymary  sinus  as  well  as  the  male,  and  she  has  tufts  at  the  knee, 
although  they  are  perhaps  smaller  than  in  the  male.  In  all  other  res- 
pects of  marking,  colour,  &c.  the  description  of  Cuvier  corresponds  ^tfa 
my  specimens,  which  I  can  regard  as  none  other  than  G.  subguttttrosa, 
and  I  conclude  that  some  mistake  must  have  led  to  the  erroneous 
account  in  the  English  'R^gne  Animal/  I  am  the  more  inclined  to 
believe  this,  since  I  find  an  equally  glaring  error  regarding  the  '*  GoraV' 
(Kemas  goralj,  it  being  stated  that  the  female  is  hornless  and  possessed 
of  only  two  mamnue,  whereas  she  has  horns  (generally),  and /ovr  mamnue  f 

The  Afghans  have  a  mode  of  catching  or  destroying  these  animals 
when  they  repair  to  a  river  to  drink ;  a  net  is  erected  along  the  bank  of 
the  stream,  and  a  single  opening  is  left  for  the  antelope  to  enter  at ; 
after  satisfying  their  thirst  the  animals  proceed  to  wander  along  the 
stream,  and  the  ambushed  hunters  springing  up  and  securing  the  open- 
ing or  door  way  of  the  net,  capture  or  kill  the  whole  batch.  The  car- 
case was  often  brought  into  the  market  at  Candahar  and  sold. 

No.  45.  Ovis  Vignei,  **  Koh-i-doomba^'  of  the  Afghans — O.  cy- 
eloceros,  Hutton. 

When  I  named  this  species,  I  was  not  aware  that  it  had  passed 
through  abler  hiwds,  but  of  course  my  trivial  name  must  give  place 
to  yours.    I  have  nothing  to  add  to  my  former  account  in  the  '  Calcutta 

46.  M.  Meneiries  remarks,  that  this  animal  **  is  very  common  in  winter  on  the  vast 
Steppes  which  border  the  Caspian  sea,  from  Bakou  to  Koo;  living  in  small  troops, 
which  once  a  hundred  and  fifty  paces  fro^  the  hunter,  remain  tranquil  and  fearless. 
It  is  easily  tamed,  so  that  it  may  be  suffered  to  run  at  large  without  danger  of  ioting 
it"— CVir.  Jj.  Soc. 


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1 846.]  Rough  Notts  on  the  Zoology  of  Candakar.  153 

Journal  of  Nat.  Hist'  The  animal  ia  abundant  throughout  the 
higher  mountains  of  Afghanistan  and  is  said  to  extend  into  Persia.^' 

No.  46.     OvU  stoaiopgga — ^Var.^"  Doomba."  or  broad-tailed  sheep. 

The  domestic  sheep  of  the  Afghans  are  all  DoomboM  or  '*  broad-tails, 
but  the  deFelopment  of  this  singular  feature  is  dependent  apparently 
upon  climate  and  perhaps  pasture,  although  certainly  not  to  such  an 
extent  as  some  h&ye  supposed :  for  instance,  Pallas  ascribes  it  to  the 
prevalence  of  wormwood  in  the  pastures,  but  if  such  be  the  cause  the 
feature  should  become  lurger  or  smaller  according  as  such  pasture 
abounded  or  decreased ;  why  then  have  the  sheep  around  Shawl  and 
among  the  tribes  which  frequent  the  mountains  of  the  Soolemaun  range 
a  les9  development  of  fat  than  those  sheep  which  are  found  around 
Gandahar,  for  wormwood  and  saline  soils  abound  there?  why  again 
have  the  sheep  of  the  Khyber  Pass  and  Peshawur  the  broad  tail,  for 
wormwood  I  am  told  does  not  occur  there  ?  why  have  not  the  sheep  of 
Upper  Kunawur  and  Hungrung  in  the  Himalaya,  the  broad  tail,  for 
wormwood  ohounde  there,  and  forms  one  of  the  chief  plants  in  the 
pasture  of  those  elevated  tracts  ? 

The  'SBroad-tailed  Sheep,''  which  is  but  a  variety  of  the  "Fat- 
ramped"  species,  or  "  Oma  9ieatopyga,*\  occurs  throughout  hill  and  vale, 
extending  into  Bokhara,  Persia  and  Palestine ;  it  occurs  also  with  some 
modification  in  Africa  and  elsewhere.  If  the  prevalence  of  wormwood 
and  saline  pastures  had  the  effect  of  producing  the  broad  fat  tail  of  this 
breed,  so  ought  they  to  have  enlarged  the  tail  of  the  wild  race  (Ovis 
VigneiJ,  and  the  Camels  and  other  cattle  which  feed  upon  the  same 
pastures ;  yet  such  is  not  the  case.^^  Again,  if  the  fat  is  engendered 
by  such  causes,  it  should  disappear  gradually  when  the  exciting  cause 
had  ceased  to  operate,  and  by  xemoving  the  0.  steatopgga  to  pastures 
where  neither  wormwoo^d  nor  saline  plants  prevail,  the  singular  enlarge* 


47.  There  is  a  brief  notice  and  very  panable  figure  of  thii  species,  taken  from 
an  animal  killed  in  the  vicinity  of  Persepolis,  in  Lieut  Alexander's  *  Travels  from 
India  to  England,'  &c.,  p.  136  (1827):  and  I  may  take  the  present  opportunity  to 
remark,  that  the  Society  is  indebted  to  the  obliging  exertions  of  G.  T.  Lushington 
Esq.,  of  Almorah,  for  a  noble  specimen  of  the  true  Ovis  amnum  of  Pallas,  which  is 
quite  distinct  from  O,  moniana  of  N.  America,  and  to  which  must  be  referred  my 
O.  HodfftotUit  founded  on  Mr.  Hodgson's  figure  and  description  of  the  head  and 
horns  of  a  young  ram,  since  called  by  him  O.  amwumoides,-^Cur,  As,  Soe, 

48.  The  fighting  rams  of  India  seem  to  me  to  be  of  a  race  descended  from  O.Fignei, 
of  which  they  preserve  the  crescent-horns  and  short  tail. — Cur.  As,  Soc» 


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154  Rough  Sotes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar.         £No.  170. 

ment  of  its  tail  should  disappear  and  become  as  in  other  breeds.  This 
however  is  also  not  the  case,  for  the  doomba  has  long  been  tended  in  dif- 
ferent parts  of  India  and  other  countries  without  a  reduction  in  the  size 
of  the  tail,  which  still  continues  enlarged  as  in  the  original  stock.  This 
fact,  therefore,  goes  directly  to  establish  the  0.  steatopyga  as  a  dtMtmet 
and  original  species,  which  has  descended  from  none  of  the  living  stock, 
whether  domesticated  or  in  a  state  of  nature.^^  Let  us  examine  the 
grounds  on  which  this  opinion  can  be  maintained.  First,  we  find  thai 
sheep  taken  to  the  pastures  of  the  broad*tails,  do  not  gain  an  accession 
of  fat  on  the  rump  and  tail,  but  remain  precisely  as  they  have  always 
been.  Secondly,  the  broad-tails,  when  removed  from  their  own  pastures, 
do  not  lose  the  singular  feature  from  which  they  take  their  name. 
Pasture,  therefore,  is  clearly  not  the  cause  of  this  enlargement.  Thirdly, 
proofs  may  be  given  that  the  0.  steatopyga  is  the  original  breed  ccm-* 
fided  to  the  care  of  men  even  from  the  dawning  of  hid  abode  on  earth. 
It  is  however  contended,  that  all  our  domestic  stock  has  sprung  from 
some  one  of  the  existing  wild  races,  and  as  regards  the  Sheep,  the 
Musmon  fO,  musimonj  is  supposed  to  be  the  origin  of  our  flocks.^^'— - 
Now,  if  we  are  to  attend  strictly  to  the  generic  characters  assigned  by 
naturalists  to  the  Musmon  and  our  Sheep,  we  shall  at  once  perceive  the 
absurdity  of  assigning  such  an  origin  to  the  latter  species, — for  while  all 
accounts  agree  that  the  true  Sheep  possess  "  no  lachrymal  sinus"  and 
that  they  have  an  iaterdigital  hale  or  sac ;"  the  Musmon  has  actually 
been  removed  from  the  genus  and  ranked  as  a  Goat  by  no  less  authority 
than  C.  L.  Bonaparte,  the  present  prince  of  Canino,  because  that  animal 
does  possess  a  lachrymal  opening f^  and  because  it  possesses  no  uUer* 
digital  hole  ! 

If  the  absence  of  a  lachrymary  sinus  in  the  domestic  sheep  were 
true,  which  it  is  not,  the  want  of  it  would  prove  that  none  of  the  wild 

49.  Certainly  not  an  aboriginal  race,  but  one  highly  altered  by  domestication.— 
Cur.  As.  Sac* 

50.  Whether  any  long-tailed  sheep,  with  horns  describing  more  than  a  spiral  circle, 
could  have  descended  from  the  orescent-horned  and  short- tailed  O.  fnusimon  (which  \b 
closely  allied  to  O.  Vignei),  is  extremely  doubtfuL^GKr.  As.  Soc. 

51.  The  presence  of  a  lachrymary  opening  proves,  however,  that  it  is  not  a  Goat, 
because  that  genus  does  not  possess  it.  T.  H.— If  I  mistake  not,  (writing  from 
memory,)  the  Prince  of  Canino  states,  that  the  tachrymary  shuts  is  wanting  in  the 
Moufflon,  as  it  is  certainly  is  in  O.  tragelaphus  and  O.  nahoor;  whereas  I  believe, all 
sheep  possess  the  interdigital  sinus  (an  easy  mode,  by  the  way,  of  distinguishing  a  leg 
of  goat-mutton  ^i^m  one  of  mouton  proprement  di<).—Ct<r.  As»  Soc* 


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1846.]  Ra^h  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar.  155 

sheep  known  to  us  conld  have  furnished  the  original  stock,  for  all  of 
them  possess  that  character  ;«-the  assertion,  however,  that  the  genus 
Ovis  does  not  possess  the  lachrymal  sinus  is  erroneous,  for  both  the 
broad-tails  and  every  other  domestic  variety  that  I  have  seen,  decidedly 
possess  ii ;  it  varies  in  size  in  different  breeds,  but  I  will  venture  to 
assert  that  it  will  always  be  present.  Still,  notwithstanding  the  occur- 
rence of  a  sinus  both  in  the  musmon  and  domestic  sheep,  the  latter 
must  nevertheless  be  a  distinct  species,  because  it  possesses  a  character 
common  to  all  sheep,  but  which  in  the  musmon  is  wanting,  namely,  the 
inteidigital  opening  sac. 

Having  given  proof  therefore  that  our  domestic  flocks  have  not  been 
derived  from  the  musmon,  I  shall  now  endeavour  to  establish  my  third 
porition,  by  proving  that  that  the  Ovis  stemtopyga  is  a  remnant  of  the  ori- 
ginal breed  confided  to  man  in  the  infancy  of  the  world.  I  have  already 
said,  that  I  am  inclined  to  think  the  Ovis  steatopyga,  with  its  varieties, 
as  altogether  distinct  firom  the  races  now  living  in  a  state  of  freedom, 
and  in  this  opinion  I  shall  now  attempt  to  trace  back  its  origin  from 
the  earliest  to  the  present  time,  leaving  it  to  others  to  form  their  own 
conclusions  from  the  facts  here  brought  to  their  notice. 

The  earliest  mention  made  of  man's  possessing  flocks  is  in  the  4th 
Chapter  of  the  Book  of  Genesis,  where,  at  the  4th  verse  we  are  informed, 
that  Abel  "brought  of  the  firstlings  of  his  flock,"  as  an  offering  to  the 
Lord. 

Since  then,  at  this  early  period,  a  sufficient  number  of  animals  were 
domesticated  to  enable  man  to  offer  up  the  daily  sacrifices  which  it 
appears  was  then  the  custom,  and  since,  moreover,  we  know  that  the 
animals  were  created  especially  for  man's  use  and  comfort,  it  is  evident 
that  some  of  the  more  usefol  races  must  have  been  placed  from  begin- 
ning under  his  controul  as  domestic  stock,  for  it  is  clearly  impossible 
that  he  could,  by  any  exertions  of  liis  own,  have  captured  and  subdued 
a  sufficient  number  of  the  wild  mountain  breeds,  at  the  period  alluded 
to,  to  enable  him  to  offer  up  such  sacrifices. 

In  this  case,  such  cattle  would  necessarily  have  descended  from  gene- 
ration to  generation,  even  to  the  period  when  Ood  commanded  Noah  to 
build  the  Ark,  and  they  consequently  formed  part  of  the  stock  preserved 
alive  with  him,  and  became  the  foundation  of  his  domestic  flocks  after 
the  flood,  and  were  diffused  again  with  his  descendants  from  the  coun* 


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156  Rough  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar.  [No.  170. 

try  where  the  Ark  rested.  They  were  therefore  part  of  the  stock  which 
Abraham  and  Lot  possessed,  and  which,  after  them,  Jacob  tended  while 
serving  Laban  for  his  daughter  Rachel.  This  opinion  seems  moreover 
to  be  well  supported  by  the  fact,  that  the  general  colour  of  the  breed  is 
the  same  now  as  in  that  early  period ;  for  we  read  that  Jacob's  lure  was 
to  consist  of  all  the  ring-straked,  speckled,  and  spotted  among  the  goats« 
and  of  all  the  brown  among  the  sheep ;  and  it  is  easy  therefore,  without 
the  aid  of  a  miracle,  to  see  how  his  flocks  inoreased  while  those  of 
Laban  diminished ;  since  to  this  day,  there  are  few  domestic  goats  with- 
out some  speck  or  spot  of  white,  and  since  the  prevailing  colour  of  the 
Tymunnee  broad-tailed  sheep  is  brown  of  various  shades ! 

It  was  indeed  an  arrangement  well  calculated  then,  as  it  would  be 
still,  to  enrich  the  one  party  and  impoverish  the  other,  and  if  we  only 
allow  that  Jacob  was  an  observing  shepherd,  and  had  learned  by  expe- 
rience that  " Uke  breed  like"  the  secret  of  his  great  success  is  at  once 
made  manifest. 

With  Jacob  therefore  and  his  sons,  they  were  taken  up  into  Egypt  in 
the  time  of  the  famine  under  Pharaoh's  reign,  when  the  land  of  Goshen 
was  allotted  for  a  residence  to  the  Israelites ;  and  of  course,  from  thence 
they  accompanied  that  people  throughout  their  wanderings  into  the 
promised  land,  after  the  Exodus  from  Egypt,  and  from  thence  again  they 
became  diffused  through  all  the  neighbouring  states  and  kingdoms: 
unless,  indeed,  as  is  most  probably  the  case,  they  occurred  there  already, 
as  the  nations  which  were  then  in  the  land  had  equally  with  the  Israelites 
descended  from  the  Ark.^^ 

Now,  that  the  sheep  known  to  the  Jews  was  the  OvU  steatopgga, 
would  seem  to  be  amply  proved  from  the  29th  Chap,  of  Exodus,  where, 
at  the  22d  verse,  in  describing  the  manner  of  a  certain  sacrifice  to  be 
offered  up,  it  is  written,  "  thou  shall  take  of  the  ram  the  fat  and  the 
rump,  and  the  fat  that  covereth  the  inwards,  and  the  caul  above  She  Iwer, 
and  the  two  kidneys,  and  the  fat  that  is  upon  them,  and  the  right  should- 
er ;  for  it  is  a  ram  of  consecration." 

Here  there  is  evidently  a  marked  difference  made  between  the  fat  of 

the  tail  and  the  fat  of  the  inwards  and  kidneys,  for  the  words  "  the  fat 

52.  So,  Captain  Hutton  might  also  argue,  are  the  aborigines  of  both  Americat, 
of  Australia,  Polynesia,  and  the  countries  generally  to  the  E.  and  SB.  of  the  Bay  of 
Bengal,  in  which  latter  Sheep  have  only  recently  been  introduced,  and  are  as  yet  pos- 
sessed wholly  by  the  European  residents.«CiMr.  As,  Soc, 


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1846.]  Rough  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar.  157 

and  the  rump/'  clearly  show  that  they  were  distmct  parts  of  the  anima], 
otherwise  it  would  have  heen  written,  "  the  fat  of  the  rump.** 

It  is  likewise  held  distinct  from  the  fat  of  the  other  parts,  as  "  the  fat 
of  the  inwards"  and  "  the  fat  of  the  kidneys."  Now  it  is  a  notorious 
fact,  that  the  fat  here  mentioned  is  literally  all  that  the  animal  possesses, 
unless  kept  up  and  fed  with  grain,  which  Asiatics  never  do ;  so  that  the 
passage  reads  "  the  fat  tail  and  the  rump,"  &c.  We  have  consequentiy 
a  true  description  given  us  of  the  "  Ovis  iteatopyga"  in  which  there  is 
"  a  solid  mass  of  fat  on  the  rump,  which  falls  over  in  the  place  of  a  tail, 
divided  into  two  hemispheres^  which  take  the  form  of  hips  with  a  Uttie 
button  of  a  tail  in  the  middle."^' 

Again,  all  doubt  upon  the  subject  appears  to  be  removed  by  a  passage 
in  the  dd  Chap,  of  Leviticus,  where,  at  the  7th  and  following  verses,  in 
explaining  the  method  to  be  adopted  in  "offering  up  a  sacrifice  for  a 
peace  offering,"  it  is  written — "If  he  offer  a  lamb  for  his  offering 
then  shall  he  offer  it  before  the  Lord.  And  he  shall  offer  of  the  peace 
offering  an  offering  made  by  fire  unto  the  Lord ;  the  fat  thereof  and 
the  whole  rump,  it  shall  he  take  off  hard  by  the  backbone ;  and  the  fat 
that  covereth  the  inwards,  and  all  the  fat  that  is  upon  the  inwards,  and 
the  two  kidneys,  and  the  fat  that  is  upon  them,  which  is  by  the  flanks, 
and  the  caul  above  the  liver,  with  the  kidneys,  it  shall  he  take  away." 

Here  then  it  will  be  observed,  that  not  only  is  the  distinction  between 
the  fat  of  the  hinder  parts,  and  of  the  inwards  again  repeated,  but 
we  are  instructed  more  particularly  that  the  tail  was  the  part  alluded  to, 
since  "  the  fat  thereof  and  the  whole  rump,"  were  to  be  taken  "  off  hard 
hg  the  backbone,**  thus  clearly  pointing  out  the  part  where  the  feX  allud- 
ed to  was  situated,  namely,  in  the  rump  and  tail,  which  takes  its  origin 
fit)m,  or  is  a  continuation  of,  the  end  of  the  backbone. 

It  must  farther  be  remarked,  that  the  word  "  and,**  written  in  italics 
in  the  Bible,  does  not  occur  in  the  original  Hebrew,  but  has  been  add* 
ed  in  the  English  translation  in  order  to  show  the  connection  of  the 
words  *' the  fat  thereof**  with  those  of  "  the  whole  rump.**  Therefore, 
in  the  original,  the  passage  would  stand  thus — "  the  fat  thereof,  the 
whole  rump,  it  shall  he  take  off  hard  by  the  backbone;**  and  that  the  fat 
rump  of  the  sheep  is  the  part  alluded  to  is  clearly  proved  by  the  word 

53.    Nat.  Library. 


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158  Rough  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar.  [No.  170. 

•*  it  "  otherwise  if  "  the  fat  thereof"  and  '•  the  whole  rump"  had  been 
separate  parts,  they  would  not  have  been  specified  in  the  singular  num- 
ber, by  "  it  shall  he  take  oflf,"  but  by  "  them  shall  he  take  oflF."  We 
thus  at  once  perceive,  that  the  allusion  is  made  to  the  peculiar  formation 
of  the  hinder  parts  of  the  "Ovis  steatopyga,"  in  which  the  fat  of  the  rump 
actually  descends  in  two  lobes  on  either  side  of  the  tail,  which  it  so 
completely  envelopes  as  to  leave  only  tiie  tip  of  it  apparent,  and  thus 
while  it  coAtributes  to  form  the  broad  tail  which  characterises  the  spe- 
cies, it  still  remains  likewise  a  part  of  the  rump,  commencing  at  the 
end  of,  or  ' hard  by  the  backbone*  as  correctly  alluded  to  in  the  above 
passage  of  Leviticus. 

Further  evidence,  if  such  were  necessary,  may  be  probably  gathered 
from  other  passages,  such  as  that  of  the  15th  Chapter  of  Samuel,  where 
the  prophet  in  reproving  Saul,  declares  to  him,  "  behold,  to  obey  is 
better  than  sacrifice,  and  to  hearken  than  the /at  of  rams**  Now,  since 
the  Asiatic  sheep  are  notoriously  devoid  of  fat,  unless  kept  up  and  fed, 
the  repeated  mention  in  the  Scriptures  of  the  fat  of  rams,  would  seem  to 
point  most  particularly  and  plainly  to  the  species  under  consideration, 
which  thus  becomes  doubly  interesting,  as  being  not  only  an  Ante- 
diluvian species,  but  a  descendant  from  the  original  stock  bestowed  upon 
mankind  by  the  Almighty  in  the  earliest  ages  of  man's  existence  upon 
the  earth,  and  as  being  moreover  the  animal  which  was  used  in  the 
ancient  sacrifices  of  the  Jewish  people. 

Thus  we  perceive,  that  so  far  from  this  animal  having  sprung  from 
any  living  wild  breed,  it  is  in  all  probability  the  most  ancient  of  all 
our  sheep,  and  the  stock  from  which  the  numberless  domestic  varieties 
which  now  contribute  to  the  comfort  of  mankind,  have  themselves 
descended  .^^ 

In  the  same  manner  it  might  be  urged,  that  as  from  the  earliest 
periods  after  the  fiood,  we  read  in  Scripture  of  camels,  asses,  oxen, 
sheep,  goats,  pigeons  and  doves,  being  in  a  state  of  domestication, 
a  strong  probability  would  seem  to  rise  that  all  these  species  had  been 
reserved  to  himself  by  man  from  the  period  of  the  descent  from  the 

54.  Capt.  Hutton  has,  at  least,  here  shewn  satisfactorily,  the  great  historical  anti- 
quity of  the  Doomba  race  of  domestic  sheep,  by  proving  it  to  be  the  variety  (and  it 
would  seem  the  only  (variety,  as  to  this  day  in  Afghanistan,)  tended  by  the  Hebrew 
Patriarchs,  and  familiarly  referred  to  in  the  Mosaic  writings.— Oir,  As,  Sac. 


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1646.]  Hough  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar,  159 

Ark,  and  therefore  that  none  of  them  have  now,  in  a  state  of  freedom, 
the  original  stock  from  which  they  sprung. 

It  should  also  be  remembered,  that  if  the  animals  at  present  distri- 
buted over  the  earth,  are  all  to  be  considered  as  honing  descended  from 
the  Ark,  (which  I  deny,)  we  ought  rather  to  seek  among  our  domestic 
breeds  for  the  original  stock  from  whence  they  have  become  diffused, 
than  that  the  converse  should  be  the  case ;  for  it  can  scarcely  be  sup- 
posed with  any  show  of  reason,  that  man,  who  had  once  held  every 
species  in  captivity  under  his  immediate  controul,  would  have  suffered 
them  to  escape  and  roam  over  various  quarters  of  the  earth,  until  they 
had  become  wild  and  difficult  of  approach,  and  that  then  he  should  have 
turned,  his  attention  to  the  means  of  recapturing  and  reducing  them 
again  to  subjection.— If,  therefore,  any  of  the  existing  wild  breeds  of 
oxen,  sheep,  or  goats  are  identical  with  our  domestic  species,  (which  is 
not  proved,)  it  should  rather  be  supposed  that  the /ormer  had  descended 
from  the  latter,  and  that  they  gained  their  freedom  after  the  flood,  when 
the  then  existing  families  of  men  had  selected  from  among  them  a  suf- 
ficient number  to  serve  as  the  foundation  of  their  domestic  flocks  and 
herds.^^  But  as  the  Scriptures  declare,  that  only  seven  pairs  of  each  of 
these  animals. were  preserved  alive,  and  as  we  read  that  some  of  each 
kind  were  sacrificed  by  Noah  on  his  descent  from  the  Ark,  it  becomes 
very  improbable  that  any  of  them  regained  their  freedom,  and  conse- 
quently the  domestic  breeds  of  camels,  goats,  asses,  oxen,  sheep,  and 
some  others  have  descended  from  stock  which  lived  before  the  flood, 
either  wild  or  in  a  state  of  domestication.  Therefore,  we  perceive  that 
neither  can  our  domestic  breeds  be  traced  to  any  of  the  wild  stock  of 
the  present  day,  nor  can  the  latter  be  traced  from  them ;  and  the  wild 
races  are  consequently  distiact  as  species,  and  have  been  created  since 
the  flood ; — of  this  however  more  will  be  said  elsewhere. 

The  treatment  of  the  flocks  in  Afghanistan  appears  in  many  respects 
very  similar  to  European  methods.  One  ram  is  reckoned  sufficient  for 
a  flock  of  a  hundred  ewes.  At  the  rutting  season  the  ewes  are  kept 
in  ah  enclosure  and  passed  to  the  rams  until  all  are  served,  the  shep- 
herd assisting  in  the  operation  by  holding  up  the  tail,  without  which  it 

55.  The  writer  of  the  article  *  Sheep/  in  the  '  Penny  Cyclopoedia,'  alludes  only  to 
the  Moufflon  and  Argali  (O.  musimon  and  O. ammon^)  among  wild  races;  absolutely 
stating  of  them,  that  **  They  are  descendants  of  those  which  have  escaped  from  the  do- 
minion of  man,  and  are  retreating  from  desert  to  desert  in  proportion  as  the  population* 
of  the  country  increases."    !  !  \—Cur,  At,  Sac 

Y 


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160  Rmu^h  Notes  os  the  Zoology  of  Candahar.  [No,  170. 

is  asserted  the  animala  cannot  consummate.  When  all  have  been  passed 
to  the  male  in  succession,  the  rams  are  tamed  in  with  them,  aad  shoidd 
any  ewe  have  been  passed  oyer  or  not  served,  the  ram  detects  her  by 
the  scent.  The  runs  sdected  to  serre  afe  fed  np  with  bavley  and 
melon-rinds,  and  in  the  antiimn,  which  is  ^e  ratting  season,  they  are 
rendered  furious  with  lust.  Another  mode  of  treating  them  is,  to  torn 
tiie  rams  out  with  tiie  locks  in  the  autumn  time,  when  those  ewes 
wlueh  are  ready  f (»r  the  male  will  leave  their  food  and  fofiow  him  about, 
upon  observiDg  which,  the  shepherd  separates  them  and  puts  them  to 
the  serving  ram. 

In  the  spring  months,  the  young  are  yeaned  at  tlie  very  oeasen  when 
the  grass  is  again  springing  up«  Some  fematos  cobmt  in  heat  after 
yeaning,  but  they  are  never  served  then,  beeanse  the  young  would  be 
dropped  at  the  «id  of  tite  year  when  the  grass  is  fading:  when  dw  lambs 
are  bom,  the  mother  is  milked  to  prevent  the  laaib  firom  tasting  the 
first  milk,  which  the  Afghans  reckon  to  be  inguiious;*^  after  this 
the  lambs  are  allowed  to  suck  sparingly  in  the  nmning  and  evening, 
and  after  the  tiiird  day,  they  are  att  §ocked  together  during  the  day, 
and  only  allowed  access  to  the  mothers  at  sucking-time ;  the  surplus 
milk  is  manufactured  into  eroot  and  ghie,  as  cows'  milk  is  not  mack 
esteemed  by  the  Afghans.  If  the  rains  of  winter  have  been  plentifal 
and  the  spring  grass  is  in  cwisequence  abundant  and  rich,  the  lambs 
are  allowed  to  suck  for  four  months,  as  the  milk  is  good ;  but  if  dm  con- 
trary has  been  tiie  case,  the  lambs  are  taken  up  at  three  montha  old, 
in  order  that  they  may  not  weaken  the  mother. 

I  was  informed  by  a  person  who  possessed  large  iocks,  and  who  had 
ng  reason  to  deceive  me,  that  sometimes  the  tail  of  tiie  Tymnmieft 
doombas  increased  to  such  a  size,  that  a  cart  or  nnaU  truck  on 
wheels  was  necessary  to  su^^rt  the  weight,  and  that  without  it  the 
animal  could  not  wander  about;  he  also  declared  that  he  had  produced 
tails  in  his  flock  which  weighed  twelve  Tabreez-i-munds  or  forty-eight 
seers  puckah,  equal  to  about  96fts.  It  has  been  remarked  by  CVed. 
Cuvier,  that  the  fiat  of  these  tails,  when  zaelted,  does  not  return  on  eool- 
ing  to  the  state  of  fat,  and  this  assertum  is  a  fact  well  known  to  the 
Afghans,  who  sell  and  use  it  mixed  with  the  ghee  formed  from  milk- 
Some  objections  were  on  this  account  offered  to  the  ghee  by  our 
sepahees,  but  their  scraples  soon  vanished. 

56.  The  reverse  ia  the  opinion  in  Europe.—T.  H. 

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1846.]  Ro¥gh  Nates  oh  the  Zoaiapf  of  Cmuiahar.  161 

For  purticiilani  regarding  the  irool  of  these  sheep,  I  must  refer  the 
reader  to  a  former  papar»  published  in  the  Journal  of  the  Asiatic 
Society  of  Bengal,  No.  99,  and  likewise  to  some  very  pertinent  re- 
marks by  Dr.  Griffith,  in  the  120th  No.  of  the  same  Journal.*' 

No.  47.  Ckprm  megaoeros^  (mihi.  For  remarks  on  this  species,  see 
MeCMand's  '  Journal  Nat.  Hist/)  This  I  consider  to  be  a  true  wild  spe- 
cies, and  not  an  accidental  race  as  you  auf^pose.  It  is  the  "  Markhore" 
or  aiiake*killer  of  the  Afghans.*' 

No.  48.  Capra  mgagrut :  "  Booz,**  of  the  A%hans :  Ibex,  of  writers 
on  Afghanistan. 

I  have  nothing  to  add  to  my  former  notice  of  this  animal  in 
McCleliand's  '  Journal  Nat.  Hist:'  the  experiments,  howerer,  which  I 
was  maldng  on  the  cross  between  it  and  the  domestic  goat,  have  all  failed 
hitherto,  in  so  far  as  the  production  of  offspring,  inter  ee,  is  concerned. 
I  brought  from  Gandahar  a  half-bred  female,  the  produce  of  a  wild 
female  by  a  domestic  male ;  this  female  was  again  crossed  by  a  tame 
goat,  and  brought  forth  two  fine  male  aniouds,  by  one  of  which  she 
subsequently  had  kids  which  lived  and  gnw  up ;  none  of  her  offispring 
however,  have  as  yet  bred  inter  ee,  and  most  of  them,  together  with 
the  half-bred  mother,  are  now  dead;  I  have  still  a  few  of  the  young 
ones  left,  and  shall  notice  any  produce  diat  may  occur  from  them.  As 
yet,  however,  we  have  gained  nothing  in  regard  to  the  opinion  that  the 
mgagm  is  the  original  stock  from  which  our  domestic  breeds  have 

57.  Tkey  are  sometimes  four  or  five- homed,  but  this  is  only  an  exception,  not  a 
general  role,  as  some  accounts  would  have  us  believe. — T.  H. 

58.  In  my  description  of  the  spiral  horns  of  this  animal,  Proc*  Zool.  Soc,  1840,  p.  80, 
I  made  a  grand  mistake  in  stating  the  spirature.  to  be  inwardly  directed,  as  in  all  spiral- 
homed  diomefitc  goats ;  the  fact  being,  that  in  the  Markhorty  as  in  every  other  species 
I  know  of,  which  has  spiral  horns  in  its  natural  wild  state,  (e.  g>  the  Indian  Antelope, 
the  Addax,  Koodoo,  and  Caffrarian  Impoof,)  the  twirl  is  in  the  opposite  direction.  Capt 
Hiitton  mistook  my  meaning  in  his  remarks,  {Cat,  Joum,  N.  H*  II,  541,)  upon  the 
*'  mward  tendency,  at  least  at  the  tips,"  which  1  mentioned  as  being  almost  invariably 
observable  in  the  endlessly  diversified  races  of  domestic  goats;  supposing  that  I  intend- 
ed the  convergence  generally  observable  towards  the  tips  of  the  long  arched  horns  of 
the  Buuority  of  wild  Capr«,~a  character  of  very  trifling  importance,  even  if  constant, 
which  it  is  not.  And  I  may  here  also  remark  on  the  subject  of  the  Himalayan  Ibex 
(  Capra  sakeen,  nobis),  of  which  my  notice  was  briefly  commented  upon  by  CapL  Hutton, 
that,  in  addition  to  the  difierences  which  I  indicated  as  distinguishing  its  horns  from 
those  of  the  Swiss  Ibex,  the  existence  of  a  well  developed  beard  (four  inches  long,  in 
the  head  of  a  young  male  in  the  Society's  Museum,)  affords  a  conspicuous  differential 
feature;  for  the  beard  of  the  Swiss  Ibex  is  constantly  reduced  to  the  merest  rudimentary 
tuft,  inch  as  would  remain  unnoticed  if  not  specially  looked  for.—Ctir.  As.  Soc, 


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162  Rough  Notes  on  ike  Zoology  of  Candahar.  [No.  1 70. 

sprung,  but  as  far  as  experiments  have  been  carried,  strong  doubts  arise 
in  my  mind  as  to  the  correctness  of  such  a  doctrine.'^ 

No.  49.  Domestic  goats.  The  domestic  Goats  of  the  Afgham  are 
chiefly  long-haired,  with  an  under-coat  of  fine  soft  dowxk  They  Tery 
much  resemble  the  Goats  of  the  lower  Himalaya  and  Kooloo,  and  ap- 
pear to  be  a  degenerate  breed  or  perhaps  variety  of  the  true  Shawl 
Goat.    The  prevailing  colour  is  black,  or  parti-coloured. 

No.  50.  Camelus  dromedarius.  The  Dromedary  or  Arabian  Camel. 
'•  Shootur'*  of  Persians,  &c,«® 

59  •  Capra  agagrus  is  stated  by  Menetries  to  be  '*  not  uncommon  on  the  Caucasian 
Alps,  seldom  if  ever  descending  below  an  elevation  of  1000  feet,  and  then  not  in  conse- 
qaence  of  severe  weather."  It  appean  to  be  generally  diffused  over  the  mountains  of 
Persia  and  Asia  Minor,  and  the  adjoining  regions  of  Western  Tartary.  The  London 
Zoological  Society  possess  a  fine  specimen  of  it  from  the  vicinity  of  Erzeroum.  The 
finest  pair  of  horns  of  this  species  which  I  have  seen,  is  in  the  British  Museum.  They 
measure  four  feet  and  a  quarter  over  the  curvature,  and  diverge  to  sixteen  inches 
apart  where  widest,  not  very  far  from  the  extremity,  the  tips  returning  to  fourteen 
inches  of  each  other :  basal  circumference  nine  inches ;  and  depth  inside  three  and 
three-quarters :  they  number  ten  years  of  growth.  It  is  not  usual,  however,  for  this 
species  to  exceed  three  feet  and  a  half  in  the  length  of  its  horns,  though  these  are  not 
unfrequently  four  inches,  or  even  more,  deep  at  the  base.— Cur.  As,  Soc» 

60.  The  two  species  of  Camel  are  better  denominated  the  one-humped  and  the  two- 
humped  Camels,  and  the  name  *  Dromedary'  (from  Spo^ac)  ehould  be  restricted  to 
the  swift-running  breeds  which  occur  of  both  of  them.  Hitherto,  the  Camel  and  Dro- 
medary have  been  continually  spoken  of  as  distinct  animals,  sometimes  the  one,  and 
sometimes  the  other,  bearing  either  name.  Thus  Burkhardt  refers  to  the  two- humped 
species  by  the  name  dromedary,  when  he  affirms  that  "  the  Armenian  or  Caramanian 
camel  is  produced  by  a  he-dromedary  and  a  she  Arab  camel.  The  people  of  Anato- 
lia," he  adds,  "  keep  their  male  dromedaries  to  breed  with  the  females  of  the  smaller 
Arab  race,  which  the  Turkomans  yearly  bring  to  market,  if  left  to  breed  among 
themselves,  the  Caramanian  camels  produce  a  puny  race,  of  little  value."  (*  Travels 
in  Nubia,'  p.  ^2.)  By  the  French  writers  more  particularly,  the  one-humped  species 
(having  indeed  been  termed  C.  Dromedarius  by  Linneeus,)  is  commonly  styled  the 
Dromedary,  as  Capt.  Button  also  designates  it.  The  mixed  race  was  long  ago  describ- 
ed by  Oleareus,  as  **  a  hybrid  between  the  male  two-humped  and  female  one-humped 
camels.  They  are  the  most  esteemed  of  all,  so  much  so,  that  some  sell  (in  Turkey)  at 
1,000  crowns  a  piece.  They  carry  900  or  1,000  weight,  and  are  in  a  manner  indefati- 
gable. They  are  muzzled.  The  camels  which  come  of  these  degenerate  very  much,  and 
are  heavy  and  slow,  being  not  worth  more  than  80  or  140  crowns."  At  Aleppo,  the  usual 
price  of  one  of  these  hybrids  is  double  that  of  an  Arab  camel :  they  are  extensively 
employed  in  Turkey  and  Persia;  and  Sonniui  observed  a  few  in  Bygpt,  where  they 
are  still  rare.  These  hybrids  are,  I  believe,  always  of  the  dark  colour  of  the  male,  or 
two-humped  parent.  The  common  Indian  race,  which  is  diffused  hence  westward  to 
Senegambia,  appears  to  be  constantly  of  a  pale  colour  in  this  country  ;  and  it  is  perhaps 
only  the  Dromedary,  or  fleet  race  of  it,  which  is  occasionally  variable  in  hue.  Thus,  in 
Arabia,  we  are  informed  that  a  lady  of  Nadj  a  considers  it  a  degradation  to  mount  any 
other  than  a  black  camel,  while  an  Ozanian  beauty  prefers  one  that  is  grey  or  white.  In 
the  continuation  of  Clapperton's  Journey  by  Lander,  we  are  told  of  the  arrival  of  50O 


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1846. J  Rotigh  Notes  on  the  Zoology  o/Candahar.  163 

The  Camel  with  one  hump  is  in  use  thronghout  Afghanutan,  but  is 
of  a  much  more  robust  and  compact  tasrm  than  our  Indian  variety,  and 
weii  aoited  to  die  hilly  regions  it  often  has  to  traverse. 

Nothing  can  be  more  erroneous,  however,  than  the  common  belief 
that  the  Camel  is  a  hardy  animal ;  so  opposed  to  this  is  the  Afghan  opi- 
nion, that  they  used  to  exclaim  with  astonishment  at  the  indifference 
generally  shown  by  us  to  the  comfort  of  this  useful  creature.    They 
were  often  heard  to  say,  "  you  take  immense  trouble,  and  incur  great 
expense  in  pampering  your  men  and  horses,  but  the  camel  is  altogether 
neglected,  although  if  you  wish  him  to  thrive  and  do  his  work,  you 
must  both  feed  him  well,  and  clothe  and  house  him  too,  in  winter  and  in 
wet  weather."     In  every  case  where  practicable,  they  acted  up  to  this 
advice  themselves,  and  no  sooner  does  an  Afghan  cafilah  come  to  its 
ground  after  a  march,  than  the  camels  are  seated  round  a  heap  of  leaves, 
straw  or  gram.  With  us,  on  the  contrary,  our  poor  brutes  after  wander- 
ing along  from  four  o'clock  in  the  morning  till  two  or  three  o'clock  in 
the  afternoon,  with  heavy  loads  badly  fixed  upon  their  backs,  no  sooner 
arrived  in  camp  than  they  were  turned  out  to  pick  up  a  morsel  around 
the  tents  over  stoney  plains,  which  produced  scarcely  any  plants  of  suf- 
ficient size  to  furnish  a  bite  even  for  sheep,  and  after  a  couple  of  hours 
passed  in  an  ineffectual  search  for  food,  the  starving  brutes  were  driven 
back  to  camp,  and  tethered  for  the  night,  in  most  instances  without  a 
particle  of  grain  or  other  food.    What  wonder  then  that  dozens  could 
not  rise  beneath  a  load  on  the  following  morning,  and  were  left  to  be 
the  prey  of  ravens  or  the  prize  of  the  almost  as  ravenous  Afghan  !   Let 
those  who  prized  their  cattle,  and  made  some  efforts  to  clothe  and  feed 

cameU  laden  with  salt  from  the  borders  of  the  great  desert,  which  "  were  preceded  by 
a  party  of  Tuarick  merchants,  whose  appearance  was  grand  and  imposing.  They  en- 
tered all  full  trot,  riding  on  handsome  camels,  some  of  them  red  and  white,  and  others 
black  and  white."  (*Clapperton's'  2nd  *  Expedition,'  p.  266.)  These  parti-coloured 
individaaU  remind  us  of  the  Peruvian  Alpaca.  In  Arabia,  and  in  all  northern  Africa, 
much  attention  is  bestowed  upon  regulating  the  propagation  of  the  best  sort  of  camels, 
but  especially  of  the  lighter  kinds  or  dromedaries,— termed  Asharry  and  Mahairy^ 
in  Barbary.  *' Those  of  Oman,"  writes  the  late  Lieut.  Wellsted,  **  enjoy  a  deserved 
celebrity  for  strength  and  swiftness.  Nejd  is  equally  the  nursery  of  the  camel  as  of 
the  horse;  but  the  Omary,  in  all  ages,  is  celeorated  in  the  songs  of  the  Arabs  as 
producing  the  fleetest;  their  legs  are  more  slender  and  straight;  their  eyes  more  pro- 
minent and  sparkling ;  and  their  whole  appearance  denotes  them  to  be  of  higher  line- 
age than  the  ordinary  breed  of  the  animal."  ('Travels  in  Arabia,'  II,  291.)  The 
smallness  of  the  head  is  a  conspicuous  and  characteristic  feature  of  a  true  dromedary.  — 
Cur.  As,  Soc. 


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164  Rough  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar.  [No.  170. 

them  on  the  march,  epeak  as  to  tiie  benefit  they  derived  from  their  hu- 
manity; camels  thus  cared  for,  ivere  hron^t  in  safety  and  in  health 
from  India,  and  again  returned  to  it  after  marching  through  the  coun- 
try;, and  passing  through  the  first  campaign. 

Numbers  of  camels  liiat  were  abandoned  on  the  line  of  march  every 
morning,  firom  their  inability  to  caxry  a  load,  were  afterwards  hawked 
about  for  sale  by  the  country  people  who  had  housed,  fed,  and  recoveied 
them.  This  I  know  to  be  a  faet,  for  being  in  the  Shah's  commissariat  at 
Candahar,  I  purchased  several  of  them.  That  the  animal  is  patient  un- 
der privations,  and  will  endure  to  the  death,  is  quite  true ;  but  his  con- 
stitution is  tender,  and  his  power  of  endurance,  unless  well  fed  and 
cared  for,  is  not  equal  to  that  of  the  horse.  Rest,  food,  and  warmth,  in 
a  word — comfort,  is  more  necessary  to  the  camel  than  to  his  cruel  lord 
and  master. 

The  Dromedary  of  Central  Asia  difiers  much  in  its  external  characters 
from  the  animal  domesticated  in  India.  In  the  former  we  perceive  a 
shortness  and  a  strength  of  limb,  and  bulk  of  carcase,  which  form  a 
marked  contrast  to  the  tall  and  stately  "  desert  sheep"  of  India ;  the  one 
is  a  short,  thick-set,  powerfully-made  animal,  well  clothed  with  a  thick 
close  curly  hair,  to  protect  it  against  the  cold  of  winter ;  the  fore-arm 
often  enormously  thick  and  muscular ;  the  hump  rounded  and  comptet, 
and  on  a  ievel  with  which  the  crotm  of  the  head  is  dmost  immnMy  ctur* 
Tied. 

The  other  is  a  taU,  long-limbed,  long-necked  animal,  which  placed 
beside  its  congener  of  Korassan,  reduces  the  latter  to  a  mere  athletic 
dwarf ; — the  thick  coat  of  hair  is  wanting  or  considerably  reduced,  and 
the  head  is  carried  high  above  the  hump.  Yet  notwithstanding  the 
marked  dissimilarity  in  their  general  configuration,  the  two  animals  can 
only  be  regarded  as  varieties  of  the  same  species,  the  differences  observ- 
able being,  I  think,  solely  attributable  to  climate,  domestication,  and 
the  different  circumstances  under  which  both  individuals  are  placed.  I 
am  aware,  that  in  advocating  the  agency  of  climate  and  food,  as  the  great 
causes  which  have  served  to  modify  the  species,  I  am  in  a  measi^  re- 
viving an  exploded  doctrine,  yet  I  am  not  sure  that  absolute  rejection  of 
the  doctrine  is  altogether  warranted  or  wise ;  for  Cuvier  himself  declares, 
"  that  the  wild  herbivorous  animals  feel  the  influence  of  climate  some- 
what more  extensively  (than  the  camivoraj,  because  there  is  added  to  it 
in  their  case,  the  influence  of  the  food,  which  may  happen  to  differ  both 


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1846.]  Rmifk  N^ies  an  the  Zoohsf  of  CtuuMmr.  165 

aft  to  qnantily  and  qmlit^f.  Thus,  the  Elephants  oi  one  forest  are  ofken 
larger  than  tiiose  of  anotitier ;  and  their  tusks  are  somewhat  longer  in 
l^aces  where  tiieir  food  may  happen  to  be  more  favourable  for  the  pro* 
duetion  of  ivory.'   * 

Now,  piecisdy  the  same  remarks  will  ai^ly  to  the  camel,  and  while, 
in  a  eoontry  deficient  in  woody  prodncticms,  the  animal  is  of  small 
stature,  the  very  reverse  is  found  to  be  the  case  in  India,  where  the  camel 
browses  entirely  <m  leaves  and  woody  branches  favourable  to  his  grow^. 
Every  consideration  tends  to  point  ont  to  as,  that  the  Indnn  dromedary 
is  not  in  its  original  country,  and  that  adapted  as  it  is  by  nature  for 
existence  in  the  dry  and  sandy  plains  of  an  arid  region  like  Arabia,  its 
eccnrrence  at  all  widiin  the  infiuence  of  the  monsoons,  is  entirely  to  be 
attributed  to  the  agency  of  man,  who  has  brought  it  with  hun  in  a  state 
of  d<Mneatication  from  the  Postdiluvian  focus  of  diffusion,  across  moun- 
tains and  Inroad  rapid  rivers,  which  in  its  natural  state  of  freedom  would 
have  formed  insuperable  barriers  to  its  further  progress  eastward,  than 
the  k«g  range  of  mountains  estending  downwards  from  the  great 
mMrtiiom  chain  through  Beloodustan  even  to  ^e  sea,  forming  a  well- 
worked  natural  boundary  between  India  and  the  states  of  Central  Asia. 
The  eamel  of  KcMTOssan  is  formed  for  grazing  in  a  country  where  its 
food  is  gathered  from  the  grtnind,  and  where  it  has  to  perfwm  long 
journeys  through  mountain  passes  and  defiles ;  its  shortness  and  strength 
of  Hmb  are  therefore  well  adapted  to  its  mode  of  life,  and  the  severity  of 
its  dimate ;  while  on  the  other  hand,  the  Indian  variety  ha^ng  a  range 
of  long  and  atsftoet  interminablelevel  country  to  travel  over,  where  its  chief 
food  consists  of  the  leaves  and  tender  branches  of  trees,  has  beccnne  mo- 
dified by  domestication  to  meet  the  circumstances  of  its  present  condi* 
tion,  and  ^ras  its  Hmbs  are  less  powerfully  built,  its  body  less  clothed 
with  hair,  and  its  proportions  adapted  to  reach  tiie  food  by  which  the 
enrage  has  been  efifeeted,  and  in  which  it  delights. 

Much  has  been  said  regarding  the  existence  or  non-existence  of  this 
smssal  in  a  state  of  freedom,  and  as  yet  all  tends  to  prove  that  neither 
the  camel  nor  the  'dromedary  have  been  known  wild  smce  the  present 
Ustorical  era  commeaced.  It  can  scarcely  be  thought  possible,  that 
animals  of  such  magnitude  as  these,  can  be  still  living  wild  in  henb 
upon  any  country  of  the  known  eaith,  and  yet  t^t  they  should  have  elud- 
ed the  reseasches  of  naturalists ;.  for  although  it  has  been  stated  l^ 

61«.  CiifieT*8  « Theory  of  tke  eaiili.' 

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166  Rough  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candakar.  [No.  170. 

some  of  the  older  writers,  that  in  their  times  the  camel  was  found  in  the 
regions  of  Tartary,  yet  as  their  accounts  have  been  corroborated  by  no 
later  travellers,  and  as  I  feel  assured,  from  information  carefully  collect- 
ed during  a  two  years'  residence  at  Candahar,  from  traders  to  Bokhara 
and  other  neighbouring  states,  that  none  are  found  wild  in  our  days,  it 
is  most,  probable  that  the  herds  described  as  once  existing  in  a  state  of 
freedom  within  the  modern  era,  were  either  as  Cuvier  has  suggested, 
individuals  let  loose  from  religious  motives  by  the  Calmucks,  or  that 
they  were  troops  of  young  or  even  fold  animals,  turned  out  to  graze  to- 
gether in  the  breeding  districts,  as  is  the  custom  where  pasture  is 
plentiful  and  the  animal  not  required  for  immediate  labour.  This  con- 
jecture would  more  particularly  apply  to  the  two-humped  or  Bactnan 
camel,  which,  from  its  constitution  being  suited  more  especially  to  the 
cold  regions  of  the  northern  Steppes,  is  unable  to  perform  long  journeys 
southward  during  the  heats  of  summer,  and  they  may  therefore  be  left 
at  that  season  to  roam  and  feed  in  herds  upon  the  plains  of  the  Khozzak 
country  to  the  north  of  Bokhara,  which  appears  to  be  the  proper  habitat 
of  the  species,  until  the  winter  setting  in  again  enables  them  to  travel  with 
kafilahs  of  merchandise,  into  Russia  and  other  states.  It  is  very  certain* 
however,  that  if  the  camel  seen  by  the  old  authors,  or  even  by  Mr.  Trebeck, 
in  his  tour  to  Ludak,^^  was  on  the  Steppes  of  Tartary,  it  could  have 
been  no  other  than  the  Bactrian  species,  for  the  Arabian  camel  would  be 
wholly  unable  to  endure  the  rigours  of  the  climate  in  those  northern 
latitudes.  Balkh  and  Bokhara,  appearing  by  all  accounts  to  be  the  most 
northern  limit  in  which  it  can  live,  and  even  there  it  requires  the  great* 
est  care  and  the  comfort  of  wai^  clothing  and  shelter,  to  enable  it  to 
survive  the  cold  of  the  winter  months.  Thus,  after  all,  even  if  the 
Bactrian  camel  could  be  proved  to  have  been  wild  within  the  historical 
era,  we  should  still  require  proof  that  the  dromedary  had  been  so  found, 
and  as  all  the  arguments,  hitherto  have  had  reference  to  this  last  species, 
we  are  still  authorised  in  believing  that  it  at  least  has  never  been 
known  to  man  in  a  state  of  natural  freedom  since  the  present  order 
of  things  commenced. 

From  strict  and  careful  inquiries  instituted  during  a  two  years'  resi- 
dence in  Afghanistan,  through  traders  of  all  classes  who  were  in  the 
constant  habit  of  travelling  into  the  Tartar  countries,  as  well  as  through 
some  Khuzzak  camel  drivers,  I  am  unhesitatingly  inclined  to  adopt  the 

62.  Vide  E;ditor's  Note.— Journal  As.  Soc.,  No.  F. 

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1846.]  Rm^gh  Nates  on  the  Zoohffy  of  Candahmr.  167 

belief,  fhat  ndther  the  one  nor  fhe  other  camel  exists  wild  at  present, 
or  has  done  so  since  the  flood  of  Noah.  The  late  Sir  A.  Bumes,  with 
whom  I  corresponded  on  such  subjects,  replied  to  one  of  my  last  letters 
as  follows  :  "Caubul,  26th  May,  1841. 1  have  never  seen  or  heard  of 
the  camel  being  wild,  nor  do  1  credit  the  report  if  from  Moorcroft ;  but 
that  the  animal,  at  some  time  or  other,  must  have  been,  like  all  other  ani- 
mals, in  a  state  of  nature  is  dear,  though  certainly  not  in  the  historical 
era :  the  natives  all  say  the  same/'  lUs  was  written  in  answer  to 
repeated  inquiries  from  me  regarding  the  existence  of  wild  camels  in 
the  northern  Steppes ;  and  Sir  A.  Bumes,  after  a  careful  examination  of 
all  who  were  likdy  to  throw  any  light  upon  the  subject.  Came  to  the 
only  condusion  that  any  one  can  arrive  at,  namdy,  that  ndther  spedes 
has  been  known  to  Postdihrnan  man,  in  a  state  of  freedom. 

This  species  (C.  dramedariusj  is  not  only  useful  as  a  beast  of  burthen 
to  travd  with  merchandise,  but  yidds  a  soft  and  durable  wool,  which  is 
converted  into  doth.  In  tiie  valley  of  Pisheen,  I  have  likewise  seen  them 
yoked  together  in  the  plough,  and  compelled  to  till  the  ground. 

No.  5h  Gsm^/tif  iac^fiaiiiM.-*Two-humped  camel.  "Bagdad-i,"  of 
A%hans. 

This  animal  is  too  impatient  of  heat  to  undergo  even  the  climate  of 
Candahar  for  more  than  a  year  or  two.  His  true  habitat  is  in  the 
Khuzzak  country ;  he  is  found  in  cafilahs  which  journey  to  the  south, 
but  is  not  kept  in  Afghanistan.  While  this  two-humped  species  cannot 
undergo  the  heats  of  the  south,  the  dromedary  on  the  other  hand  can- 
not endure  the  rigours  of  the  north.  To  obviate  the  inconvenience  which 
might  arise  from  this  circumstance,  the  A^hans,  or  rather  the  tribes  of 
the  northern  Steppes,  have  produced  a  crossed  breed  between  the  two 
animals,  which  is  enormoudy  powerful  and  of  large  stature.  Its  gene- 
ral appearance  varies  according  as  the  dam  has  been  a  camel  or  a  dro- 
medary, and  it  is  asserted,  that  if  the  hybrid  animal  is  bom  in  the 
northern  Steppes  its  constitution  unfits  it  for  a  continued  residence  in  a 
hot  country,  whileon  the  other  hand,  if  bom  in  a  warm  climate,  it  cannot 
endure  a  great  degree  of  cold.  This  circumstance  is  worth  attending 
to,  since  I  heard  of  several  persons,  who  were  anxious  to  introduce  the 
hybrid  into  India,  in  order  to  strengthen  our  dromedaries.  The  cross 
however,  should  be  obtained  from  the  camd  and  female  dromedary, 
and  die  produce  be  bom  in  our  own  provinces,  if  the  assertion  of  the 
Afghans  is  to  be  relied  on.    I  do  not  think,  however,  that  any  good 


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168  Rough  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar.  [No.  170. 

would  result  from  crossing  our  breed,  which  is  admirably  adapted  to 
the  Indian  climate  and  the  work  it  has  to  perform,  and  we  may  perhaps 
in  this  case,  follow  with  advantage,  the  old  adage  of  "  Let  well  alone." 

The  species  said  to  exist  among  the  Kirguise,  and  supposed  to  be 
distinct  from  the  two  forementioned  species,  is,' in  all  probability,  nothing 
more  than  the  hybrid  obtained  from  the  camel  and  dromedary.  I  heard 
of  no  instance  of  the  hybrids  breeding  inter  se,  but  at  the  same  time  I 
do  not  consider  the  point  decided,  or  even  of  consequence,  either  one 
way  or  the  other ;  as  the  fact  of  hybrids  breeding  inter  se  cannot  prove 
identity  of  speciefs  in  the  original  parent  stock,  since  I  have  more  than  once 
obtained  and  reared  offspring  from  hybrid  birds,  which  offspring  more- 
over again  bred  inter  se.  Yet,  notwithstanding  this,  the  original  species 
were  distinct,  being  the  one  a  female  canary,  and  the  other  a  common 
linnet.  Such  being  the  case,  it  must  be  evident  that  if  the  offspring  of 
the  domestic  goat  and  the  wild  segagrus  were  proved  capable  of  breed* 
ing  inter  se,  it  would  not  show  that  the  wild  and  domestic  breeds  were 
identical ! 

In  respect  to  the  stock  from  which  the  camels  originally  descended,  I 
hold  the  same  opinions  as  those  set  forth  in  regard  to  the  domestic 
sheep  and  goats,  namely,  that  they  never  had,  during  the  historical  era, 
any  wild  representatives,  the  whole  having  been  retained  by  man  after 
the  exit  from  the  Ark.  The  camels,  therefore,  like  most  others  of  our 
domestic  cattie,  I  hold  to  be  species  whose  original  stock  perished  in  the 
waters  of  the  Noarchian  deluge.  These  opinions  will  elsewhere  lead  me 
to  remark  upon  the  habitats  of  the  modem  camels,  with  a  view  to  as- 
certain whether  both  could  have  spread  from  the  focus  of  Postdiluvian 
diffusion,  or  whether  the  country  of  Armenia  be  in  reality  the  true  resting 
place  of  the  Ark,  a  point  on  which  I  am  inclined  to  be  sceptical. 

No.  52.  Sdurus  paltnarum. — The  Palm  Squirrel. 

This  littie  animal  is  found  in  the  Bhawulpore  country,  and  extends 
into  the  jungles  of  Cutchee  as  far  as  the  borders  of  the  "  Putt,'*  or  de- 
sert between  Poojaun  and  Burshore.  It  does  not  appear  to  cross  that 
desert,  and  is  not  found  in  A%hani8tan. 

P.  S.— I  think  I  may  venture  to  say,  that  very  few  wild  mammalia 
occur  below  Ghuznee,  which  have  not  been  here  noticed,  and  those  will 
probably  be  small  species. 

In  the  northerly  mountains  of  Cabul,  &c.  doubtiess  many  are  found, 
but  as  my  personal  observations  were  confined  to  the  neighbourhood  of 


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1846.]  R^h  Notes  on  the  Zoolo^  of  Candahar  169 

Candahar  and  the  route  to  that  city,  I  shall  not  venture  further  on  the 
subject.  I  do  not  think,  however,  that  any  large  ruminants  will  be 
found  even  there. 

I  will  send  you  a  notice  of  the  birds  collected  also. 

These  notes  are  not  arranged  in  order,  but  that  you  can  easily  rectify. 
I  have  been  obliged  to  write  them  for  you  as  I  could  lay  my  hands  on 
my  old  memoranda,  which  hlive  become  confused.  You  are  at  liberty 
to  describe,  and  name  any  species  that  may  appear  new. 

Thomas  Button. 

Additions  and  carrectUmt  io former  Notes,  Fol,  XIV,  p.  340  et  seq» 

NoTB  %  p.  841.— With  reference  to  the  range  of  the  Tiger  on  the  Himalaya,  I 
should  have  quoted  the  Rev.  R.  Everest's  paper  *  On  the  power  of  enduring  cold  in 
the  mammalia  of  hot  coantries,'  published  in  An,  and  Mag,  Nat.  Hist.,  VI II,  325. 
••  The  Tiger,"  remarks  that  gentleman,  **  is  very  scarce  in  the  Himalaya,  even  in  sum- 
mer time,  being  too  large  and  unwieldy  an  animal  to  follow  the  caprine  races  over  the 
precipitous  ground*  I,  however,  met  with  their  tracks  on  the  snow  near  my  house; 
and  while  shooting  in  the  oak-forest,  from  5,000  to  6,000  feet  above  the  sea,  had  one 
of  my  people  carried  away  by  one*  They  can  go  wherever  the  [Jerrow  {Cervus  Arts- 
totelis, )  ]  can  obtain  a  footing,  and.  remain  on  a  mountain  north  of  Mussoorie,  (  Nagtiba, 
near  10,000  feet  in  height,)  all  the  year  round.  They  live  principally  on  stags  and 
also  bears." 

NoTB  6,  p.  342.— Prof.  Behn,  of  Kiel  University,  and  now  with  the  Danish  expedi- 
tion on  board  the  Galathea,  pronounces  this  to  be  distinct  from  the  European  Felis 
sylvesiris.  The  state  of  the  skin  does  not  permit  of  a  satisfactory  description  being 
taken  from  it ;  but  it  may  be  briefly  characterised  as  of  a  light  fulvous  colour,  mottled 
or  varied  with  blackish  on  the  back,  which  colour  forms  somewhat  large,  transverse, 
ill-defined  stripes  on  the  sides  and  limbs,  and  more  distant  spots  on  the  under-partB : 
the  tail  tapering,  with  five  or  six  rings  of  black,  and  a  black  tip ;  and  the  fur  mode- 
rately long  and  dense.  Length  about  two  feet,  the  tail  a  foot  more.  If  new,  F, 
HuUoniy  nobis. 

NoTB  8,  p.  343.—**  The  Afghan  pointer,"  remarks  the  late  Migor  Brown,  <*  has 
been  long  known,  having  occasionally  been  brought  down  for  sale  by  the  fruit-mer- 
chants ;  but  they  have  never  been  considered  equal  to  the  English  dog.  In  Afghanis- 
tan they  are  called  Boders,  and  are  used  for  shooting  pretty  generally  throughout  that 
country,  including  Cashmere.  They  have  rather  a  coarse  heavy  appearance,  and 
the  one  now  described  resepibles  a  Beagle  a  good  deal ;  otherwise  it  has  much  the 
appearance  of  an  India-bred  English  pointer.  The  hair  is  smooth,  of  a  red  and  white 
colour :  it  stands  short  on  the  legs,  with  a  large  double  dew-chiw  on  each  hind-leg, 
which  has  a  very  ugly  appearance.  Its  ears  are  well  hung  but  short;  the  breadth 
at  the  forehead  is  great,  but  the  muzzle  small,  and  it  has  great  natural  courage.  Ap- 
parently it  has  never  been  broken  in,  and  some  large  scars  about  the  head  testify  that 
it  has  fought  some  hard  battles  in  its  day."    *  Gunga,'  in  Bengal  Sporting  Magazine, 

NoTB  15,  p.  346.  Mangusta  palUpss.  Since  the  note  referred  to  was  written,  the 
Society  has  received  specimens  of  M,  EdwardsU  (apud  Ogilby)  ftrom  Agra,  which 
render  it  extremely  doubtful  whether  the  Afghan  species  can  be  considered  more  than 
a  variety  of  the  same :  upon  comparison  of  the  skulls,  however,  the  first  false  molar  of 
both  jaws  is  much  smaller  in  Afghan  than  in  Bengal  specimens.     The  last  appear 


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170  Rough  Notes  on  the  Zoology  of  Candahar.         [No.  170. 

always  to  be  of  a  much  darker  and  browner  colour,  resembling  tliOBe  from  Nepal— 
M.  auropunctata  of  Hodgson,  which  name  will,  I  believe,  stand. 

Notes  19  and  20,  p.  352  el  seq.  Hedgehogs.  The  Indian  species  of  this  genus 
are  still  much  in  need  of  investigation.    Four  have  received  names,  as  follow : — 

1.  S,  coUaris,  Gray :  founded  upon  Gen*  Hardwic]ie*s  figure  of  a  specimen  obtained 
in  the  *  Dooab.'  This  is  represented  to  have  uniformly  blackish  spines,  rather 
large  ears,  which  are  greatly  emarginated  posteriorly,  a  blackish  face,  more  rufous 
chest,  and  a  narrow  band  of  pare  white  on  the  throat,  commencing  from  the  ear.  In 
Mr.  Gray's  recent  catalogue  of  the  mammalia  in  the  British  Museum,  three  specimens 
referred  to  this  animal  are  enumerated,  one  of  them  from  Madras,  presented  by 
Walter  Elliot,  Esq. 

2.  B.  spatanguSf  Bennet,  Proc»  Zool,  Sac.  1832,  p.  123. 

S.  S.  Orayi,  Bennet,  ibid.  p.  124.  Both  from  the  Himalaya,  and  referred  ■*  to  that 
extra  European  form  of  the  genus  BrmaceuSf  which  is  distinguished  by  the  possession 
of  large  ears." 

4.  J7.  mentaUSt  Gray;  "Black-chinned  Hedgehog,"  from  the  Himalaya*~Seem« 
ingly  undescribed,  being  merely  enumerated  with  the  preceding  three  in  Mr.  Gray's 
catalogue  of  the  British  Museum  mammalia. 

Capt.  Hutton's  No.  19,  from  Afghanistan,  to  which  1  gave  the  provisional  name 
megaloHSt  would  seem  to  approximate  the  E*  spatangua;  but  the  difference  of  sixe  is 
too  great  to  admit  of  the  probability  of  their  being  young  and  adult  of  the  same,  the 
advanced  dentition  of  Mr.  Bennet's  specimen  leading  him  to  suppose  it  **  probably 
not  fully  adult,  there  being  only  two  false  molars  on  each  side  of  the  upper  jaw."  The 
head  and  body  of  B»  spatangus  are  given  as  but  three  inches  and  a  quarter,  t^l  a  ^ 
quarter  of  an  inch,  ears  three  inches  and  a  quarter,  and  tarse  to  end  of  claws  an 
inch.  Capt.  Hutton's  recent  Afghan  specimen  is  described  as  about  a  foot  in  length, 
minus  the  tail,  the  latter  measuring  an  inch  and  a  half.  (?)  The  example  of  it  sent,  it 
about  the  size  of  a  moderately  large  European  Hedgehog,  with  great  ovate  ears,  an 
inch  and  a  quarter  long,  and  sevenoeighths  in  extreme  breadth :  tarse  to  end  of  dawe 
an  inch  and  a  half,  tail  but  five-eighths;  entire  length  of  skull,  with  projectiag  upper 
incisors,  two  inches  and  a  quarter. 

Of  Capt.  Hutton's  No.  18,  the  first  and  second  specimens  mentioned  by  him  are,  I 
suspect,  rightly  referred  to  S,  coUaris:  but  his  third  specimen  seems,  from  the  dee- 
cription,  identical  with  one  in  the  Society's  museum,  the  locality  of  which  is  unknown, 
and  also  with  others  from  S.  India,  obligingly  sent  me  on  loan  by  Mr.  Elliot,  and  to 
which  I  suspect  that  Mr.  Gray's  *  Madras'  specimen  (presented  by  Mr.  Elliot>)  and 
probably  the  two  others  referred  by  him  to  S,  eoUarig,  likewise  appertain.  The 
crania  and  dentition  of  an  adult  sent  by  Mr.  Elliot,  and  that  of  the  Society's  specimen, 
correspond  exactly:  but  Capt*  Button's  skull  of  the  Bhawulpore  Hedgehog  presents 
some  differences ;  the  general  form  is  rather  shorter  and  broader,  it  is  more  constricted 
between  the  orbits,  and  the  zygoms  are  considerably  ipore  projecting;  the  small 
upper  pre*  molar  anterior  to  the  scissor-tooth  is  less  minute  ;  and  in  the  lower  jaw,  the 
second  lateral  pair  of  incisors  from  the  front  are  much  smaller,  as  indeed  are  alto  the 
next  or  last  pair  of  the  true  incisors.  If  new,  I  propose  to  call  this  species  S»  micro* 
pus. 

Another  Asiatic  hedgehog,  additional  also  to  S,  auritus  of  Siberia,  and  BMriy 
allied  to  the  European  species,  is  B.  eoncohr,  Martin.  P.  Z,  8»  1837,  p*  103,  dee- 
cribed  from  a  specimen  received  from  Trebitond.—- Our.  As.  Soc. 


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JOURNAL 


ASIATIC  SOCIETY. 


CATALOGUE  OF  MAMMALIA. 

Inhabiting  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands, 

Collected  or  observed  by  Theodore  Cantor,  M.  D.,  Bengal 
Medical  Service. 


\       ^  Localities  printed  in  Italics  signify  those  from  whence  the  animals  of  the  Cata- 
!      logos  were  obtained;  in  ordinary  type  those  previously  given  by  authors. 


QUADRUMANA. 

SiHIADJS. 

Gun. — P1THECU8,  Geoffroy, 

PiTHBCus  Sattbus,  Geoffroy. 
Stk. — Simla  Satyrus,  Linn^. 
Simia  Agrias,  Schreber. 
Singe  de  Wurmb,  Audebert. 
Papio  Wurmbii,  Latreille. 
Pithecus  Satyrus,  Desmarest. 
Simla  Wurmbli,  Kubl. 
Drang  Pandak,  Raffles. 
Simla   Satyras,    "^ 
Simla  Abelil,  \  apud  Fisher. 

Simia  Wurmbii,  J 

No.  171.     No.  87,  New  Sbbibs. 


2  a 


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172  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting  [No  171. 

Simla  Satyrus»  apud  Ogilby. 

Satyras  rufus,  Lesson. 

Pithecus  Satyrus,  apud  Martin. 

Simia  Satyrus,  apud  Schinz. 

"  O'rang  U'tan"  of  the  Malays. 
Hab. — Borneo,  Sumatra, 

The  physiognomy  and  the  colour  of  the  face  exhibit  a  marked  dif- 
ference in  living  individuals  from  the  two  localities.* 

Gbn. — Hylobatbs,  llliger. 

Hylobatbs  Lar,  Ogilby. 
Syn. — Ghrand  Gibbon,  Buffon. 

Homo  Lar,  Linn^,  Mantiss. 

Simia  longimana,  Schreber. 

Simia  longimana.  Grand,  et  Petit  Gibbon,  Brxleb. 

Simia  Lar,  Linn^  Syst. 

Le  Gibbon,  Audebert. 

Pithecus  liar,  Desmarest. 

Simia  albimana.  Vigors  and  Horsfield. 

Simia  Lar,  apud  Fischer. 

Hylobates  Lar,  Lesson,  apud  Martin. 

Hylobates  albimanus,  apud  Schinz. 

'*  Ungka  ^tam"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

Siam,  Burmah,  Tenasserim. 

Light- coLOTTBBD  Var. 
Syn.— Petit  Gibbon,  Buffon. 

Simia  Lar,  3.  Linn^. 

Pithecus  variegatus,  Geoff. 

Pithecus  variegatus,  apud  Kuhl. 

Pithecus  variegatus,  apud  Desmarest. 

Hylobates  variegatus,  Ogilby. 

Hylobates  leuciscus,  apud  Cantor.  Ann.  and  Mag.  of  Nat.  Hist. 

•*  Ungka  puti"  and  "  Wow- wow"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 

*  An  excellent  likeness  of  a  young  male  Bornean  Orang  Utan,  living  in  my  posses- 
sion upwards  of  two  years,  has  lately  been  taken  by  Mr.  Thomam,  one  of  the  artists 
of  the  scientific  expedition  on  His  Danish  Majesty's  Ship  *  Qalathea/ 


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1 846.]  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands.  1 73 

The  colour  Taiiea  from  blackish-brown  to  light«brown,  yellowish  or 
dirty-white,  sometiittes  uniform,  sometimes  mottled.    The  index  and 
middle  toes,  of  both  or  of  one  foot,  are  in  some  individuals,  of  whatever 
sex  or  shade  of  colour,  united  by  a  broad  web  throughout  the  whole  of 
the  first  phalanx ;  in  some  partially  so,  and  in  others  not.     The  ribs 
vary  from  twelve  (7+5)  to  thirteen  pairs  (7+6,)  as  observed  by  Mr. 
myth,  (Journal  Asiatic  Society  1841,  Vol.  X.  p.  839.) 
Hylobatbs  A6ILIS,  F.  Cuvicr. 
Var.  Ungka  btam,  Martin. 
Stk. — Ungka  etam,  Raffles. 

Oungka,  Hylobates  Lar,  F.  Guv. 

Simia  Lar,  Vigors  and  Horsfield. 

Hylobates  Rafflesii,  Geoff,  apud  Ogilby. 

Hylobates  variegatus,  Miiller  apud  Schinz*. 

"  Ungka  etam"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
^AB.— Malayan  Peninsula,  (Malacca,  Purlis,  KSddah,  PUngah,) 

Sumatra. 
The  first  phalanges  of  the  index  and  middle  toe  are  in  some  individu- 
als of  either  sex,  partially  or  entirely  united  by  a  web.     Sometimes  the 
first  phalanx  of  the  middle  toe  is  partially  united  to  the  fourth. 

An  adult  male  examined,  had  thirteen  pair  of  ribs  (6+7),  an  adult 
female  fourteen,  (7+7),  a  young  male  on  the  left  side  thirteen  (7+6), 
on  the  right  twelve  (7+5).  In  these  three  individuals  the  stomach 
was  constricted  at  the  fundus  and  the  pyloric  part,  which  characters,  when 
compared  with  specimens  of  Hylobates  agilis  from  Sumatra,  will  go  far 
to  decide  the  identity  of  that  species  and  H,  Rqfflesii.  On  the  Malayan 
Peninsula,  the  latter  appears  to  be  less  numerous  than  H.  Lar,  The 
light-coloured  Var.  of  H.  agilis  I  have  not  seen. 

Hylobates  leuciscus,  Kuhl. 
Syw. — "  Wou-wou,"  Camper. 

Simia  leucisca,  Schreber. 

Simia  moloch,  Audebert. 

Pithecus  cinereus,  Latreille. 

Pithecus  leuciscus,  Geoffrey. 

Pithecus  leuciscus,  apud  Desmarest. 

*  Schinz  gives  as  a  synonyme :  Pithecus  variegatuSy  Geoff,  which,  however,  is  Hy- 
lobates LaVy  Var. 


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174  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting  [No.  171. 

Simla  leucisca,  apud  Fisher. 

Hylobates  leuciBCUS,  apud  Ogilby. 

Hylobates  leuciscus,  apud  Schinz.* 
Hab.— J5onwo,  ? 

Java. 

Gbn. — Sbmnofxthbcus,  F.  Cttv. 
Sbmnofithbcus  obscubus,  Reid. 
Syn. — Simla  maora  ?  Lin.     Lotong,  apud  Raffles.f 

Semnopithecus  leucomystax,  Temm.  in  MSS. 

Semnopithecus  obscurus,  apud  Martin. 

Fresbytes  obscura,  Gray,  List  of  Mamm.  B.  M. 

Semnopithecus  sumatranus,  Muller,  apud  Schinz.l 

Semnopithecus  halonifer,  Cantor,  Proceed.  Linn.  Soc. 

*'  L6tong"  or  "  L6tong  ^tam/'  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula,  Pinang,  Singapore, 

District  adjacent  to  Singapore,  in  the  Malayan  Peninsula. 
Sbmnofithbcus  albocinbbeus,  Schinz. 
Stn. — Cercopithecus  albocinereus,  Desmarest. 

Simla  albocinerea,  Fiaher. 

Semnopithecus    dorsatus,    (young)  Waterhouse  MSS.§   apud 

Presbytes  cinerea.  Gray,  List.  [Martin. 

Semnopithecus  albimanus.  Is.  Geoff.  ? 

"  Ka-ka"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula, 

*  Among  the  Syn.  occurs  Ungka  putt.  Raffles,  which  is  Hylobates  agtUs. 

t  The  Hab.  Pinang  and  Singapore,  in  neither  of  which  islands  Semnopithecus  /e- 
moralis  appears  to  occur,  tends  to  prove,  that  Sir  S.  Raffles  did  not,  as  it  has  been  sup- 
posed, refer  to  that  species.  His  short  description  indicates  ^.  obscurus  (Lotong.)  the 
most  common  species  in  both  islands.  Sir  S.  Raffles  evidently  did  not  describe  the 
living  animal,  or  he  would  not  have  omitted  one  of  the  most  striking  characters,  viz. 
the  white  marks  of  the  face,  which,  in  preserved  specimens,  become  obliterated,  so  that 
the  face  appears  uniformly  black.  The  omission  of  this  character  by  Sir  S.  Raffles, 
and  subsequently  by  later  describers  of  this  species,  has  given  rise  to  confusion. 

X  Schinz  repeats  S.femoraliSf  Martin,  as  a  Syn.  for^.  sumatranus,  and  says  in  a 
note,  that  MUller  in  his  monograph  of  Semnopithecus  refers  that  species  to  his  S. 
sumatranus  (Schinz  Syn.  Mam.  I.  p.  39,  note.)  Were  even  the  two  identical,  the 
species  should  not  have  been  renamed,  as  S.  femoralis,  Bortifield,  not  Martin,  would 
take  precedence,  being  the  denomination  under  which  Dr.  Horsfieid  described  it  in 
the  Appendix  to  the  Life  of  Sir  T.  Stanford  Ri^jffleSt  1830. 

§  Martin,  p.  481,  refers  the  young  5.  dorsatus  to  S.  femoralis,  but  the  description 
is  that  of  the  young  of  the  present  species. 


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1846.]  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands.  175 

The  young  of  this  species,  described  by  Martin,  p.  48 1 ,  is  from  the  pecu- 
liar distribution  of  the  colours,  as  easily  distinguished  from  the  young  of 
8.  obseurus,  as  it  is  difficult  to  distinguish  the  adults  of  these  two  species. 
Both  attain. to  the  same  size,  hare  in  common  the  shape  of  the  body, 
the  white  marks  of  the  fEu:e,  and  the  general  distribution  of  colours.  In 
the  adult  of  the  present  species  the  prevailing  colours  are  clear  ashy- 
grey  above,  and  white  below.  On  either  parietal  bone,  the  hairs  form  a 
whorl,  and  the  anterior  are  directed  forward,  projecting  beyond  the  eye- 
brows. The  two  whorls  are  distinct  in  the  young,  though  the  hairs  of 
the  head  are  too  short  to  mingle  with  the  long,  erect,  divergent,  black 
hairs  of  the  eyebrows.  Just  below  the  spot  where  the  two  whorls  come 
in  contact,  the  skull  is  naked,  thus  forming  a  rather  broad,  triangular 
forehead.  The  general  colour  of  S.  obscurus,  both  in  the  young  and 
adult  state,  is  considerably  darker.  On  the  upper  parts  a  blackish, 
or  brownish  ash  colour  prevails,  lighter  below,  which  acquires  in  some 
individuals  a  whitish  appearance,  from  the  white  skin  of  the  stomach, 
which  is  but  scantily  covered  with  hairs.  Of  parietal  whorls  there  is  no 
trace;  the  hairs  of  the  head,  directed  backwards,  originate  in  a  peak  as 
far  down  as  the  glabella,  and  are  smoothed  down  on  the  top  of  the  head 
from  the  occipital  crest  backward. 

Semnofithecus  cristatus,  Horsfield. 
SrN. — Simia  cristata,  Chingkau,  Raffles. 

Semnopithecus  pruinosus,  Desmarest. 

Semnopithecus  pruinosus,  apud  Lesson. 

Semnopithecus  cristatus,  apud  Martin. 

Presbytes  cristata,  Gray  :*  List. 

Semnopithecus  cristatus,  apud  Schinz.''^ 
Hab. — Pinang,  Malayan  Peninsula, 

Sumatra,  Borneo,  Banka. 
The  whitish  colour  round  the  eyes  and  the  mouth  is  present,  though 
less  distinct  in  this  than  in  the  preceding  two  species. 

Semnopithecus  femobalis,  Horsfield. 
Syn. — Semnopithecus  chrysomelas,  Muller,  apud  Martin  and  Schinz. 

*  Gray  quotes  S,  maurus,  Horsfield,  and  Schinz  S.  femoraiiSt  Martin,  as  synonyms, 
both  of  which  are  species,  in  physiognomy,  colours,  and,  as  far  as  S*  maurus  is  con- 
cerned, in  habits  distinctly  different  from  the  present  one. 


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176  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting  [No.  171. 

Hab. — PurUs  (on  the  Malayan  Peninsula. J 
Borneo,  Java  (?),  Sumatra  (?). 
In  a  young  male  of  this,  apparently  everywhere  difficultly  procurable 
species,  the  face  during  life  was  intense  black,  except  the  white-haired 
lips  and  the  chin,  which  were  of  a  milk-white  colour.  In  the  preserved 
specimen,  the  latter  soon  changed  into  the  dull  brownish-black  of  the 
rest  of  the  face.  The  interdigital  membrane,  often  loosely  connecting 
the  first  phalanges  of  the  four  fingers  and  toes  in  S.  obsettrus,  alboci- 
nereus,  cristatus  and  other  Malayan  monkeys,  was  also  present  in  this 
individual,  in  which  even  the  first  and  second  phalanges  of  the  index 
and  middle  toe  were  thus  connected.  In  preserved  specimens,  the  in- 
terdigital web  becomes  shrivelled  and  indistinct,  and  therefore,  being  at 
all  times  a  very  questionable,  if  not  altogether  inadmissible,  specific 
character,  ought  in  such  state  to  be  least  relied  upon.  On  its  arrival  at 
Finang,  the  animal  was  in  too  sickly  a  state  to  allow  of  its  natural  habits 
being  observed. 

Gbn, — Cbbcopithecus,  apud  OgUby* 

Cercofithecvs  CYK0M0L6US,  Ogilby. 
Syn. — Simia  cynomolgus,  Linn^. 
Simia  aygula,  Linn6. 
Simia  attys,  Schreber. 
Macacus  cynomolgus,  Desmarest. 
Simia  fascicularis,  Rafiies. 
Cercocebus  aygula,  Geoff,  apud  Horsfield. 
Macacus  cynomolgus,  apud  Grray  :  List. 
Macacus  cynomolgus,  apud  Schinz. 
"  Kra"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab.— -Ptitan^,  Malayan  Peninsula. 

Sumatra,  Java,   Banka,   Borneo,  Celebes,  Timor,  Tenasserim, 
Nicobar  Islands. 
The  first  phalanges  of  the  four  fingers  and  toes,  and  in  some  in- 
dividuals also  the  second  phalanges  of  the  toes,  are  united  by  a  mem- 
brane. 

Gkn. — Papio,  apud  Ogilby. 

Pafio  nembstrinus,  Ogilby. 
Syn.-— Simia  nemestrinus,  Linn6. 
Simia  platypygos,  Schreber. 


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1846.]  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands,  1 77 

Simla  fasca,  Shaw. 

Macacus  nemestrinus,  Desmarest. 

Simia  carpolegus.  Raffles. 

Macacos  nemestrinus,  apud  Ghray,  List. 

Macacus  nemestrinus,  apud  Schinz. 

"  Broh"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab.— Pinaii^,  Malayan  Peninsula. 

Sumatra,  Borneo. 
The  interdigital  membrane  of  the  first  phalanges  of  the  four  fingers 
and  index,  and  middle  toe,  occurs  also  in  this  species. 

LBMURIDiB. 

Gbn. — Ntcticbbxts,  Geoffrey. 
Ntcticbbus  tardigradus,  Waterhouse,  Cat.  Zool.  Soc. 
Stk. — Lemur  tardigradus,  Linn^  apud  Raffles. 
Nycticebus  bengalensis,  Geoff. 
Nycticebus  jayanicus,  Oeoff. 
Loris  tardigradus,  Geoff. 
Stenops  javanicus.  Van  der  Hoeven. 
Stenops  tardigradus,  Wagner,  apud  Schinz. 
"  Kdkang"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Pinang,  Malayan  Peninsula. 

Java,  Siam,  Tenasserim,  Arracan,  Bengal,  Sylhet,  Assam. 
The  sublingual  appendage  is  cartilaginous,  of  a  white  colour ;  the 
apex  divided  in  a  number  of  fine  points.  The  new-bom  is  of  the  same 
colour  as  the  adult,  but  paler,  and  has  the  dense,  soft  fur,  mixed  with 
a  number  of  long  hairs,  grey  at  the  base,  white  at  the  point.  In  a  male, 
measuring  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  one  foot 
two  and  a  half  inches,  the  tail  fi?e*e}ghths  of  an  inch,  the  dimensions 
of  the  intestinal  canal,  were : 

Small  Intestines, 3  feet  i  inches. 

Large  ditto, , .      . .      2   „  SJ      „ 

Caecum, 0    „  3^      „ 

Gbn. — Galbofithbcus,  Pallas. 

Galbofithbcus  Tbmminckii,  Waterhouse. 
Stn. — Lemur  volans,  Linn,  apud  Marsden  and  Raffles. 

<*  Kdbong"  or  "  Ktirbong"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 


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178  Catalogue  of  Mammaiia  inhabiting  [No.  171. 

Hab. — Singapore,  Pinang,  and  other  Islands  in  the  Straits  of  Malacca, 
Lancavy  Islands,  Malayan  Peninsula, 
Java,  Sumatra,  Borneo,  Pelew  Islands,  Siam. 
Two  individuals  are  never  of  precisely  the  same  design  and  ground- 
colour, which  latter  varies  from  clear  ashy-grey  to  greyish.brown  or 
chesnut.  The  white  spots  on  the  back  of  the  anterior  extremities, 
appear  to  be  constant  in  every  age.  Though  there  are  four  mamm», 
situated  in  pairs  one  above  the  other,  close  to  the  axilla,  of  a  number  of 
females  with  young,  none  had  more  than  one  offspring,  which  was  car- 
ried wrapped  in  the  wide  mantle-like  membrane.  In  several  shot  on 
the  hills  at  Pinang,  the  stomach  contained  vegetable  matter,  but  no  re- 
mains of  insects.  In  confinement,  plantains  constitute  the  favourite 
food,  but  deprived  of  liberty  the  animal  soon  pines  and  dies.  The  ante- 
rior margin  of  the  broad  smooth  tongue  has  a  fringed  appearance,  pro- 
duced by  a  number  of  rounded  papillae.  In  a  male,  measuring  from  the 
apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  one  foot  four  inches,  the  tail  nine 
inches,  the  intestinal  canal  was  of  the  following  dimensions : 

Small  Intestines,     . .  . .      . .      4  feet  4  inches. 

Large  ditto 7  „      7     „ 

Caecum, 0  »    H     .. 

Costse  verae  seven  pairs,  spuriae  six  pairs. 

CARNIVORA. 

ChBIBOFT£BA. 

Insbctivoba. 
Gek. — Rhikopoma,  Geoffroy, 
Rhinofoma,  Habdwickii,  Gray. 
Syn. — Vespertilio  (Rhinopoma)  Hardwickii,  Elliot. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula, 

Southern    Mahratta    country,   Calcutta,    Allahabad,*     Agra,t 
Mirzapore. 
A  single  male,  in  no  way  differing  from  Bengal  individuals,  was  ob- 
tained by  Captain  Congalton,  H.  C.  Steamer  '  Diana,'  in  a  cave  on  an 
island  in  GKrbee  river,  in  Latitude  8^  0',  on  the  Malayan  Peninsula. 

This  species  is  provided  with  a  true  caecum,  the  existence  of  which 
in  all  Cheiroptera  has  erroneously  been  denied,  or  restricted  to  the  car- 

*  Numbers  inhabit  the  subterraneous  Hindoo  place  of  worship  within  the  Fort  at 
Allahabad. 

t  In  the  Tiy-Mahal. 


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1846.]  the  Malayan  Pmiiusula  and  Islamds.  179 

diac  csBCum  observed  in  the  genera  Vampftus  and  Pterojnu.  The  pre- 
sent species,  and  Megaderma  spasvui,  also  possessing  a  tme  csBciim, 
thus  present  a  higher  organisation  than  has  hitherto  been  attributed  to 
Cheiropt^a. 

Length  of  the  small  Intestine 7^  inches. 

large  ditto,  . .      . .      ] 

„         „        caecum,  ..      ..      Wj^g    „ 

Gkn. — Mbqadbrma,  Geofroy, 
Mbgadbrma  sfasma,  Geofiroy. 

Sth. — Vespertilio  spasma,  Schreber. ' 

Megaderma  trifolium,  Geoffroy. 

Megaderma  spasma,  apud  Fisher. 

Megaderma  spasma,  apud  Schinz. 
Hab. — Pinang,  Malayan  Peninsula, 

Singapore,,  Java,  Temate. 

Incis.—r"  Canin.- — -  Molar,  ■  '  ■- 

4  1 — 1  O  .  6 

Length  of  the  head  and  body     . .       . .      3-^   inches. 

„       „     „     inter-femoral  membrane,     1      inch. 
Extent  of  the  flying  membrane,  . .    14      inches. 

The  five  caudal  vertebrae  project  one  quarter  of  an  inch  beyond  the 
pelvis,  but  are  completely  enveloped  in  the  inter-femoral  membrane,  and 
therefore  not  apparent.  The  inguinal  warts  are,  as  in  the  Rhinolophi, 
most  developed  in  the  adult  female.  A  true  caecum,  though  smaller 
than  in  Rhinopoma  Hardwicku,  is  present  in  this  species. 

I  Length  of  the  small  Intestines, 7    inches. 

p  „         „      large  ditto, li*e  inches. 

: .  „         „      caecum, Oig  inches. 

j  Qbn. — Nyctinomus,  Geoffroy, 

j  Nyctinomus  tbnuis,  Horsfield. 

Snr.^Nyctinomus  tenuis,  apud  Fisher. 

Molosse  gr^le,  Temminck. 

Dysopes  tenuis,  Schinz. 
Hab.— Ma/ajfan  Peninsula. 

Java,  Sumatra,  Borneo. 


2b 


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180  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhahiting  [No.  171. 

Two  individuals  had  the  back  of  a  velyety  snuff  colour,  becoming  a 
shade  lighter  on  the  under-parts.  Entire  length  of  the  larger  four 
and  four-eighth  inches,  of  which  the  tail  one  and  two-fourth  inches. 
Extent  of  the  flying  membrane  ten  and  four-eighth  inches.  In  the  size 
of  the  ears  some  difference  exists  in  the  two. 

Gbn. — Taphozous,  Geoffroy, 
Taphozous  mblanopooon,  Temminck. 
Stn. — Taphozous  melanopogon,  apud  Schinz. 
Hab. — Pulo-THkua,  Pulo-Lancdvy,  Malayan  Peninsula, 
Java,  Caves  of  Kannera. 

Temminck's  description,  as  quoted  by  Schinz,  is  taken  from  the  adult 
male,  the  Malayan  individuals  of  which  differ  in  having  the  black  beard 
surrounded  by  a  broad  light-brown  band,  covering,  like  a  pelerine,  the 
chest  and  shoulders.  The  rest  of  the  lower  parts  are  either  white  or 
brownish- white.  The  flying  membrane  in  the  adult  male  is  whitish ; 
in  the  females  and  young  males  it  is  blackish  or  brownish  between  the 
legs,  along  the  sides  of  the  body  and  the  arms.  The  colour  of  the 
female  and  young  male  is  on  the  back  of  a  more  or  less  brownish 
mouse-grey,  becoming  much  lighter  or  whitish  beneath,  but  both  are 
destitute  of  the  black  beard,  which,  out  of  a  number  of  between  forty 
and  fifty  from  different  Malayan  localities,  occurred  but  in  seven  males, 
although  some  of  the  beardless  males  in  size  and  extent  of  flying  mem- 
brane equalled,  or  even  slightly  exceeded,  the  bearded.  The  entire 
length  of  the  largest  male  was  four  inches,  of  which  the  tail  measured 
one  inch. 

Extent  of  flying  membrane  fifteen  and  four-eighth  inches. 

x^      .  .        •     .      0    ^    .     1—1    »^  ,       4.4 
Dentition:  Incis.   ^   Canm.  = — -   Molar,  -— ^ 

4  1 — 1  O  .  5 

Taphozous  saccolaimus,  Temminck. 

Syk. — Taphozous  pulcher,  Elliot  MSS.  apud  Blyth. 
Hab. — Pinang. 

Java,  Sumatra,  Borneo,  Celebes,  Southern  India. 

In  two  males  captured  at  Pinang  in  houses  in  the  valley,  the  colours 

somewhat  differ  from  Temminck's  description,  quoted  by  Schinz.     In 

the  larger,  the  head  and  back  are  of  a  sooty  black,  with  a  few  white 

dashes,  the  lower  parts  of  a  pure  white.    The  flying  membrane  ii  Uack 


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1846.]  the  Mokyan  Pmimula  and  Islands.  181 

between  the  legs,  along  the  sides  of  the  body  and  the  arms,  and  between 
the  index,  second  and  third  fingers ;  the  rest  being  dull  semi-transparent 
white.  The  length  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  posterior  margin 
of  the  inter-fen^oral  margin,  is  four  and  seven-eighth  inches,  of  which  the 
tail  measures  one  inch.  The  extent  of  the  flying  membrane  eighteen 
inches.  Dentition  as  in  T.  melanopogon.  The  smaller  differs  in  having 
the  chest  of  a  pale  brownish- white,  the  abdomen  and  the  pubes  light  rust- 
coloured,  leaving  the  sides  pure  white.  Mr.  Blyth  quotes  Taphogaus 
pulcker,  Elliot,  from  Southern  India,  as  being  "  black-brown  above  with 
white  pencillings,  and  pure  white  below,"  (Journal  As.  Soc.  XIII.  1844. 
p.  492,)  from  which,  as  well  as  from  Mr.  Elliot's  specimen,  at  present  in 
the  Museum  of  the  Asiatic  Society,  it  appears  that  the  Indian  more 
resemble  the  Malayan  individuals  than  those  of  the  Indian  Archipelago, 
described  by  Temminck.  The  internal  surface  of  the  gular  sac  secnretes, 
an  odorous  oily  fluid,  of  a  light  brown  colour. 

Gen. — Rhinolophtts,  Geoffray, 

Rhinolophus,  Gray. 
Rbinolofhus  atfinis,  Horsfield. 
Hab. — Pinang. 
Java. 
Of  two  individuals,  the  male  is  reddish-brown  above,  light  greyish- 
brown  beneath ;  the  female  is  above  golden  fulvous,  which  becomes 
lighter  on  the  lower  parts. 

4  7 

Entire  length  of  the  male,     . .      2^-  inches — female,  2^  inches. 
Tail,        •  •         .  •         ....        I*      „      female,      ^      „ 

2  4 

Extent  of  flying  membrane, . .    11   s*      **      female,  12^      „ 
Incis.    •-  Canin.  -H-  Molar,  ~^ 

4  1 — 1  0  .  6 

The  inguinal  warts  are  highly  developed  in  the  female. 

HiFPOsiDBBos,  Gray. 
A,  Adult  male  with  a  frontal  pore,  with  a  tuft  of  rigid  hairs. 
HipposiDBBos  DiADBMA,  Gray  ? 
Stn. — Rhinolophus  Diadema,  GeoflEroy  ? 
Hab. — Pinang,  Malayan  Peninsula. 
Timor. 
The  Malayan  individuals  are,  according  to  age  and  sex,  of  a  more  or 
lew  int^ue  reddish  or  greyish-brown  above,  under  certain  lights  assum- 


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182  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inbabUing  [No.  171. 

ing  a  golden  lustre,  owing  to  the  whitish  points  of  the  hairs ;  beneath, 
they  are  of  a  lighter  greyish-brown.  IndiTiduals  occur  of  a  light  golden* 
brown,  in  colours  resembling  Rhinolophus  larvatus,  HorsfiekL  In  the 
adult  male,  the  livid  flesh*(»loured  nasal  appendage  is  larger,  more  com* 
plicated,  and  somewhat  different  from  the  figure  given  by  Geoffroy 
St.  Hilaire,  (Ann.  du  Museum  XX,  PI.  5  and  6),  which  resembles  the 
female  in  the  simpler  appendage  and  in  the  absence  of  the  frontal  pore. 
The  latter  organ,  in  the  adult  male,  is  large,  secreting  a  yellowish 
brown  oily  fluid,  the  odour  of  which  resembles  that  of  Arctietis  Bintu- 
roTig,  Fisher.  A  female,  during  lactation,  presented  a  great  inequality 
in  the  development  of  the  inguinal  warts,  of  which  the  right  measured 
one-quarter  of  an  inch  in  length.  At  the  time  of  her  capture,  it  wis 
reported  that  a  young  one  had  been  "  sucking"  the  right  wart.  Not 
having  myself  observed  the  young  clinging  to  that  organ,  I  cannot 
vouch  for  the  correctness  of  a  statement  which,  if  authentic,  would  tend 
to  explain  the  use,  being  to  afford  support  to  the  young,  when  not  suck- 
ing. The  size  of  the  Malayan  individuals  appears  to  exceed  those  from 
Timor,  the  entire  length  of  the  former  being  five  and  six-eighth  inches, 
of  which  the  tail  measures  two  inches.  Extent  of  the  flymg  membrane 
twenty-one  and  a  half  to  twenty-two  inches.  The  extremity  of  the  2nd 
phalanx  of  the  fourth  and  fifth  fingers  is  bifid,  or  terminating  with  two 
minute  diverging  joints,  a  structure  also  existing  in  the  Malayan  indivi* 
duals  of  the  following  species. 

Incis.    ►-    Canin.  ; — -     Molar,  --^ 

4  1 — 1  5  .  0 

HiFFpsiDERos  NOBiLis,  Gbray. 

Syn. — Rhinolophus  nobilis,  Horsfield. 

Rhinolophus  nobilis,  apud  Fisher. 

Rhinolophe  fameux,  Temminck. 

Rhinolophus  nobilis,  apud  Schinz. 
Hab. — Pinang,  Malayan  Peninsula, 

Java,  Sumatra,  Timor,  Amboyna. 
The  frontal  pore  is  less  developed  than  in  the  former  species,  as  com- 
pared with  which  the  present  is  of  a  more  slender  form,  diough  of 
a  size  little  less  inferior.  Entire  length  five  and  four-eighth  inches,  of 
which  the  tait  measures  two  and  one-eighth  inches.  Extent  of  flying 
membrane  twenty-one  and  four  eighth  inches..    Dentition  similar  to  that 


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1846.]  tie  MOtofan  Pemnsuia  and  Islands.  183 

of  H.  Dimdema.  In  the  valley  of  Pinang  single  indindnals  of  both 
species  are  at  night  abroad  at  all  seasons,  but  during  the  rains  they 
are  particularly  numerous. 

Hiffosidbhos  tulqabib,  Gray. 
Stk. — Rhinolophus  vulgaris,  Horsfield. 

Rhinolophus  insignis,  Var.  apud  Temmiuck. 

Rhinolophus  insignis,  Horsf.  apud  Schinz. 

Rhinolophus  vulgaris,  HaiBf.  female  of  insiguis,  apud  Schinz.* 
Hab. — Pinang, 

Java. 
Entire  length  four  inches,  of  which  the  tail  measures  one  and  three- 
eighth  ;  extent  of  flying  membrane  fourteen  inches. 

Incis.  -T-  Canin.  --^  Molar,  — -^ 

*  1 — 1  O  .  5 

HiFFOSiDBRos  MT7BINU8,  Gray. 
Stk. — Rhinolophus  murinus,  Elliot. 
Hab. — Pinang. 

Southern  Mahratta  Country,  Nicobar  Islands. 
Entire  length  two  and  four-eighth  inches,  of  which  the  tail  measures 
one  inch.    Extent  of  flying  membrane  nine  and  four-eighth  inches. 
Dentition  similar  to  that  of  the  last  species. 
B.  Forehead  simple. 

HiPPOSinBBOS  OALBRITUS,  N.  S. 

H.  prosthematis  simplicis  membrand  transversa  lat&,  alt^  erectd,  auri- 
culas tangente ;  auricularum,  lat^  pyriformium,  apicibus  lacinid  exsertis, 
besse  postico  lobuloque  basali  villosis ;  vellere  longo,  denso,  mdli,  bico- 
lore ;  supr&  saturate,  subtus  pallidius-fusco-rufescenti. 
Latet  fsemina. 
Hab.— -Pmao^. 

Entire  length  three  inches,  of  which  the  tail  meaaures  one  inch.  Extent 

of  the  flying  membrane  ten  and  four-eighth  inches. 

T    •      2     _,    .      1-1  _^  ,    4.4 
Incis.  — -  Canin.  - — -  Mol.  --— — 

4  1 — 1  0 .6 

The  livid  flesh-coloured  nasal  appendage  is  simple  but  large,  occupy- 
ing the  whole  upper  part  of  the  face  and  the  forehead ;  the  horse-shoe  or 

*  The  only  individttal  of  Rhinolophus  mdgariSt  Honfield,  observed  at  Pinang,  hap- 
pened to  be  a  male. 


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184  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhalnting  [No.  171. 

nasal  disk  covers  the  short,  rounded,  hairy  muzzle,  which  has  two  leaves 
on  either  side;  the  transversal  membrane  is  concave,  as  broad  and  long  u 
the  horizontal  horse- shoe,  which  it  joins  under  a  right  angle,  while  its 
sides  are  almost  in  contact  with  the  ears.  The  latter  are  sub-erect,  broader 
than  long,  their  breadth  equalling  the  length  of  the  head ;  the  shape  is 
broad,  pyriform,  narrowing  towards  the  apex,  which  appears  like  a  small 
artificially  rounded  flap,  scarcely  elevated  above  the  level  of  the  for  co- 
vering the  vertex.  More  than  two- thirds  of  the  back  of  the  ear  is 
covered  with  fur,  leaving  a  narrow  naked  line  along  the  external  mar- 
gin, which,  as  well  as  the  singular  shape  of  the  ear  itself,  a£fords  a  dis- 
tiuguishing  character.  The  hairs  are  buff  or  whitish  at  the  base,  the 
other  half  of  their  length  brown.  The  general  colour  of  the  upper  parts 
is  deep-brown,  with  a  slight  reddish  hue,  becoming  a  shade  lighter  be* 
neath. 

This  species  somewhat  resembles  Hippoiideros  apiculatus,  Gray  fVeS' 
pertilio  speoris,  Schneider,  apud  Schreber ;  Rhinolophus  speoris,  Geof- 
froy,)  from  which  it  however  differs  in  the  absence  of  the  frontal  pore, 
in  the  shape  of  the  ears,  and  in  colours.  A  solitary  male  was  captured 
in  the  valley  of  Pinang. 

Obn. — Vbsfbbtilio,  Linn4, 

Vjcsfebtiuo,  Grray. 

Vksfbbtilio  advbbsus,  Horsfield  ? 

Stn. — Vespertilio  adversus,  Fisher  ? 

Vespertilio  adversus,  Temminck  ? 

Vespertilio  cineraceus,  Blyth  MSS. 
Hab. — Pinang, 

Java,  Calcutta. 
This  bat  having  the  characteristic  distinction  of  the  upper  incisor, 
described  by  Horsfield,  is  above  greyish-brown,  beneath  light-greyish, 
measuring  in  length  three  and  two-bighth  inches,  of  which  the  tail  is 
one  and  four-eighth  inch.  Extent  of  flying  membrane  ten  and 
four-eighth  inches.  It  differs  from  V.  adversus  in  having  on  each  side 
five  molars,  of  which  but  two  are  spurious,  which  character  also  obtains 
in  F.  cineraceue,  Blyth  MSS.  and  specimen  in  the  Museum  Asiatic 
Society,  which  (as  observed  by  Mr.  Blyth,)  as  well  as  the  present,  may 
prove  varieties  of  V.  adversus,  Horsfield. 


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1846.J  the  Malayan  Penimaula  and  Islands,  185 

KiBivouLA,  Gray. 

KiEivouLA  PicTA,  Gray. 
Stk. — ^Vespertilio  ternatanus,  Seba  ? 

Vespertilio  *pictus,  Pallas,  apud  Horsfield. 

Vespertilio  kerivoula,  Boddaert. 

Vespertilio  kerivoula,  apud  Geoffiroy. 
Hab. — Pinang. 

Java,  Sumatra,  Borneo,  Ceylon. 

KiaiYouLA  TENUIS,  Ghray. 
Syk. — ^Vespertilio  tenuis,  Temminck,  apud  Schinz. 
Hab. — Pinang, 

Java,  Sumatra,  Borneo. 
A  single  male,  in  colours  slightly  differing  from  Temminck's,  being 
above  of  a  dark  greyish -brown,  many  of  the  hairs  with  white  points; 
beneath  of  a  lighter  shade.  Entire  length  three  and  two-fourth  inches, 
of  which  the  tail  one  and  four-eighth  inch.  Extent  of  flying  mem- 
brane ten  inches. 

Incis.  -r-  Canin. , — -  Mol.  r-^ 

o  1 — 1  0.0 

Trilatitus,  Gray. 

Tbilatitus  Hobsfibldii,  Gray. 
Stn. — ^Vespertilio  tralatitius,  Horsfield. 

Vespertilio  Gartneri,  Kuhl,  apud  Schinz. 
Hab. — Pinang. 

Java,  Sumatra. 

Scotophilus,  Leach,  apud  Gray. 

ScoTOPHiLus  Tbmminckii,  Gray, 
Stn. — ^Vespertilio  Temminckii,  Horsfield. 

Vespertilio  Belangierii,  Isid.  Geoff. 

Vespertilio  noctulinus,  Isid.  Geoff. 

Scotophilus  castaneus.  Gray. 

Nycticeius  Temminckii,  Schinz. 

Nycticeius  Belangerii,  Temminck,  apud  Schinz. 

Nycticeius  noctulinus,  Temminck,  apud  Schinz. 

"  KUwah"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Singapore,  Pinang,  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands. 

Java,  Sumatra,  Borneo,  Timor,  Pondicherry,  Calcutta. 


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186  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabitiMg  [No.  171. 

As  observed  by  Schinz,  this  species  is  very  variable  in  its  colours 
according  to  age^  all  of  which  variations  occur  in  individuals  inhabiting 
Pinang  and  the  Malayan  Peninsula.  The  following  are  the  specific 
names  attributed  to  different  individuals  of  this  species  : — 

1.  Vespertilio  Temminckii,  as  originally  described  and  figured  in 
Zoological  Researches  in  Java,  Back  dark-brown;  greyish-brown 
underneath.  Entire  length  four  inches  six  lin.,  of  which  the  tail  one  five- 
eighth  of  an  inch  :  Extent  of  flying  membrane  twelve  inches. 

2.  Scotophilus  castaneus.  Gray. 

3.  Ngcticeius  Belangeri,  Temminck,  apud  Schinz.  Hairs  of  the  back 
brown  at  the  base,  chesnut  or  olive-chesnut  at  the  apex ;  beneath 
light  yellowish-brown,  Isabella  or  whitish.  Entire  length  3^"  of  which 
the  tail  1"  11"'  Extent  of  flying  membrane  13". 

Incis.    -r—  Canin. ; — r  Mol.  --^ 
o  I — 1  6  .  & 

4.  Nycticeius  noctulinus,  Temminck,  apud  Schinz,  is  the  very  young. 
Above  more  or  less  intense  brown  or  rust-coloured ;  beneath  isabella  or 
light  greyish-bx^)wn.  Entire  length  three  to  three  two-eighth  inches, 
of  which  the  tail  seven-eighth  to  one  two-eighth  of  an  inch.  Extent  of 
flying  membrane  eight  six*  eighth  to  nine  inches.  In  this  state  it  has 
frequently  been  observed  clinging  to  the  mother. 

2—2  1—1  4 . 4 

Incis.  -^-  Canin.  , — ■    Mol.  — -v 

O  1 — 1  o  .  o 

This  species  is  exceedingly  numerous,  forming  large  congregations  in 
sheltered  situations  on  the  Malayan  Peninsula,  and  in  the  caves  on  the 
numerous  islands  of  limestone  which  stud  the  shores  from  Maulmein  to 
Java,  and  in  such  localities  large  deposits  of  Ouano  occur.  The  latter, 
("  Ty  Kldwah"  of  the  Malays,  i.  e.  bats'  manure,)  has  been  tried  by 
agriculturists  at  Pinang,  but  has  been  found  much  less  efficacious  than 
the  Guano  obtained  from  the  swift  fCoUocaliaJ,  producing  the  edible 
nests. 

Fbugivoba. 

Gkn. — Ptebofus,  Brisson. 

Ptbbofus  BnuLis,  Geoffiroy. 
Stn. — Pteropus  javanicus,  Desm.  apud  Horsfield. 
Pteropus  Edwardsii,  Geoffroy. 


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1846.]  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands.  187 

"  Kalong"  of  the  Javanese. 
"  Kldang"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Pinang,  Singapore,  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands, 
Java,  Sumatra,  Banda,  Bengal,  Assam. 

Gbn. — Ctnoptbrtjs,  Fred,  Cuvier, 
Ctnoftbbus  maroinatus,  F.  Cuv. 

Stn. — ^Vespertilio  marginatus,  Buchanan  Hamilton,  MSS. 

Pteropus  marginatus,  Geo£froy. 

Pteropus  titthsecheilus,  Temm. 

Pachysoma  titthsecheilus,  Temm. 

Pachysoma  brevicaudatum,  Is.  Geoff. 

Pteropus  brevicaudatus,  Schinz. 

Pachysoma  Diardii,  Isid.  Geoff. 

Pteropus  Diardii,  Schinz. 

Pachysoma  Duvaucellii,  Is.  Geoff. 

Pteropus  pyrivorus,  Hodgson,  apud  Gray. 
Hab. — Singapore,  Pinang,  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands, 

Java,  Sumatra,  Southern  Mahratta  Country,  Bengal,  Nipal. 
The  colour  is  very  variable,  not  only  individually,  but  according  to 
age  and  sex,  which  has  given  rise  to  several  supposed  distinct  species. 
Bat  they  all  resemble  each  other  in  habits  and  dentition,  they  occupy 
one  common  place  of  rest,  and  their  new-born,  or  very  young,  are  of  a 
umform  colour.  The  ears  of  the  adult  are,  in  all,  more  or  less  distinctly 
margined  with  white. 

1.  Cynopterus  marginatus.  Back  reddish,  or  brownish- grey ;  lighter 
underneath. 

2.  Pachysoma  titthacheilus,  3.  Pteropus  brevicaudatus,  Male :  back 
reddish  or  olive- brown ;  a  tuft  of  hair  on  the  sides  of  the  neck,  the 
chest,  and  the  sides  of  the  greyish  abdomen  rusty,  or  orange-coloured. 
Female :  above  yellowish,  or  greyish-brown ;  beneath  lighter.  In  some 
individuals  from  Malacca,  the  flying  membrane  is  of  a  light  reddish- 
brown. 

4.  Pachysoma  Diardii :  Back  greyish-brown ;  abdomen  greyish, 
lm>wn  on  the  sides.  / 

2c 


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18S  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiiing  [No.  171. 

5.  Paekysoma  Duvaucellu:  pale  greyiflh-brown. 

The  following  is  a  description  of  a  new-born.  The  upper  part  of  the 
head,  the  ni4)e  of  the  neck,  the  back  and  the  posterior  surface  of 
the  humerus  and  femur,  were  covered  with  dense,  soft,  short  hairs, 
of  a  dark  greyish-brown ;  all  the  rest  of  the  body  was  naked,  of  a  grey- 
ish-black* colour.  The  eyelids  were  not  yet  separated.  The  joints  of 
the  bones  of  the  extremities  were  cartilaginous.  The  nails  of  the  thumb 
and  index  were  developed,  but  the  feet  and  nails  of  the  toes  had  already 
attained  the  sice  of  the  adult.  The  tongue  was  considerably  extensile. 
The  teeth  present  were  : 

Incis.    i  Canin.    J^   Mol.  -jy^ 

Entire  length,  one  and  four-eighth  of  an  inch,  of  which  the  slightly 
projecting  tail  two-eighth  inch.  Extent  of  the  flying  membrane,  six 
and  four-eighth  inches. 

In  an  individual  measuring  two  and  four-eighth  inches  in  length,  with 
an  extent  of  the  membrane  of  nine  inches,  the  face  and  the  lower  parts, 
excepting  the  throat,  had  become  scantily  covered  with  light  brownish- 
grey,  short  hairs.  The  eyelids  were  separated.  The  shoulder,  elbow, 
hip,  and  knee-joints,  had  become  ossified,  the  other  joints  still  remaining 
cartilaginoos. 

Iksbctivoba. 
Gbn. — TuFAiA.  Raffles. 

TUFAIA  FBBBUOINBA,  RsfileS. 

Stn.—  "  Tupai  Press."  Raffles  and  Horsfield. 

Cladobates  ferrugineus,  F.  Cuv.  apud  Schinz. 
Sorex  Glis,  Diard  and  Duvaucd. 
Qlisorex  ferruginea,  Desmarest. 
Hylogale  femiginea,  Temminck. 
Herpestes,  Calcutta  Joum.  Nat.  Hist.* 

*  Vol.  II,  p.  458,  PL  XIII|.  The  explmatton  ucompaaying  this  figim  if  m 
follows:  **  Searchin{f  for  Col.  Farquhar't  drawing  of  Rhufomys  Sumatrensit almAf 
referred  to,  I  found  in  the  Society  a  drawing  of  a  bushy-tailed  Herpestes^  differing 
merely  from  Mr.  Hodgson's  Qvio  Vrva,  in  having  the  tail  of  one  uniform  colour  with 
the  body,  without  the  yellow  tip.  There  it  no  name  or  letter  on  the  drawing  tothew 


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1846J  tkt  M^i&jfMn  PflttMn/a  mtd  /jkjub.  189 

"Tapai  tana"  of  the  Malays  of  Pinang. 
Hab. — Puumg,  Sm^apore,  Mtdaptm  Pntmula. 

Sumatra^  Java»  Borneo. 
The  young  of  this  Tery  nomeroiis  speciea  in  hilly  >ungle,  is  easily 
tamed,  and  becomes  fiuoailiar  with  its  feedor^  though  towards  strangers 
it  retains  its  original  mistrust^  which  in  matore  age  is  scarcely  reclaim- 
able.  In  a  state  of  nature  it  lives  sin^y  or  in  pairs,  fiercely  ^HaM^lfing 
intruders  of  its  own  species.  When  several  are  confined  together,  they 
fight  each  other,  or  jointly  attack  and  destroy  the  weakest.  The  natu- 
ral food  is  mixed  insectivorous  and  firugivorous.  In  confinement,  indivi- 
duals may  be  fed  exclusively  on  either,  though  preference  is  evinced  for 
insects ;  and  eggs,  fish,  and  earth-worms,  are  equally  relished.  A  short 
peculiar  tremulous  whistling  sound,  often  heard  by  calls  and  an- 
swers, in  the  Malayan  jtkngle,  marks  their  pleasurable  emotions,  as 
for  instance,  on  the  appearance  of  food,  while  the  contrary  is  ex- 
pressed by  shrill  protracted  cries.  Their  dispositioa  is  very  restless, 
and  their  great  agility  enables  them  to  perform  the  most  extraordi- 
nary bounds  in  all  directions,  in  which  exercise  they  spend  the  day,  till 
night  sends  them  to  sleep  in  their  rudely  constructed  lairs  in  ^e  highest 
branches  of  trees.  At  times  they  will  sit  on  their  haunches,  holding 
their  food  between  the  fore-legs,  and  after  feeding,  they  smooth  the  head 
and  face  with  both  fore-paws,  and  lick  the  lips  and  palms.  They  are 
also  fond  of  water,  both  to  drink  and  to  bathe  in.  The  female  usually 
produces  (me  young;  she  has  four  mamme,  the  anterior  pair  of  which 
is  situated  on  the  lower  lateral  part  of  the  chest,  the  posterior  on  the 
side  of  the  abdomen.  On  the  lower  surface  of  the  tongue,  the  frenum 
is  continued  to  within  a  short  distance  of  the  apex  in  a  raised  line,  on 
either  side  of  which  the  skin  is  thickened,  fringed  at  the  edges^  and 
thus  presenting  a  rudimentary  sublingual  appendage,  somewhat  similar 

from  whence  it  came,  and  to  preyent  its  following  the  &te  of  Colonel  Fai^uhar's 
BMzomys,  we  here  afford  a  copy  of  it."  PI.  XI 11^  represents  no  Herpeste^i  the 
elongated  muzzle,  the  proximity  of  the  large  eye  to  the  ear,  which  is  exposed,  and  not 
hidden  hy  the  hairs  of  the  cheek,  are  characters  foreign  to  every  known  species  of 
Herpesteg*  The  draughtoman  hat  very  cortectly  represented  a  Tupeda,  and  the  draw- 
ing, reappearing  as  a  Herpesies  in  the  Cqleuita  Journal  qf  Natural  History,  has,  hy 
Mr.  filyth,  been  traced  to  be  the  original  of  PI.  IX,  Asiatic  Researches,  Vol.  XIV, 
where  it  properly  accompanies  the  detcription  eUSorw  QUss,  (u  e.  TupoMaferrugi" 
nea)  of  MM.  Diard  and  Duvaucel. 


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190  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting  [No.  171. 

to  that  observed  in  Nycticebus  tardigraduB ;  though  in  Tupaia  ferruginea 
the  fringes  of  the  margin  only  are  free,  the  rest  being  attached  to  the 
tongue,  but  easily  detached  by  a  knife.  The  lateral  raised  lines  of  the 
palms  and  soles,  the  posterior  part  of  the  first  phalanges,  and  the  third 
phalanx  (second  of  the  thumbs,)  which  is  widened  into  a  small  soft  disk, 
in  fact  all  the  points  which  rest  upon  the  ground,  are  studded  with  little 
transversely  curved  ridges  or  duplicatures,  similar  to  those  observed 
under  the  toes,  of  some  of  &e  Geckotida,  which  fully  account  for  the 
precision,  the  '  applomb,'  with  which  these  animals  perform  the  astound- 
ing leaps  from  below,  barely  touching  with  the  soles  the  point  d'appui 
above.  In  a  cage,  the  Tupai  will  continue  for  hours  vaulting  from 
below,  back  downwards,  poise  itself  for  an  instant,  continuing  back 
downwards  under  the  horizontal  roof,  and  regain  the  point  of  starting, 
and  thus  describe  a  circle — ^the  diameter  of  which  may  be  three  to  four 
times  the  length  of  the  animal, — in  far  shorter  time  than  is  required  for 
the  description.  In  a  youug  male,  measuring  from  the  nose  to  the  root 
of  the  tail  seven  and  three-fourth  inches,  the  tail  six  and  a  half  inches, 
the  dimensions  of  the  intestinal  canal  were : 

Small  Intestines, 3  feet  4\  inch.;  diameter  ^  inch. 

Large  ditto,, 0   „    3f    „  „  i    „ 


Caecum, 0    „     Of 


1 

16 


GostSB  verse :  8  pairs ;  spurise  :  5  pairs  =^13  pairs. 
This  species'*"  is  infested  with^  a  Tick  of  the  following  description : 
Ixodes  Tupaia,     Body  suboval,  shining  dark-green  olive;  scaly  plate, 
palpi  casing  the  pointed  sucker,  and  the  legs :  pale  reddish-brown. 
Length,  when  swollen,  three-eighth  inch. 

Gen. — Gtmnura,  Raffles. 

Gtmnuba  Rafflbsii,  Vigors  and  Horsfield. 
Stn. —  Viverra  gymnura.  Raffles. 

**  Tikns  ^mbang  bdlan,"  Raffles. 
Hab. — Malacca. 

Sumatra,  Singapore, 
In  a  district  not  distant  from  Malacca,  the  animal  is  said  to  be  numer- 
ous, though  not  to  be  seen  in  other  localities. 

*  Single  light  coloared  individuals  occur  with  the  back,  limbs  and  abdomen  grey- 
ish, whitish,  or  isabella* 


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1846.]  the  Muia^an  Pemtuuia  mut  Islands.  191 

Gbk. — SoASX,  Linn4. 
SoRBX  MUBiNUS,  Liim^.* 
Stn. — SoKX  myosuros,  Pallas,  apud  Schinz. 
Sorex  cserulescens,  Var,  Rafflea  ? 
"  Chinchorot"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Pinang, 
Java. 
Dark  brownish-grey  above ;  beneath  light  brownish-grey.    Feet  and 
tail  flesh-coloured  in  the  living  animal»  changing  to  cinereous  after 
death.   In  the  young  the  colour  is  more  of  a  bluish-grey,  slightly  mixed 
with  brown  on  the  back.    Length  of  the  head  and  body  five  and  half 
inches ;  tail  three  inches. 

Incis.    —  Canin.-     Molar,  ---- 

2s  U  5.0 

The  present  differs  from  the  'Musk  Shrew'  of  Bengal  ("Choochundr,") 
in  its  proportionally  broader,  more  developed,  and  from  the  head  more 
diverging  ear,  which  characters  also  distinguish  it  from  Sorex  nigres" 
eens.  Gray,  which  it  somewhat  resembles  in  its  colours.  The  smell  of 
musk,  emitted  by  the  adult  animal,  and  which  in  the  young  is  barely 
perceptible,  is  much  less  intense  than  that  of  the  Bengal  Musk  Shrew. 

Cabniyoba. 
Gbk. — Ubsus,  Linnd 
Hblabctos,  Horsfield. 
Hblabctos  Malatanus,  Horsfield. 
Stk. — Ursus  Malayanus,  Rafiles  and  Horsfield. 

"  Brdang"  of  the  Malays. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

Sumatra,  Tenasserim  Provinces,  Assam,  Nipal. 
Colour  of  the  young :  snout  and  lips  pale  femigineous.    Head,  back, 
and  outside  of  the  limbs  black,  mixed  with  pale  rust  colour,  in  conse- 
quence of  many  of  the  black  hairs  having  the  point,  or  a  part  next  to  the 

*  The  following  Syn.  are  giyen  in  Gray's  List  of  Mam.  in  British  Museum :  Sorex 
mi^asurus,  Pallas.  Geoff.  Ann.  Mas.  XVII.  S,  SonneratO,  and  S,  giganteus,  I.  Geoff. 
Mem.  XV.  8.  indicus^  Geoff.  Mem.  Mas.  I.  S,  capensis,  Geoff.  Ann.  Mas.  XVII.  S, 
Pihrides,  Shaw»  Mus.  Lever.  S,  carulescens^  Shaw,  Zool.  S.  crassicaudatus^  Licht. 
Satigeth.  8,  nepaknsis,  Hodgson.  8.  moschatus^  Robinson,  Assam.  Olivier,  Voy. 
Bnffon.  H.  N.  Suppl.  VII. 


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192  CtUalogue  of  Mtmmalia  inkMiing  [Mo.  171. 

point*  of  the  latter  colour.  Ears,  tail,  paw8,  and  inner  side  of  the  ex- 
tremities shining  black.  The  somewhat  woolly  hairs  of  the  abdomen 
are  faintly  marked  with  ferrugineous,  and  are  mixed  with  longer  stiff 
black  hairs.  As  observed  by  Schinz,  the  mark  cm  the  breast  is  very 
variable  in  its  form.  It  may  be  compared  to  a  crescent,  assaming 
according  to  the  smaller  or  greater  breadth  of  the  limbs,  the  shape  of 
the  letter  U,  of  a  horse-shoe,  or  a  heart.  In  the  living  animal  it  is 
of  a  pale  rust,  or  orange  colour,  in  some  individuals  with  a  few  small 
blackish  spots,  fading  after  death  to  a  yellowish-white.  A  very  old 
male  presented  the  following  dentition : 

Incis. ' — •  Canin. Molar. — ' — 

6  1—1  '  6 .  6  (3+3) 

In  a  young  female,  three  feet  in  length,  the  intestinal  canal  measured 

fifteen  feet.     It  had  neither  ciecum  nor  valve  to  mark  the  transition. 

She  had  ten  grinders  in  either  jaw,  of  which  four  were  spurious,  six  true. 

Gbk. — Abctictis,  Temminck, 
Arctictis  Bintubokg,  Fiachei. 

Stn. — ^Viverra  ?  Binturong,  Raffles. 

Paradoxurus  albifrons,  F.  Cuvier. 

Ictides  ater,  F.  Cuvier. 

Arctictis  penicillata,  Temminck. 

Ictides  ater,  Blainv.  Calcutta  Joum.  of  Nat.  Hist.* 

"  Unturong"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

Tenasserim,  Arracan,  Assam,  Bhotan,  NipaL 
Java  and  Sumatra  are  quoted  by  M.  Schinz,  but  neither  Dr.  Hors- 
field.  Sir  S.  Raffles,  nor  M.  Temminck,  {Diseowrs  Prelimkuure,  Fmma 
JaponicaJ  mention  the  Binturtmg  as  inhabiting  either  of  the  two  islands. 

*  In  the  3rd  Vol.  of  Calcutta  Joum.  qf  Nat.  Hist.  p.  410,  occurs  the  following 
paisage :  "The  Bmiuronff  was  fint  discovered  in  Java,  bnt  the  fint  notice  of  its  existence 
on  the  continent  of  India  will  be  found  in  the  second  volume  of  this  Journal,  p.  4&7»" 
(sic  !)  '*&c."  Sir  Stamford  Kaffles,  who  published  the  first  account  of  this  animal,  dis- 
tinctly states,  that  it  was  discovered  at  Malacca,  (not  Java,  as  erroneously  stated,)  by 
Mi^or  Farqnhar,  and  Malacca  is  utuated  on  the  continent  of  India  as  well  as  Tenas- 
serim.  The  fact  of  its  inhabiting  Bkotan,  was  according  to  Cuvier  (K^ne  Animal,)  fine 
made  known  by  Duvaucel,  and  the  author  of  the  article  ^*  JeUdes**  in  the  Peamg 
Cyelopifdia^  1838,  gives  Mr.  Hodgson's  authority  of  the  BuUyromg't  inhahitiBS 
Mipal,  (Kachar,  though  they  occasionally  occur  in  the  central  region  of  Nipal.) 


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1846.]  the  MukyoM  PemMuh  and  Islands.  193 

The  genenl  colour  of  either  sex  is  hhxk,  sprinkled  on  the  body  and 
extremities  with  pale  fermgineous,  produced  by  some  of  the  hairs  having 
a  part  next  to  the  point  of  that  colour.  In  both  sexes  nearly  all  the  hairs 
of  the  head,  face  and  throat  are  thus  marked,  which  communicates  to 
these  parts  a  whitish  or  greyish  appearance.  In  the  young  of  either 
sex  theie  is  a  faint  trace  of  a  white  spot  over  the  eyes.  The  long  ear- 
tufts  are  always  black,  the  margin  of  the  auricle  being  either  white,  or 
pale  rust-coloured.  The  tail  is  black,  but  the  hairs  of  the  anterior  or 
basal  balf*  are  whitish  at  the  root,  or  in  some  uniformly  of  that  colour. 
The  pupil  is  vertically  contracted  by  the  influence  of  light ;  the  iris  is 
of  a  beautiful  Van  Dyke  brown.  In  its  habits  the  Bmturong  is  both  arbo- 
real and  terrestrial,  and  nocturnal,  sleeping  tUl  the  sun  is  below  the 
horizon,  when  it  displays  great  agility  in  searching  for  smaller  quadru- 
peds, birds,  fishes,  earth-worms,  insects  and  fruit.  The  howl  is  loud, 
resembling  that  of  some  of  the  Malayan  Paradoxuri.  The  young  are 
easily  tamed,  but  the  old  animal  retains  its  natural  fierceness.  Between 
the  anus  and  penis  is  situated  a  large  pyriform  gland,  exceeding  two 
inches  in  length,  partially  divided  by  a  deep  naked  fossa,  commencing 
from  the  latter  organ.  The  gland  secretes  a  light-brown  oily  fluid,  of  a 
peculiar  intense,  but  not  fetid  or  sickening  odour.  In  a  young  male, 
measuring  from  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail,  two  feet  three  and  five- 
eighth  inches,  the  tail  two  feet  two  and  a  half  inches,  the  intestines  were 
of  the  following  dimensions : 

Small  Intestines,       . .         . .        7  feet  1 1  inches. 

Large  ditto, 1  foot  10  inches. 

Caecum,  ..  ..  ..        0  l^inch. 

The  circumference  of  the  small  intestines  about  seven-eighth  inches  • 
of  the  large  but  little  more,  but  the  rectum  was  thickened  two  inches 
in  circumference. 

The  short  caecum  is  crescent- shaped,  or  lengthened  pyriform.  The 
stomach  is  remarkably  lengthened  cylindrical,  the  parietes  much  thick- 
ened towards  pylorus.  Oesophagus  enters  close  to  fundus  ventriculi, 
in  consequence  of  which  there  is  but  a  slight  difference  between  the 
Gwatures. 

Length  along  the  greater  curvature,  . .      1  foot  2  inches. 
i»        )i        »*    smaller     „  ..      1     **    1    »« 


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194  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting  [No.  171. 

The  circumference  from  cardia  round  fundus  ventriculi  measured  fire 
and  a  half  inches;  round  pylorus  two  six-eighth  inches.  Both  the  gall- 
bladder  and  the  spleen  presented  a  remarkably  elongated  shape.  The 
former  organ,  lengthened  pyriform,  measured  in  length  two  inches; 
ductus  cysticus  two  and  a  half  inches.  The  spleen^  tapering  to  a  narrow 
point,  was  half  an  inch  broad,  and  eight  and  a  half  inches  in  length. 
Costae  ver»,  nine  pairs ;  spuriae,  five  pairs  =  fourteen  pairs. 

Gbn. — MusTELA,  Linn4, 

PuToaius,  Cuvier. 

PuTORius  NUDiPBs,  Fred.  Cuvier. 
Stn. — Mustela  nudipes,  Desmar.  apud  Schinz. 

**  Pul^an"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
HAB.-^il/a/ayait  Peninsula, 
Sumatra,  Borneo. 
The  muzzle  and  the  soles  of  the  feet  are  pale  flesh-coloured.    The 
animal  is  said  to  inhabit  the  densest  jungle,  and  is  most  difficult  to 
obtain. 

MusTBLA,  Cuvier. 
MusTBLA  FLAYiGULA,  Boddaert. 
Stn. — Viverra  quadricolor,  Shaw. 

Marte  ^  gorge  dor^e,  Desmarest. 

Mustela  Hardwickii,  Horsfield. 

Martes  flavigula,  Hodgson,  apud  Gray. 

"  Anga  Prao"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

Java,  Sumatra,  Nipal. 
The  Malayan  individuals  diflfer  from  those  from  Northern  India, 
originally  described,  in  having  the  fur  shorter  and  less  dense,  the  head 
pale-brown,  the  neck  and  back  pale  yellowish-brown,  becoming  darker 
towards  the  tail,  which,  as  well  as  the  posterior  extremities,  is  black. 
The  anterior  extremities  are  greyish-brown;  the  feet  and  the  streak 
behind  the  ear  deep  brown ;  the  lips  whitish ;  the  throat  and  chest 
yellowish- white  or  ochreous;  the  scanty  hairs  of  the  abdomen  pale 
brownish. 


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1846.]  the  Mula^M  Penmsuia  and  Islandt.  195 

G«w. — LuTRA,  Starr. 

LxjTRA  Naib,  FVed.  Cavier. 
Stn. — Lutra  indica.  Gray. 

"  Anjing  Ayer"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula, 

China,  Bombay,  South  Mahratta  Country. 

Lutra  Barano,  Raffles. 
Stk. — "  Barang  Barang"  or  '*  Ambrang,"  Raffles. 

Lutra  leptonyx,  Wagner,  apud  Schinz. 

Lutra  Simung,  Schinz  ?* 

"Mumrang"  or  '^  Amrang"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  PenmnUa. 

Sumatra,  Borneo. 
The  young  are  very  playful,  and  soon  become  sufficiently  domestica- 
ted to  roam  about  the  house,  and  to  appear  when  called.  Its  voice  is  a 
short  shrill  whistling,  not  unlike  the  sound  of  the  cricket,  but  stronger. 
Its  food  is  not  confined  to  fishes  and  Crustacea ;  birds  and  insects  are 
equally  relished.  The  muzzle  is  hairy,  but  in  the  old  animal  the  hairs 
become  rubbed  off.  The  Malayan  individuals  appear  to  attain  to  a 
greater  size  than  the  Sumatran,  described  by  Raffles.  An  old  male 
measured  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  two  feet  eight 
and  a  half  inches ;  the  tail  one  foot  eight  inches.  In  a  young  male  two 
feet  and  two  inches,  and  the  tail  one  foot  two-eighth  of  an  inch  in 
length,  the  simple  intestinal  canal  measured  nine  feet  and  one  inch,  with 
a  circumference  throughout  of  about  two  and  two-eighth  inches.  No 
caecum.    Each  of  the  kidneys  consisted  of  ten  loosely  connected  glands. 

AoNTx,  Lesson, 

AoNTX  LBFTOKTx,  Gray :  List. 

Stn. — Lutra  leptonyx,  Horsfield. 
Lutra  cinerea,  Illiger. 

*  In  Schins's  diagnoiis  of  Luira  Simung  is  said  **  ungyibus  robustis  falcuUribus/' 
("die  Nagelan  den  Zehen  tind  stark  und  gekrUmmt")  which  if  the  passage  refers 
to  Lutra  lepUmyx,  Horsfield,  must  be  a  mistake,  at  the  original  diagnosis  expressly 
atatet  **  ungvibus  brevibos  sublamnaribos."  As  Schini  describes  £jiUra  Barang 
"  nngvibos  minntissimis  obtusia"  iMira  leptonyx  is  probably  meant,  and  thus  the  one 
species  is  mistaken  for  the  other. 

2d 


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196  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiiiag  [No.  171. 

Lutra  perspicillata,  U,  Geoff. 

Mustek  Lutra,  Marsden. 

Aonyx  Horsfieldii,  Gray. 

Lutra  Barang,  apud  Schinz  ? 

"  Anjing  Ayer"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

Java,  Sumatra,  Singapore,  Nipal. 
This,  as  well  as  the  two  preceding  speoies,  inhabits  numerously  the 
banks  of  the  Malayan  rivers,  and  all  are  at  times  used  by  the  Malays 
in  river  fishing. 

Gen. — Canis,  Linn4. 

CvoN,  Hodgson. 

CuoN  FRiMAVUs,  Hodgson. 

Stn. — Canis  primeevus,  Hodgson.* 

Chrysseus  primsevus,  Hamilton  Smith. 

ChryssBus  soccatus.  Cantor. 

**  Anjing  dtan"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Penin«ula. 
HAB.-*Afa/ayan  Peninsula. 

Bengal,  Nipal. 
Some  slight  differences  occur  in  the  Malayan  individuals.  The  infe* 
rior  surface,  the  inside  of  the  ears  and  limbs,  the  lips  and  throaty  are  of 
the  same  colour  as  the  back,  but  much  paler.  A  black  carpal  spot, 
like  that  of  the  wolf,  is  very  distinct  in  the  male,  less  so  in  the  female. 
The  young  animal  of  either  sex  has  a  faint  white  spot  with  a  few  black** 
ish  bristles,  situated  nearly  midway  between  the  angle  of  the  mouth  and 
the  ears.  Of  the  wavy  wool  of  th^  Buansu,  the  Malayan  wild  dog, 
inhabiting  a  tropical  climate,  has  but  a  little  on  the  inner  side  of,  and 
immediately  behind  the  ear ;  the  posterior  part  of  the  abdomen  is  almost 
naked.  The  short  bristles  of  the  lips,  cheeks,  throat,  and  above  the 
eyes,  are  all  black.  In  habits,  so  fully  described  by  Mr.  Hodgson,  and 
in  size,  the  Malayan  agrees  with  the  Nipalese.     In  a  young  male,  from 

*  Mr.  Ogilbj  coDfliders  Cams  Dukhunemis,  Sykes,  and  Canis  prmmims,  Hodgwn, 
to  be  identical,  and  apparently  not  different  from  C.  sumatrensis,  Hardwicke,  (Mem, 
on  the  Mammalogy  qf  the  Himalayahs,  apud  Royle,)  Colonel  Sykee,  on  tke  contrary, 
describes  C.  Dukhunensis  as  being  *' essentially  distinct  from  Canis  Quao,  or  Suma* 
trensiSf  Hardwicke/' 


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1846.]  the  Malayan  Pemn$ula  und  Isiands.  197 

the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  two  feet  eight  and  a  half  inches  in  length ; 
the  tail  one  foot,  the  intestinal  canal  was  of  the  following  dimensions : 
Small  Intestines,  •  •     6  feet    2  inches. 

Large,  ditto, . .  . .  • .         . .     0    „    10|^    „ 

CsBcum,        ..  ..         ••  .•     0    „      4      „ 

The  latter  intestine  is  spiral,  moch  widened  at  the  origin. 

Costae  verae  8  pairs,  spurin  5  pairs  »  18  pairs. 

The  Malays  mention  another,  black  wild  dog  ("  Anjing  dtan  6tam,") 
as  also  inhabiting  the  densest  jungle.  A  Hyena  is  also  reported  to 
occur  on  the  Peninsula. 

Mongrel  curs,  "pariah  dogs,"  of  every  description,  infest  erery  vil- 
kge,  but  apparently  not  uninhabited  places,  nor  localities  far  distant 
from  the  dwellings  of  man.  As  they  all  may  be  said  to  be  in  a  state  of 
half  domestication,  and  are  of  forms  very  different  from  the  wild  dog, 
which  shuns  the  human  presence,  their  origin  cannot  with  certainty  be 
traced  to  the  Malayan  Peninsula. 

Gbn.— VivKBRA,  Linn^, 

VlTBBaA  ZiBBTBA,  LiuU^. 

Stn — ^Viverra  undulata.  Gray. 

Viverra  melanurua,  Hodgson      'I 
Viverra  orientalis,  Hodgson         I  ^     j  /i         ¥  •  -. 
Viverra  civettoides.  Hodgson       >^^  ^^^  •  ^*- 
Undescribed  Civet,  McClelland  j 

"  Tanggallong"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Pinang,  Singapore,  Malayan  Peninsula. 

Southern  China,  Siam,  Bengal,  Khasyah  Hills,  Nipal. 
Judging  by  the  comparatively  few  individuals  observed  in  the  Straits 
of  Malacca,  this  species  would  appear  to  be  far  less  numerous,  than  the 
following.  Of  several,  the  largest,  which  was  a  female,  measured  from 
the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  two  feet  and  eight  inches ; 
the  tail  one  foot  eight  and  a  half  inches. 

ViVBBBA  Tanoalunoa,  Gray. 
Syh. — ^Viverra  Zibetha,  Lin.  apud  Raffles. 
"Tangalung,"  Raffles. 
Viverra  Zibetha,  Lin.  apud  Horsfield. 


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198  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiiing  [No.  171. 

Viverra  Zibetha,  apad  Fred.  Cuvier. 

ViTerra  Zibetha,  Lin.  apad  Schinz.* 

"  Mdiang  jeb6t"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peniiuiila. 
HAB.*-Ptfiaii^,  Singapore,  Malayan  Peninsula, 

Samatra,  Borneo,  Celebes,  Ambo3rna,  Philippines. 
This  species  is  readily  distinguished  from  F.  Zibetha  by  a  continuous 
longitudinal  black  band  occupying  the  upper  surface  of  the  tail,  the 
numerous  irregular  rings  being  separated  only  on  its  inferior  half.  (Gray : 
Proceed.  Zool.  Society,  1832,  p.  63.)  The  number  and  distance  of  the 
half  rings  on  the  lower  surface  of  the  tail,  vary  in  different  individuals, 
some  of  which  have  either  the  entire  tul,  or  the  anterior  half  or  third 
of  the  tail,  thus  marked,  the  rest  being  black.  The  very  young  animal 
is  generally  of  a  much  darker  ground  colour  than  the  adult,  and  the 
black  marks  are  therefore  less  conspicuous.  Under  certain  lights  the 
colour  appears  uniformly  black.  Viverra  Tangalunga  and  Zibetha^  how- 
ever similar  in  habits  and  general  colours,  neither  live  nor  breed  toge- 
ther. Placed  side  by  side,  the  living  animals  present  a  marked  dissimi- 
larity of  countenance,  which  although  obvious  to  the  eye,  would  be  most 
difficult,  if  possible  at  all,  to  convey  in  words.  The  female  has  three 
pairs  of  Mammas,  and  produces, from  one  to  three  young.  The  Malays 
of  the  Peninsula  distinguish  by  different  names  the  Zibetha  and  the 
Tangalunga,  but  as  they  suppose  the  civet  of  the  former  species  to  be 
of  better  quality,  perhaps  because  it  is  scarcer,  they  will  frequently  offer 
for  sale  individuals  of  the  latter,  exceedingly  numerous  species*  impos- 
ing upon  it  the  name  of  V.  Zibetha:  *' Tanggalong"  of  the  Peninsula. 
The  largest  individual  of  the  present  species  observed,  measured  in 
length  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  three  feet  and  oae 
inch ;  the  tail  one  foot  five  and  a  half  inches.  In  a  younger,  a  female, 
three  feet  five  and  a  half  inches  in  length,  of  which  the  tail  one  foot  and 
one  inch,  the  intestinal  canal  was  of  the  following  dimensions : 

Small  Intestines,        . .         . .         . .      7  feet  5  inches. 

Large  ditto. 0    „   9      „ 

Caecum,  0    „    1      „ 

Costae  verae,  seven  pairs ;  spurise,  six  pairs  =  thirteen  pairs. 

*  The  true  Fiverra  Zibetha,  Linn^,  is  quoted  by  Schins  under  the  denominations 
ofF.  bengtUentu,  Hardwicke  (?),  and  F,  melanura,  Hodgson. 


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1846.]  ike  Malaymi  Peminsuia  amd  Islands.  199 

ViYBBRicuLA,  Hodgson. 

VlVEBRICULA  MALACCEN8I8. 

Stn. — ^Viverra  malaccenais,  Omelm. 

ViTerra  Rasse.  Horsfield. 

Viverra  Chinda,  Buchanan  Hamilton  MSS. 

ViTerra  indica,  QeoSroj. 

Viverra  bengalensis,  Gray :  lUustr. 

Viverra  pallida.  Gray :  lUustr. 

Genetta  Manillensis,  Eydoaz. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

China,  Philippine  Islands.  Java,  Singapore,  Cochin-China,  Tenas- 
serim  Provinces,  Bengal,  Nipal,  Hindoostan,  Dukhun,  Bombay. 
On  the  Malayan  Peninsula  this  species  appears  to  be  more  numerous 
than  F.  Zibetha;  less  so  than  F.  Tungalnnga,  and  in  size  inferior  to 
either.  The  largest  observed  was  three  feet  four  inches  in  length,  of 
which  the  tail  one  foot  three  and  a  half  inches.  In  a  male,  measuring 
from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail,  two  feet  and  three- 
fourth  of  an  inch,  the  tail  one  foot  one  inch,  the  dimensions  of  the 
intestinal  canal  were : 

Small  Intestines,  . .         . .         . .     4  feet  0  inch. 

Large  ditto,      ..  ..     *••         ••     0„8      „ 

Caecum,..  ..  ..  ..  ..      0    „    Of    „ 

The  three  preceding  species  have  the  foUowing  characters  in  com- 
mon— The  pupil  is  vertical,  oblong ;  the  iris  of  a  rich  brown.  They  are 
arboreal  as  well  as  terrestrial,  preying  upon  the  smaller,  quadrupeds, 
birds,  fish,  Crustacea,  insects  and  fruit.  Naturally  very  fierce,  they  are 
scarcely  reclaimable  except  in  youth,  but  with  age  the  original  disposi- 
tion returns.    Their  voice  is  peculiar,  hoarse  and  hissing. 

Gbn. — Peionodon,  Horsfield. 
Pbionodok  gbacilis^  Horsfield. 

Stw.— Viverra  J  Linsang,  Hardwicke. 
Felis  gracilis,  Horsfield.     . 
Viverra  Hardwicke,  Lesson.  . 
Viverra  gracilis,  Desmarest,  apud  Schinz. 
Linsang  gracilis,  Miiller,  apud  Gray :  List,  and  Schinz. 


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200  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting  [No.  171. 

Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

Java,  Samatra«  Borneo,  Siam. 

The  ground  colour  is  buff»  and  the  dark  marks  are  of  a  deep  snuff 
colour,  inclining  to  black  with  purple  reflection.  Length  from  the  apex 
of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail :  one  foot  six  inches,  the  tail  one  foot 
three  six-eighth  inches. 

Mr.  Rappa,  for  many  years  a  dealer  in  objects  of  natural  history 
at  Malacca,  who  previously  had  been  supplied  with  a  figpcure  and  descrip- 
tion of  Prionodon  gracilis,  reported  in  a  memorandum  accompanying  the 
specimen,  that  it  had  been  captured  in  the  jungle  at  some  distance  from 
Malacca.  It  was  unknown  to  himself  and  to  the  natives.  At  first  the 
animal  was  fierce  and  impatient  of  confinement,  but  by  degrees  it  became 
very  gentle  and  playful,  and  when  subsequently  suffered  to  leave  the 
cage,  it  went  in  search  of  sparrows  and  other  small  birds,  displaying 
great  dexterity  and  unerring  aim  in  stealthily  leaping  upon  them.  Fruit 
of  every  description  it  refused.  Another  younger  individual  was  cap- 
tured about  the  same  time,  but  contrived  to  make  its  escape. 

Gbk.— Pabadoxubus,  Fred.  Cuvier. 

Paguma,  Gray. 

Paguma  leucomystax.  Gray :  List  ? 

SYN.-^Paradoxurus  leucomystax.  Gray  ? 

Amblyodon  auratus,  Jourdan  ? 

"  Mdsang  bdlan"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

Singapore,  Sumatra. 
In  a  single  individual  observed,  the  hairs  of  the  body,  limbs  and  an- 
terior third  of  the  tail,  are  greyish-yellow  at  the  base,  next  bright  rust- 
coloured,  with  the  apex  shining  black,  which  produces  a  mixture  of 
ferruginous  and  black,  the  latter  prevailing  on  the  nape  of  the  neck,  mid- 
dle line  of  the  back,  and  the  anterior  third  of  the  tail.  The  hairs  of  the 
vertex  and  the  ridge  of  the  nose  are  dark  at  the  base,  with  yellowish 
points.  The  large  oblique  whitish  spot  in  front  of  the  ear,  produced  by 
uniformly  whitish  hairs,  is  on  either  side  blended  with  the  whitish 
vertex  and  ridge  of  the  nose,  and  is  continued  down  the  sides  of  the 
neck,  forming  a  large  broad  arrow-shaped  mark.  The  orbits  are 
dark  brown,  the  face,  lips  and  throat  pale  brown.    The  long  rigid  white 


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1846.]  the  Makftm  PmUtuuh  and  Jakmds.  301 

wfaiskms  are  mixed  with  a  few  shorter  black  bristles.  The  feet  are 
dsrk  brown*  the  posterior  two-thirds  of  the  tail  uniformly  blaek.  The 
lower  sorliBuse  and  the  inner  side  of  the  extremities  are  pale  femigi- 
Boos.  From  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail :  two  feet  three 
inches,  the  tail  one  foot  eight  inches. 

Paguma  tkivikoata,  Gray :  List. 

Stv. — Viverra  tri?irgata.  Reinwardt,  Mus.  Leyd. 
Paradoxunis  trivirgatus,  Gray. 
"  Mtisang  6kar"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
liA»,'^Malayan  Pemntula. 

Singapore,  Tenasaerim. 
The  ground  colour  varies  from  yellowish,  or  brownish,  to  blackish- 
grey*  Fur  short,  peculiarly  soft,  silky.  The  dorsal  streaks  are  either 
continued,  undulated,  (the  central  nearly  always,)  or  composed  of  separate 
black  spots.  Some  indiyiduala  hare  a  short  white  streak  on  the  ridge  of 
the  nose.  The  largest  male  measured  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the 
root  of  the  tail,  two  feet  two  and  a  half  inches ;  the  tail  two  feet  three 
inches. 

Pakdoxubus  Musakoa,  Gray. 

Stn.— Viverra  hermaphrodita,  Pallas,  apud  Schinz. 
Viverra  fasciata,  Gmelin  ? 
Viverra  Musanga,  Marsden,  Raffles. 
Musang  bulan,  Raffles. 
Viverra  Musanga,  Var.  javanica,  Horsfield. 
Ichneumon  prehensilis,  Buchanan  Halmilton  MSS. 
Platyschista  hermaphrodita,  Otto    *] 
Paradoxurus  Pallasii,  Gray  I  .  o  i.- 

Paradoxurus  Crossii,  Gray  (  ^^^^  S®*^""' 

Paradoxurus  dubius.  Gray  J 

Paradoxurus  Musangoides,  Gray. 

Paradoxurus  typus,  apud  Schlegel. 

Paradoxurus  felinus,  Wagner,  apud  Schinz. 

"  Musang"  or  "  Mdsang  P6ndan,"  (when  the  tail  is  with  white 

point:  "Mtisang  Bdngkwang,")  of  the  Malays  of  the  Penin- 

sula, 
^AB.-^Pinang,  Singapore,  Malayan  Peninsula, 
Java,  Sumatra,  Borneo,  Timor. 


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202  Catalogue  of  Mamnuilia  inhabiting  [No.  171. 

The  ground  colour  and  dorsal  marks  of  this  exceedingly  numeroui 
species  are  liable  to  considerable  variations,  the  principal  of  which 
are  noted  by  Schinz:  individuals  occur  (probably  of  every  species) 
with  the  apex  of  the  tail  white,  with  elongated  white  spots  on  the  ab- 
domen, with  the  tail  spirally  twisted.  In  most  the  dorsal  marks 
become  indistinct,  or  invisible  in  certain  lights.  The  female  has  from 
one  to  three  young,  of  colours  similar  to  the  adult,  but  less  distinct, 
their  fur  is  softer,  somewhat  woolly,  mixed  with  longer  stiff  black  hairs. 
The  young  is  tamed  without  difficulty,  and  is  sometimes  kept  in  houses 
to  destroy  rats  and  mice.  The  Paradoxwri  are  in  habits  like  the  Cioets. 
They  have  an  elliptical  pupil,  vertically  contracted  by  the  influence  of 
light.  Their  glandular  secretion  is  of  a  peculiar,  not  civet  or  musk-like 
odour.  The  largest  specimen  of  a  great  number,  measured  from  the  apex 
of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  two  feet  and  half  an  inch ;  the  tail  one 
foot  four  and  a  half  inches.  In  a  male,  measuring  three  feet  one  and 
a  half  inch  in  length,  of  which  the  tail,  one  foot  four  and  a  half  inches, 
the  intestinal  canal  were  of  the  following  dimensions : — 

Small  Intestines,      .  •         . .         . .         5  feet  8  inches. 

Large  ditto 0    „    5     „ 

Caecum,        0     „     IJ  „ 

Costse  verse,  seven  pairs ;  spurise,  six  pairs  =  13  pairs. 
Pabadoxubus  (?)  DsEBTANUs,  Gray. 

Syn. — Paradoxurus  ?  Zebra,  Grray. 

Hemigalea  Zebra,  Jourdan. 

Viverra  Boiei,  Muller. 

"  Musang  Bdtu"  or  "  Sfingah  Prao"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Penin- 
sula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

Borneo. 
The  ground  colour  varies  from  pale  ochreous  to  buff,  and  the  dsrk 
marks  in  shape  and  number  scarcely  alike  in  any  two  individuals,  from 
snuff  colour  to  black.  The  species  is  apparently  not  numerous,  and  is 
celebrated  among  the  Malays  for  its  great  agility.  It  is  said  chiefly  to 
feed  upon  the  larger  birds,  such  as  the  Argus  pheasant,  which  it 
will  hunt  down,  following  its  prey  till  the  strength  of  the  latter  is 
exhausted,  when  it  falls  an  easy  victim  to  the  indefatigable  pursuer. 
The  slender  vermiform  make,  the  countenance  and  distribution  of 


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1846.]  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands.  203 

colours ;  the  serrated,  flattened  false  molars  ;  the  soles,  hairy  between  and 
under  the  toes,  and  slightly  in  the  centre ;  the  somewhat  removed  thumb, 
are  characters  by  which  this  animal  differs  from  Paradoxurus,  and  forms 
a  link  between  that  genus  and  PHonodon  in  the  same  manner  that 
Vmerricula  connects  Viverra  to  Prionodon.  The  largest  male  observed 
measured  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  two  feet ;  the 
tail  one  foot  and  four  inches. 

Gen. — Ctkooalb,  Gray. 

Otnogalb  Bbnnbttii,  Gray. 

Syn. — Viverra  (Limictis)  carcharias,  Blainville. 

Potamophilus  barbatus,  Kuhl. 

Cynogale  barbata,  Schinz. 
Has. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

Sumatra,  Borneo. 
The  very  young,  of  which  two  individuals,  a  male  and  a  female,  were 
found  with  the  mother,  differ  from  the  adult  in  having  a  very  soft,  silky, 
dense  fur,  mixed  with  longer  hairs,  which  are  black,  except  on  the 
chest  and  abdomen,  where  the  apex  is  silvery.  Over  the  tarsus  and  on 
the  upper  surface  of  the  feet  some  of  the  hairs  have  a  subterminal  white 
band,  dose  to  the  black  apex.  The  posterior  margin  of  the  ear  is  hairy 
and  of  a  silvery  colour.  This  animal  appears  to  be  of  rare  occurrence 
on  the  Malayan  Peninsula,  and  the  natives  are  consequently  not  ac- 
quainted with  it.  The  largest  male  examined  measured  from  the  apex 
of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  two  feet  three  inches ;  the  tail  eight 
inches. 

CTo  be  continued.  J 


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304 


Notes,  chiefly  Geological,  on  the  Coast  of  Coromandel^/rom  the  Petmaur  to 
Pondicherry,  By  Captain  Nbwbold, 
The  coast  from  the  mouth  of  the  Pemnaur  to  Madras,  is  a  sandy 
plain,  covered  with  reddish  sandy  loapn  which  occasionally  passes  into 
clay,  and  generally  rests  upon  the  hluish-black  marine  clay  of  the  Coro- 
mandel.  It  has  heen  already  said,  that  the  breadth  of  the  latter  stratum 
varies,  and  is  interstratified  with  layers  of  sand  and  reddish  clays ; — the 
whole  resting  usually  on  granitic  or  hypogepe  rocks  :  nodules  and 
masses  of  a  concretionary  sandstone  are  found  imbedded  in  the  sands 
close  to  lugh- water  mark,  Qft^A  perforated  by  Uthodomi.  Magnetic  iron 
sand  is  found  in  many  situations  mingled  with  the  sea. sand,  derived 
probably  from  the  hornblende  and  basaltic  greenstone  rocks.  This  iron 
sand  occasionally,  I  suspect,  contains  potassium,  and  strongly  resembles 
iserine  in  external  character. 

Farther  inland,  between  the  base  of  the  ghauts  and  the  sea,  extend 
thin  beds  of  laterite,  and  sandstone  closely  allied  to  laterite,  passing 
into  puddingstones  and  soft  shells  of  various  colours. 

The  puddingstones  usually  imbed  rounded  pebbles  of  white  quartz, 
ai^d  pf  the  older  sandstcme  which  crests  the  eastern  ghauts  near  Nag- 
gbery,  Udegherry,  &c. 

The  beds  of  this  sandstone  rarely  exceeds  three  or  four  feet  in  thick- 
ness, ap4  may  be  seon  near  Sri  Permatoor,  on  the  great  western  road, 
(vide  Notes  from  Mangalore  to  Madras),  and,  according  to  native  inlor* 
matiQQ,  in  the  vicinity  of  Parmaulnaigpel,  about  si^  and  a  half 
miles  to  the  B.  by  8.  of  Tripassore,  a  little  north  of  the  road  to 
Madras.  Their  continuity,  and  that  of  the  laterite  beds,  with  which 
they  are  probably  contemporaneous,  has  been  much  interrupted  fay 
aqdeous  denudation,  which  probably  took  place  while  the  Coromandd 
Coast  was  emerging  from  the  bed  of  the  sea. 

It  is  also  probable  that  these  sandstone  strata  were  once  continuous 
with  those  imbedding  silicified  wood  at  Pondicherry  and  Verdachellum 
in  south  Arcot. 

These  remarks  are  merely  thrown  out  to  elicit  farther  investigation 
and  research  into  the  age,  and  extent  on  the  coast,  of  these  interesting 
littoral  deposits,  by  which  we  may  be  enabled,  probably,  to  mark  out 
the  ancient  lines  of  coast  formed,  as  the  land  gradually  rose. 


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NoieB,  ckUt/fy  Geohgietti,  8fC.  205 

FiDin  its  flatness  the  plim  of  Goromaadel  has  been  usually  neglected 
by  geologists  as  of  little  promise,  but  I  trusti  these  remarks  will  prevent 
obsenrets  from  running  over  it  in  the  dark. 

The  sandstones  and  slate  elays  should  be  diligently  examiiied  for  or^ 
ganiii  remahis,  M  alter  all^  it  is  possible,  they  may  be  freshwater  deposits^ 

Of  the  sea  and  its  inroads  upon  the  land,  from  the  Penuaur  to  the 
mouth  of  the  CauTery»  the  natives  preserve  many  wild  tradition^, 
which  I  hate  httki  doubt  originated  in  a  sinldng  of  this  part  of  the 
ooast. 

In  ft  Mahratta  MS.  of  the  Mackenzie  collection,*  there  is  a  legend 
of  the  origin  of  the  town  of  Sri<^hari*oota,  on  the  south  boundary  of 
Telinghana,  close  to  the  west  shore  of  the  Pulicat  kke^  which  states  the 
submersion  of  another  town ;  the  ruins  of  which,  according  to  the 
MS.  are  still  to  be  seen  UttdemeAth  the  water.  Trisancu,  a  kmg  of  the 
Solar  race,  is  sdd  to  hate  been  founder  of  it. 

The  miracle  of  the  sea  Shell  passing  by  a  subterranean  passage  to  the 
Pandurangha  temple,  might  hate  originated  from  the  chrcumstanoe 
of  subterranean  beds  of  marine  shells  being  found,  as  at  Madras,  &o. 
inland. 

The  Pulicat  lake  is  &  lagoon  running  down  the  coast  from  Deraz* 
patumam  on  the  north,  to  Pulicat  on  the  south,  nearly  forty  miles 
long,  and  tarying  in  breftdth  f^Om  ft  few  yards  to  twelte  miles.  A  spot 
of  sand  ftonk  a  quarter  6f  ft  mile  to  fite  miles  broad,  running  parallel 
with  the  coast,  separates  it,  excepting  four  narrow  openings,  from  the 
Bay  of  Bengal.  Three  of  these  openings  are  at  its  northern  and  southern 
extremities,  and  the  other  between  the  hamlets  of  Ryadooroo  and  Day- 
uUum. 

The  lake  is  studded  with  numerous  islets :  its  inland  or  western 
shore  is  low  and  sandy,  furrowed  by  numerous  rills  which  run  down 
during  the  monsoon  f^om  the  sides  of  the  eastern  ghauts,  (here  hating 
the  local  name  of  the  Pulicat  hills),  about  eleten  miles  to  the  west- 
ward. 

The  lake  is  in  general  shallow,  and  its  formation  is  attributed  to  the 
sea  bursting  through  the  sand-bank  in  front  on  the  low  ground  inland, 
now  its  bed.    I  am  not  aware  of  any  other  ^  tradition  which  refers  its 
origin  to  the  historic  period,  except  that  just  alluded  to. 
•  Madras  Journal,  No.  30,  p.  86. 


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206  Notes,  chiefiy  Geological,  [No.  171. 

Madrae, — Granite  and  the  hypogene  schiats,  have  been  before  stated 
as  the  rocks  basing  the  more  recent  deposits  covering  the  level  plain 
of  Madras.  In  the  bed  of  the  river  (Adyar)  near  Marmalong  bridge,  and 
on  its  right  bank  at  the  quarries  for  the  old  breakwater,  in  the  park  of 
Goindy,  around  the  race  course,  it  usually  contains  but  little  mica,  being 
composed  of  grains  of  a  greyish  quartz,  with  white  felspar  usually  wea- 
thered and  earthy  on  the  exposed  bosses  and  blocks  in  which  the  rock 
makes  its  appearance.  Much  of  the  granite  near  the  Little  Mount  I  found  to 
be  pigmatitic,  that  is,  a  binary  granite  of  felspar  and  quartz,  without  mica. 
Laterite  is  seen  overlying  the  granite  at  the  breakwater  quarries 
before  mentioned,  and  I  am  informed  by  Capt.  Worster,  that  beds  of  this 
rock  occur  about  a  mile  north  of  Nabob's  Choultry  on  the  Poonamalee 
road ; — also  near  Tremungalum,  about  two  miles  N£.  of  Santivellore ; 
near  Vungada,  about  two  miles  S£.  from  Sri  Permatoor ;  at  Cotrum- 
baucum,  half  a  mile  north  of  Raja's  Choultry,  and  about  two 
miles  north  of  Balchitty  Choultry ;  besides  the  beds  at  the  Red  hills, 
about  eight  miles  NW.  from  Madras,  so  ably  described  by  Mr.  Cole, 
and  which  occupying  an  area  of  about  fifty  miles,  cover  an  undulating 
tract,  elevated  usually  forty  or  fifty  feet  above  the  general  level  of  the 
country.  Those  near  Sri  Permatoor  tank,  I  have  already  noticed  (vide 
notes  from  Mangalore  to  Madras.) 

At  the  bases  of  St.  Thomas'  Mount  and  the  Palaveram  Hill,  granite 
is  seen  outcropping,  and  it  also  forms  some  of  the  smaller  hills  in  the 
vicinity  of  Palaveram. 

Both  the  Palaveram  Hill  and  that  of  St.  Thomas'  Mount,  are  com- 
posed for  the  most  part  of  a  massive  variety  of  hornblende  rock»  in 
which  stratification  is  indistinct. 

This  rock,  though  often  entirely  composed  of  black  brilliant  horn- 
blende, at  Palaveram  is  usually  a  dull  olive-green  colour,  translucent  at 
the  edges,  and  appears  to  be  a  mixture  of  hornblende  and  felspar, 
with  a  small  proportion  of  quartz,  in  an  almost  homogeneous  mixture. 
This  rock  occasionally  imbeds  garnets,  crystallized  schorl,  hornblende, 
and  a  little  dark  mica.  A  little  to  the  SSB.  of  the  Mount,  near  the 
tank,  is  a  lateritic  bed. 

The  height  of  the  Palaveram  Hill,  on  which  the  bungalow  built  by 
Col.  Coombes  stands,  Lieut.  Ludlow  informs  me,  is  nearly  345f  feet 
above  the  plain  at  its  base. 


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1846.]  frfm  Fennmr  to  Pandicherry.  207 

Chinghput. — ^This  is  the  judicial  bead-quarters  and  capital  of  the 
Jaghire  of  the  same  name  ;  it  is  situated  about  tbirty-six  miles  to  the 
SSW.  of  Madras,  at  the  base  of  a  small  cluster  of  hills ;  the  loftiest 
not  being  higher  than  the  Flagstaff  hill  at  Palaveram,  and  composed  of 
a  precisely  similar  variety  of  hornblende  rock  (garnetiferous),  and  as- 
sociated with  binary  granite,  or  pigmatite. 

The  hornblende  rock  passes  into  light  shades  of  green.  It  has  been 
largely  used  as  a  building  stone  in  the  construction  of  the  fort,  which 
is  extensive^  and  said  to  be  nearly  two  miles  in  circumference.  It,  as 
well  as  the  town,  lies  on  a  stream,  which  falls  into  the  Palaur,  about  half 
a  mile  to  the  west,  almost  surrounded  by  this  hilly  cluster.  A  wet 
ditch  surrounds  the  outer  walls  which  enclose  a  citadel, — the  remains  of 
the  ancient  palace  of  the  native  princes,  government  offices,  and  bar- 
racks, &c.  Near  the  outer  gate  is  a  weaving  establishment :  and  on  a 
neighbouring  eminence  stands  the  European  burial  ground.  The  na- 
tive town  is  populous ;  the  houses  are,  for  the  most  part,  built  of  mud, 
thatched^  or  tiled. 

Chingleput  was  early  a  place  of  importance,  and  for  some  time  the 
residence  of  the  Hindu  princes  of  the  Bijanugger  dynasty. 

During  the  early  wars,  when  the  French  and  English  were  strug- 
gling for  empire  in  the  East,  the  occupation  of  Chingleput,  which  lies 
on  the  great  southern  road  to  Madras  from  Pondicherry,  was  a  point  of 
much  consequence.  It  was  captured  by  the  French  in  1761,  but 
retaken  the  following  year  by  Capt.  Olive.  It  was  here  the  English 
army  under  Sir  Hector  Munro  retreated  (11th  September,  1780)  from 
Conjeveram,  after  the  fatal  massacre  of  BaiUie's  detatchment  near 
Perambaucum. 

The  soil  in  the  vicinity  is  sandy,  but  in  some  places  overlies  a  stiff 
day  used  for  bricks  and  tiles.  The  cultivation  is  principally  of  rice, 
irrigated  by  a  tank  which  lies  to  the  east  of  the  Madras  road. 

Carangooly* — The  sandy  bed,  sometimes  occupied  by  a  muddy  torrent 
of  the  Palaur,  is  crossed  about  two  and  a  half  miles  S  W.  from  Chingle- 
put. It  is  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  bank  to  bank.  This  river, 
which  takes  its  rise  in  the  table  lands  of  Mysore  in  the  elevated 
tracts,  (their  water  sheds)  between  Colar  and  Nundi-droog,  pursues  a  S£. 
course  by  Baitmungalum  and  Watlaconda-droog,  to  the  Pullur  gap  in 
the  eastern  ghauts,  whence  it  descends  to  the  vale  of  Amboor.  Here, 
following  the  north-easterly  direction  and  slope  of  the  valley  which  it 


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208  N^te§i  chiefly  Qeohgi<mi,  [No.  171. 

^srtUizes,  it  wariuM  Htxe  hut  of  th«  eaBteifii  ghauts,  rdCeiting  itiftny  moun- 
tain tribttti^ei  to  th6  base  of  Ataboor-dtoog )  whenoej  turtiitig  ti^e 
iiDrth«rft  flank  of  the  RajabpolUum  and  Jatadle  hilis^  which  bound  the 
right  of  the  yalley,  it  dseapes  easterly  by  Palicoiidft  td  Vellofe.  Thenee 
it  crosses  the  Gamatio  increased  by  the  Poni ;  by  Arcot^  Wallajahbad, 
Conjeyeram,  and  Chingleput  to  the  Bay  of  Bengal*  into  Which  it  flows 
about  three  and  a  half  miles,  south  of  Sadras,  in  latitude  18^  28'  N. 
after  a  course  of  about  990  miles,  m^ked  during  its  prepress  through 
the  Caruatic  by  a  uarrow,  verdant,  winding  isone  of  Hch  v^tfttioii. 

The  road  from  Chingleput  to  Gctfangooly  ll^b  at  uo  gr«at  distukoe, 
for  the  firi^t  and  greater  part  of  its  course,  ftt>m  the  right  bank  of  the 
river,  over  the  plaiu  ou  which  the  town  imd  fbrt  of  Ctttaugo^  MaaAi  tc 
the  eastward  of  the  large  tank,  and  about  thirteen  miles  8SW^  from 
Chingleput.  A  few  low  hills  iu  thd  vicinity  mark  the  prolcmgation 
of  the  bed  of  hornblende  rock  observed  nt  6t»  Thomas'  Mount,  Palavc'- 
ram,  and  Chingleput^    The  prevailing  soil  is  n  dandy  loami 

Carangooly,  like  Chingleput,  during  our  early  wars  with  the  French, 
was  a  military  post  of  great  importauce,  though  uow  reduced  to 
insignificance.  The  gates  of  the  fort  Wtfe  blowu  opCU}  and  the  place 
stormed  by  Capt.  Davis  (January  a4th,  1781)  t  Hyder's  garridon  was 
700  strong* 

The  fort  wus  dismantled  by  General  Stu&rt,  in  February  1788. 

PermacoiL^^The  route  to  Piprmaooil  lies  oVer  a  pkin  l^ss  cultivated 
and  more  jungly  than  hitherto ;  varied  &t  Acherowauk  by  a  range  of 
hil^  running  for  two  or  three  miles  in  a  8W.  direction,  flankitig  the 
tight  of  the  road.  At  Permacoil  the  granitic  rooks  rise  above  the  sur^ 
face  in  clusters  varying  from  100  to  300  feet  high.  The  Ohief  mass  is 
composed  of  felspar,  quarts,  mioa<  imd  horubleude,  in  some  places 
veined  by  u  porphyritio  grmiitie  with  large  plates  of  miott.  The  mica  is 
sometimes  entirely  replaced  by  hornblende  in  the  same  mass,  and  would 
be  termed  a  syenite  by  many  geologists.  1  picked  up  a  few  crystals  of 
adularia  in  the  gravelly  detritus  of  a  weathering  vein,  aitd  som«  fiiie 
specimens  of  an  iridescent  felspar.  The  febpar^  which  prevails  in  the 
substance  of  the  rocks,  is  reddish,  and  the  mica  dark  coloured,  bat  it 
sometimes  occurs  in  rich  gold  coloured  scaled  and  plates. 

The  soil  is  a  greyish*  friable  loam,  passing  into  reddish  and  sandy, 
and  usually  rests  on  a  bed  of  kunker ;  below  which,  in  a  bed  of  sand  and 
gravely  water  is  found  at  depths  of  from  eight  to  fourteen  feet  £rom  the 


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1846.]  fr(m  Pewumr  to  Pondkskerry.  209 

»ar&oe«  The  surrounding  country  is  generally  rocky  and  jungly.  Rice, 
nggi,  ko?aloo,  and  bajra  are  the  staple  articles  of  cultivation. 

With  the  exception  of  two  or  three  fiuniliei  of  Falioare  and  Brahmins, 
spoakiBg  Telinghi,  the  inhabitants  are  chiefly  of  the  Pallay war  caste, 
and  speak  T^amul :  there  are  still  a  few  Mussulmen  left  here.  The 
town  is  situated  a  little  south  of  the  tank  bund,  at  the  western  base 
of  the  reeks,  and  is  said  to  contain  about  600  houses. 

The  remains  ol  the  fort  stand  on  a  steep  rock,  overlooking  the  town, 
about  300  feet  high,  ipid  not  commanded  by  any  of  the  sunounding 
heights.  Like  Garangooly  and  Chinglepiit,  it  became  of  importance  as  a 
military  post  during  hostilities  with  the  French.  In  1760  it  was  taken 
after  a  severe  assault  by  Sir  Byre  Goote,  who  was  wounded  here; 
beiieged  by  Hyder  in  1781  but  not  taken,  and  again  in  combination  with 
the  French  in  1782,  to  whom  it  was  compelled  to  capitulate  on  the  6th 
May. 

It  was  subsequently  bloim  up  and  dismantled :  but  in  the  succeeding 
war  with  Tippoo,  it  was  held  as  a  post  of  observation  by  a  company 
vuiar  an  officer,  which  was  cut  off  by  Tippoo  in  179K 

ilAtrteiHft  CkwUry.-r^Tlm  place  is  situated  on  the  celebrated  Red  hills 
which  run  to  the  rear  of  Pondicherry,  from  which  it  is  about  four  and  a 
half  miles  NNE.  These  beds  of  sandstone,  which  extend  probably 
tether  to  the  NS.  will  be  deeeribed  more  fully  when  speaking  of  Pon* 
dichenry.  They  overlie  the  Neooomien  limestcme  beds,  which  are  seen 
outcropping  nearer  the  sea  to  the  NB.  in  the  vioinity  of  Co^jimere, 
about  ten  miles  north  from  Pondieherry,  on  the  Madras  along  shore 
ntad,  &c.  which  passes  by  Sadras  and  the  seven  Pagodas-*^the  ruins  of 
Mahabalipuram,  or  Mavellipuram,  as  it  is  called  by  natives.  These  ruins 
lie  among  a  cluster  of  low  rocks  which  project  from  a  sandy  spit  run* 
nmg  down  the  coast  from  Covelong  to  Hedoor,  a  distance  of  about 
aateen  miles  in  breadth.  It  veries  froni  half  a  mile  to  one  and  a  quarter 
of  a  mile.  In  front,  dashes  the  everlasting  s«ff  i  in  r«ar  lies  a  salt  marsh 
of  upwards  of  a  mile  broad  in  some  parts,  and  oonununicating  with  the 
•oa  on  the  south  and  north  extremities  of  the  aand  hank  in  its  front,  by 
two  nairow  openings.  The  prin<»pal  sculptured  rocks  He  about  two 
and  three-quarter  miles  from  the  south  extremity  cl  the  bank,  almost 
abreast,  but  a  little  south  of,  the  CUngleput  hilla  ahready  described. 
In  the  monsoon  they  are  insulated  from  the  main^lnnd  by  the  inundation 
of  the  salt  marsh  in  their  rear. 


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210  Notes,  chiefly  Geological,  [No.  171. 

'  A  series  of  bare  granite  rocks,  naturally  of  fantastic  contour,  nearly 
a  mile  longhand  120  feet  high,  has  afforded  the  Hindu  artist  ample 
scope  for  the  exercise  of  his  chisel,  which  must  have  been  wrought  of  the 
finest  tempered  steel,  for  which  India,  since  the  dawn  of  history,  has  been 
justly  celebrated.  The  bronze  tools  of  the  Egyptians  might  answer 
well  enough  in  the  limestone  quarries  around  old  Cairo,  in  work- 
ing the  blocks  which  constitute  the  great  bulk  of  the  pyramid,  but 
would  be  of  little  avail  in  the  quarries  of  Syene,  a  type  of  whose  gra- 
nite we  find  in  the  redder  felspar.  Quaternary  granites  compose  the 
great  monolith  raths  of  the  seven  pagodas — a  mixture  of  red  and 
white  felspar,  white  quartz,  dark  mica,  and  h!omblende.  It  is  more 
than  probable  that  Indian  steel  found  its  way  into  £g3rpt  during  the 
early  traffic  that  is  known  to  have  subsisted  between  India,  Judaea, 
Yemen,  and  Egypt.  It  is  absurd  to  suppose,  that  the  sharply  cut  and 
deeply  engraved  hieroglyphics  which  cover  the  granite  obelisks  of 
Egypt,  were  done  with  chisels  of  bronze,  even  armed  with  corundum 
dust. 

Quintus  Curtius  informs  us,  that  Poms  presented  Alexander  with  a 
quantity  of  steel  as  one  of  the  most  acceptable  and  valuable  gifts  India 
could  offer. 

The  granite  blocks  here,  as  elsewhere  in  India,  are  subject  to  spon- 
taneous concentric  exfoliation  and  splitting.  The  globular  mass  ap- 
parently about  sixty  feet  in  circumference,  which  we  see  nicely  poised  on 
a  convex  mass  of  granite — the  pat  of  butter  petrified  by  the  god  of  milk- 
maids, Krishna — is  ascribable  to  the  first  process ;  and  the  rents  in  the 
sculptured  rocks— one  of  which  cleaving  the  monolith  pagodas,  was  as- 
cribed by  Mr.  Chambers  to  a  violent  earthquake — have  doubtless  been 
caused  by  the  latter  process  of  spontaneous  splitting. 

With  regard  to  the  firahmanical  history  of  the  seas  overwhelming  the 
ancient  city  and  rolling  over  its  ruins  at  the  fiat  of  the  God  of  the  Heavens, 
Indra,  who,  it  is  said,  loosed  th6  chains  of  the  ocean  and  overwhelmed 
its  wicked  ruler  Malecheren,  there  are  few  facts  that  can  be  relied 
on — except  that  pieces  of  pottery,  Roman  and  Chinese  coins,  are  occasion- 
ally washed  ashore  in  storms,  and  the  remains  of  ruins  and  sculptured 
rocks  are  at  a  little  distance  in  the  sea. 

From  a  multitude  of  enquiries  which  I  have  made  regarding  the 
encroachment  of  the  sea  on  various  parts  of  the  Coromandel  Coast,  I  am 
led  to  think,  that  the  shore  has  been  subject^  like  that  of  the  Baltic,  to 


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1846.]  frwm  Petmmtr  /o  Poitdieherry.  21 1 

undulations,  causing  the  sea  to  eneroadi  and  recede  in  different  parte. 
Marks  on  the  rocks,  as  on  those  of  the  Baltic  and  Caspian,  would  serve 
to  determine  the  question.  ^ 

FVom  the  inscriptions  hitiierto  deciphered,  nothing  decisive  has  heen 
obtained  as  to  the  date  of  the  sculptures.  In  the  3rd  report,  by  Taylor, 
on  the  Mackenzie  MSS.  section  9,  we  find  it  stated  that  in  the  Call 
Ynga,  Singhama  Nayadu,  a  zemindar  of  the  Vellugotiyara  race,  ruled 
at  Mallapur,  (Mavellipoor).  In  that  time  during  a  famine  many  artifi- 
cers resorted  hither,  and  wrought  on  the  mountain  a  variety  of  works 
during  two  or  three  years.  Ignorant  people  term  these  things  the  work 
of  Visvacarma ;  but,  (says  the  writer)  the  marks  of  the  chisel  remaining 
disprove  that  opinion.  Besides  Singhama  Nayadu  built  a  palace  on  the 
hill,  of  which  a  few  fragments  now  only  remain.  "  In  another  MS. 
we  find  a  Singhama  Nayadu  mentioned  as  son  of  Vennama  Nayadu, 
and  who  became  head  of  his  race,  and  whose  brother  made  successful  in- 
cursion against  Canchi  and  the  Pandya  kings,  9Bd  beat  the  Musul- 
mans." 

There  must  be  always  some  doubt  until  the  identification  of  this 
Singhama  of  the  Cali  Yug  and  the  Singhama  who  lived  at  the  time  of 
the  Mohomedan  invasion,  a  period  not  more  remote  than  the  7th  cen- 
tury of  the  Christian  era. 

Mr.  Walter  Elliott,  with  the  aid  of  inscriptions  he  has  lately  brought 
to  light  at  Idian  Padal,  two  miles  north  of  Mavellipoor,  in  old  Tamul 
characters,  one  of  which  bears  the  name  of  Tribhuvana  Vira  Deva,  a 
Chola  king — and  other  collateral  evidence — infers  that  its  rulers  were  in 
a  state  of  independence  during  the  6th  and  beginning  of  the  7th  cen- 
turies.'*' 

None  of  these  inscriptions  bear  the  special  number  of  the  year,  but 
Mr.  BUiott  mentions  one,  in  the  neighbouring  hamlet  of  Parajaskaran 
Choultry — in  the  same  character  as  those  of  Idian  Padal,  and  Varaha 
Swami — as  bearing  the  name  of  the  reigning  sovereign  Vikrama  Deva, 
and  the  date  of  1157  of  the  Salivahana  era.  The  other  names  of  sove- 
reigns that  occur,  are  Kama  Raja  and  Ati  Rana  Chanda  Pahava. 

These  inscriptions  referred  merely  to  grants  and  sales.  The  time  in 
which  Tribhuvana  Vira  Deva  ruled  remains  to  be  fixed.  But  even  when 
this  is  accomplished,  we  shall  be  still  in  the  dark  as  to  the  exact  date  of 

•  Madras  Journal,  No.  30,  for  June  1844. 

2f 


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212  NoieM,  chiefly  Geological,  [No.  171. 

these  singular  sculptures  which  resemble,'*'  as  Mr.  Fergusson  justly 
observes,  in  plan  and  design  the  Hindu  series  at  Ellora,  though  many 
of  their  details  are  only  to  be  found  at  Ajunta  and  Salsette.  It  is  evi- 
dent, however,  that  the  rocks  were  executed  under  the  direction  of 
priests  of  Siva  and  Vishnu,  as  no  traces  of  Buddhism  or  of  the  Jains 
are  seen. 

From  the  inscriptions  hitherto  brought  to  light,  I  coincide  with  Mr. 
Elliott  in  supposing  that  the  character  in  which  some  of  them  are  writ- 
ten. (Ghrantham  and  Nagri)  are  not  older  than  the  6th  century.  The 
freshness  of  the  chisel- marks  on  the  granite  on  which  Mr.  Taylor  and 
some  other  antiquarians  found,  in  part,  their  suppositions  of  a  still  more 
modern  origin,  (viz.  from  300  to  500  years)  cannot  be  relied  on,  as 
the  marks  in  the  quarries  of  Syene,  and  in  the  defile  leading  from  Thebes 
to  Cossier  testify. 

One  general  remarkable  feature  in  these  sculptures  remains  to  be 
noticed,  viz.  that  they  have  been  left  apparently  in  haste,  being  all  un- 
finished. Mr.  Qoldingham  mentions  a  tradition  of  the  workmen,  who 
had  emigrated  from  the  north,  having  suddenly  been  recalled  by  their 
prince  before  they  had  completed  them,  lliis  tradition,  and  the  similarity 
of  the  sculptures  to  those  of  the  Deccan,  are  in  favour  of  the  theory  that 
they  are  not  the  work  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  country,  yet  the  inscriptions 
in  the  old  Tamul  character  must  have  been  executed  probably  at  a 
later  period  than  the  others,  under  the  directions  of  the  Tamul  or  Chola 
princes,  or  priests. 

I  am  not  aware  whether  the  inscriptions  on  the  monolith  Rwiit 
have  as  yet  been  fully  deciphered.  It  is  probable  they  may  throw  light 
on  the  era  of  the  Ati  Rana  Chanda,  the  lord  of  kings,  who  is  declared  by 
the  inscription  on  granite,  (north  of  the  pagoda,  two  miles  north  of 
the  place)  to  have  built  it;  and  of  the  Kama  Rajah  who  founded  the 
temple  to  Siva,  according  to  the  Sanscrit  inscription  in  the  temple  of 
Ganesa.  The  antiquity  of  these  inscriptions  beyond  a  certain  era  may 
be  negatively  inferred  from  the  absence  of  the  date  either  Vikramaditya 
or  Salivahana. 

The  Revd.  Mr.  Taylor,  who  has  catalogued  the  Mackenzie  inscriptioDS, 
states,  that  he  has  not  met  with  inscriptions  with  a  defined  year  higher 

*  Journal  Royal  As.  Soc.  Part.  1,  No.  XV,  p.  88. 


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1846.]  from  Peimaur  to  Ptmdicherry,  213 

up  than  the  10th  centiuy*.  I  have  only  met  with  one  of  the  9th 
centory  on  stone,  hut  copper  grants  have  been  found  with  earlier  dates 
extending  to  the  5th  century. 

Pondicherry. — From  Murtandi  to  Pondicherry,  the  loose  sandstone  of 
the  Red  hills  extends  on  the  right,  and  a  sand-covered  beach  on  the 
left.  The  nature  of  the  substrata  at  Pondicherry  has  already  been  de- 
scribed in  the  notes  from  Pondicherry  to  Beypoor. 


A  Canal  Act  of  the  Emperor  Akbar,  with  eome  notea  and  remarks  on  the 
History  of  the  Western  Jumna  Canals.  By  Lieut.  Yulb,  Engineers, 
First  Assist.  W.  J.  C. 

For  the  following  translation  of  a  Decree  of  the  Emperor  Akbar« 
forming  an  interesting  Appendix  to  the  History  of  the  Canals,  given  by 
Colonel  Colvin  in  the  2nd  volume  of  the  Journal  of  the  A.  S.,  I  am 
indebted  to  the  kindness  of  Capt.  S.  A.  Abbott,  in  charge  of  the  Kythal 
district,  who  obtained  the  Persian  copy  from  the  parties  named  below, 
residents  of  Dh&trat,  a  town  on  the  southern  boundary  of  Kythal,  just 
at  the  point  where  the  Hansi  branch  of  the  Western  Jumna  canals 
enters  the  Chitang  Nalli,  in  the  old  channel  of  which,  deepened  and 
widened,  the  canal  waters  flow  to  their  termination  at  Bah^eri,  in  the 
Bikaner  territory. 


Translation  of  a  Sanad  of  Akbar  Sh&h  B&dsh&h,  dated  month  of  Shaw^, 
A.  H.  978,  [A.  D.  1568]  at  F^ozptir,  in  the  Province  of  Lahaur. 
Obtained  from  Abdul  Samad  and  Abdul  Mustakim,  Pirz&dahs  at 
Dhtoat,  being  four  leaves  abstracted  from  a  book  which  bears  the 
appearance  of  considerable  antiquity. 

"  My  Government  is  a  tree,  the  roots  of  which  are  firm  in  the  earth, 
and  being  watered  by  the  waters  of  God's  grace,  its  branches  reach  to 
Heaven.  In  acknowledgment  of  God's  mercy  in  establishing  this  great 
empire,  my  desire,  purer  than  water,  is  to  supply  the  wants  of  the  poor ; 


Madras  Journal,  No.  30,  p.  41. 


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214  A  Canal  Act  of  the  Emperor  Akbar,  [No.  171. 

and  the  water  of  life  in  my  heart  is  larger  thui  the  sea,  with  the  wish  to 
dispense  benefits,  and  to  leave  permanent  marks  of  the  greatness  of  my 
Empire,  by  digging  canals,  and  founding  cities,  by  which  too  the 
revenues  of  the  Empire  will  be  increased. 

**  God  says,  sow  a  grain,  and  reap  8evenfold(a).  My  desire  is  to  reap 
one-hundredfold,  that  my  crown  may  become  wealthy,  and  that  the 
zamindars  may  obtain  double  returns. 

*'  The  seeds  sown  in  this  world,  are  reaped  in  the  next. 

"  The  Omnipotent  God  gives  power  to  whom  he  pleases. 

"  The  following  is  the  best  purpose  to  which  my  wealth  can  be  applied, 
viz. — 

"  The  Chitang  Naddi,  by  which  Firoz  Sh&h  B^sh&h,  two  hundred  and 
ten  years  ago,  brought  water  from  the  nfilto  and  drains  in  the  vicinity 
of  8&dhaura(6),  at  the  foot  of  the  hills,  to  H&nsf  and  Hiss^.  and  by 
which  for  four  or  five  months  in  the  year  water  was  then  available,  has, 
in  the  course  of  time,  and  firon  numerous  obstades,  become  so  choked, 
tiiat  for  the  last  hundred  years,  the  waters  have  not  flowed  past  the 
boundary  of  Kythal,  and  thence  to  Hiss&r,  the  bed  has  become  so  ohok* 
ed,  that  it  is  scarcely  disoemibk  ;  since  which  time,  the  inhabitants  of 
those  parts  have  become  parched  with  Uurst^c),  and  their  gardens  dried 
up.     ^ 

'^  Now  that  I  have  given  the  district  (Sark&r)  of  Hiss&r  to  the  great, 
the  fortunate,  the  obedient,  ^e  pearl  of  the  sea  of  my  kingdom,  the  star 
of  my  government,  the  praised  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  sea  and  land, 
the  apple  of  my  kingdom's  eye,  my  son  Sultioi  Muhamad  SaMm 
Bah&dur(d),  (may  God  grant  him  long  life  and  greatness)  ;  my  wisdom 
wishes  that  the  hopes,  like  the  fields  of  those  thirsty  people,  may,  by 
the  showers  of  liberality  and  kindness,  be  made  green  and  flourishing, 

(a)  <*  The  umilitude  of  those  who  lay  out  their  substancet  for  advancing  the  religion 
of  God,  is  as  a  grain  of  corn  which  produceth  seven  ears,  and  in  each  ear  a  hundred 
gninB  "^Sale's  JTordn,  CA.  //. 

(5)  S&dhaura,  a  town  of  the  Amb&l&  diatrict,  about  twenty  miles  wes4  of  th^  Juana. 
The  river  flowing  past  S&dhaura  is  the  Markanda,  but  the  sources  of  the  Chitang  are 
only  seven  or  eight  miles  distant 

(c)  In  Haii&n&  the  springa  hav«  been  vaised,  aince  the  canal  waa  re-opaned,  in 
some  instances  as  much  as  sixty  feet.— Capt*  taker's  Report  on  the  Sutl^  and  Junna 
Canal. 

id)  Afterwards  the  Emperor  Jah&ngfr,  who  was  at  this  time  under  two  years  of 
age,  **  The  Sirk&r  of  Hiss&r  Firozeb,  ever  since  the  conquest  of  Hindoostan  by  the 
Moguls,  has  constituted  the  personal  estate  of  the  heirapparentof  the  empire"— iteiwc^ 


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1846.]  <w  /A«  Western  Jumna  Canals.  215 

and  that  the  canal  may,  in  my  tune«  he  renewed,  and  that  hy  conduoting 
other  waters  into  it.  it  may  endure  for  ages. 

"  For  God  has  said,  from  water  all  things  were  made.  I  consequently 
ordain,  that  this  jungle,  in  which  suhsistence  is  obtained  with  thirst,  be 
converted  into  a  place  of  comfort,  free  from  that  evil, 

"  Consequently,  in  the  year  of  the  Hijra  977,  my  Farm^,  bright  as  the 
sun,  and  obeyed  by  all  the  world,  went  forth ;  that  the  waters  of  the  n^Ms 
and  streams  at  the  foot  of  the  hills  at  Khizr^bid(e),  which  are  collected 
in  the  Sonb  river  and  flow  into  the  Jumni^  be  brought  by  a  canal,  deep 
and  wide«  by  the  help  of  bunds,  &c.  into  the  Chitang  Naddf,  which  is 
distant  from  that  place  about  one  hundred  kos(/),  and  that  the  canal  he 
excavated  deeper  and  wider  than  formerly,  so  that  all  the  waters  may  be 
available  at  the  above  mentioned  cities,  (Hansi  and  Hiss^)  by  the 
year  978. 

"  Behold  the  power  of  God,  how  he  brings  to  life  land  that  was  dead(^). 

"  Truly  a  canal  is  opened,  aud  from  the  source  to  the  mouth,  although 
the  zamindars  and  cultivators  take  by  cuts  abundance  for  their  crops, 
it  is  still  sufficient  to  meet  the  domand. 

"  Because  this  canal  was  renewed  for  the  sake  of  my  beloved  son,  in 
eompliment  to  him,  whom,  in  his  childhood,  I  call  Shekho,  and  because 
in  Hindustani  a  canal  is  called  Nat,  I  have  called  this  canal  the  Shaikh 
Nai(h). 

"  And  whereas  Muhamad  Kh^  Tarkh^  was  superintendent  of  this 
work  from  first  to  last,  I  have  conferred  upon  him  the  office  and  title  of 
Mlr-^b. 

[Here  follows  a  flourish  of  the  writer  of  the  Sanad.] 

"  The  following  vcqrses  have  arisen  from  the  ocean  of  my  heart  to  the 
shores  of  my  lips : 

"  Muhamad  Akbar  Ghazi  Jal^uddin. 

"  He  is  the  king  of  this  age,  and  equal  to  king  Jamshaid. 

(c)  Khizr&b&d,  a  Sikh  town  near  the  debouchement  of  the  Jumna  from  the  Hills, 
and  the  present  Delhi  Canal  head. 

(/)  Dh&tMt,  where  the  present  canal  joins  the  Chitang,  is  by  the  line  of  the  banks 
about  130  miles  (pretty  exactly  100  kos  of  the  country)  from  Khisr&b&d. 

(g)  God  sendeth  down  water  from  Heaven,  and  causeth  the  Earth  to  revi?e,  alter 
it  hath  been  dead.— iS'afe'^  Kor^,  Ch,  XVL 

(A)  This  title  appears  to  haye  been  very  short  lived.  I  am  not  aware  that  the  word 
"Hai  is  now  applied  in  this  sense  in  any  of  our  canal  districts,  but  1  learn  that  it  is  the 
Pai44bi  corruption  of  AEaddt,  and  is  comiiionly  applied  hy  the  Sikhs  to  a  viveror  water- 
course.   The  valley  of  the  Ghagar  is  called  Va^u 


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216  A  Canal  Act  of  the  Emperor  Akbar,  [No.  171. 

*'  His  throne  is  the  throne  of  Fariddn  and  Kai. 

*'  He  is  like  unto  Khizr,  and  from  the  waters  of  his  generosity  every 
thing  has  life. 

<*  He  is  sach  a  king,  that  from  the  canal  of  his  liberality,  the  garden  of 
the  world  is  green  all  the  year  roond. 

"  A  canal  by  his  orders  was  carried  to  Hiss^ ; 

"  For  the  sake  of  the  Prince  Salim  of  blessed  steps. 

"  A  canal  like  milk,  and  that  milk  full  of  fish  ; 

"  Its  waters  like  honey,  and  pleasanter  than  wine. 

"  The  king  in  his  great  kindness  gave  Muhamad  Salim  the  title  of 
Shekho,  because  his  Fir  (spiritual  patron)  was  a  Shaikh(t). 

«  He  consequently  called  this  canal  Shaikh  Nai. 

"  May  the  Bddshdh  and  Prince  live  for  ever. 

"  The  date  of  excavating  this  canal  is  to  be  found  in  the  following 
words : — 


4^^ 


**  Tarkh&n  obtained  the  title  of  Mir-^b  for  his  labours,  because  he  car- 
ried the  waters  of  the  canal  in  every  direction. 

**  As  long  as  the  new  moon,  like  a  boat,  sails  in  the  waters  of  the  blue 
heavens,  so  long  may  the  waters  of  this  king's  generosity  irrigate  the 
garden  of  the  world. 


"  Whereas  I  have  ordered  that  the  waters  be  collected  in  this  canal, 
and  that  it  be  made  so  wide  and  deep  to  Hiss&r,  that  boats  may  ply 
upon  it  in  every  part ;  it  is  my  will  that  the  superintendent  build  bridges 
and  bunds  wherever  nece8sary(A),  that  at  the  season  of  cultivation  a 
sufficient  supply  of  water  be  given  to  all  who  aided  in  excavating  the 
canal,  and  they  obtain  water  all  the  year  round. 

(t)  It  is  said  that  Akbar  having  had  no  child  who  survived  infancy,  made  a  pil- 
grimage to  offer  his  prayers  for  posterity  at  the  shrine  of  Mugfnuddin  Chishtfat,  4)- 
mir.  He  was  there  directed  to  seek  the  intercession  of  the  Shaikh  Salim  Chishtfa 
Sfkrf ;  and  shortly  afterwards  the  favourite  Sultana  was  delivered  of  a  son,  who  in 
honour  of  the  saint  was  called  Shekho  SaHm.  A  village  on  the  canal  near  Hiss&r 
bears  the  name  of  Salfma  Shekhopoor. 

^•^"^  hf  ii)  t  cf  ir  <>         S-*        ' 

(k)  The  only  old  bridges  now  existing  between  the  canal  head  and  Uansi  are,  that 
called  the  Gharaunda  bridge,  near  Karnal,  and  one  at  Safidan ;  both  massive 
structures  with  pointed  arches. 


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1846.]  on  the  Western  Jumna  Canals.  217 

"  Also,  that  on  both  sides  of  the  canal  down  to  Hisa^r,  trees  of  every 
description,  both  for  shade  and  blossom,  be  planted(Q,  so  as  to  make  it 
like  the  canal  under  the  tree  in  Paradise,  and  that  the  sweet  flavour  of 
the  rare  fruits  may  reach  the  mouth  of  every  one,  and  that  from  these 
luxuries  a  voice  may  go  forth  to  travellers,  calling  them  to  rest  in  the 
cities  where  their  every  want  will  be  supplied,  and  I  trust  that,  from  the 
blessing  attending  this  charity,  the  garden  of  goodness  may  remain  ever 
green,  that  the  benefits  of  the  blessing  may  be  incalculable,  and  that 
from  it,  I  may  obtain  eternal  reward. 

"  Thanks  be  to  God  who  has  enabled  me  to  do  this,  which,  without  his 
instruction,  I  should  not  have  performed. 

"  It  is  necessary  that  every  one  acknowledge  the  person  appointed  to 
this  work,  and  recognize  no  partner  with  him. 

"  Should  it  be  necessary  to  construct  a  bund,  or  any  other  work  on  the 
canal,  all  Shikkdars(m),  Ghaudris,  Mukaddams,  and  Rayats,  whether 
of  the  Khalsa  or  of  other  Parganahs,  will  give  the  necessary  assistance 
in  labourers,  &c.  and  delay  not. 

"  Every  Parganah  will  be  satisfied  with  the  number  of  cuts  made  by  the 
Mir-&b,  and  take  no  more,  and  on  every  occasion  abide  by  his  directions. 
He  has  the  power  to  punish  as  he  sees  fit  every  one  who  takes  water 
out  of  season ;  whoever  disobeys  his  orders  will,  after  investigation,  be 
.punished  as  an  example  to  others. 

*'  The  superintendent  is  particularly  cautioned  to  see  that  the  cuts  in 
every  Parganah  are  equally  and  justly  distributed,  and  in  this  matter  to 
consider  every  one  on  an  equality  ;  not  to  permit  the  strong  to  oppress 
the  weak,  and  so  to  act  as  to  please  both  6od  and  man. 

".  The  inhabitants  of  both  sides  of  the  canal  will  abide  by  these  orders, 
and  obey  all  the  high,  enlightened,  concise.  &c.  &c.  farmans  of  the  king." 


This  document  will  be  regarded  as  a  very  curious  one  by  all  who 
take  interest  in  the  past  history,  as  well  as  in  the  present  and  prospec- 
tive utility  of  the  canals  of  Hindustan,  suggesting  as  it  does  a  fact  which 
history  appears  to  have  forgotten,  and  which  we  have  not  ascertained 

(/)  Excepting  a  few  of  the  different  kinds  of  Fict»,  scarcely  any  old  trees  now  ex- 
ist on  the  canal  banks.  , 
(m)  S/ukkd&r,  a  revenue  officer. 


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218  A  Canal  Act  of  the  Emperor  Akbar,  [No.  171. 

without  Bome  degree  of  pleasure,  namely,  that  the  Jumna  canals,  as  a 
perennial  eource  of  supply  to  a  thirsty  land»  owe  their  origin  to  the  great- 
est of  Indian  princes. 

The  question,  however^  is  a  difficult  one  on  account  of  the  univeml 
prevalence  of  the  belief  that  Firoz  Shdh  drew  a  canal /rom  the  Jumna  to 
HissAr,  and  from  the  obscurity  of  the  accounts  of  the  various  cha&neli 
excavated  by  that  king.  The  only  books  bearing  on  the  subject  to 
which  I  have  access,  are  Dow's  Firishta,  and  Rennel's  Memoir  on  the 
Map  of  India. 

The  words  of  Firishta  are  as  follows  :— "  In  the  year  757,  between 
the  hills  of  Mendouli  and  Sirmoor,  he  (Firoz)  cut  a  channel  from  the 
Jumna,  which  he  divided  into  seven  streams ;  one  of  which  he  brought 
to  Hansi,  and  from  thence  to  Raeesen,  where  he  built  a  strong  castle, 
calling  it  by  his  own  name.  He  drew,  soon  after,  a  canal  from  the 
Gagar,  passing  by  the  walls  of  Sirsutti,  and  joined  it  to  the  rivulet  of 
Kera,  upon  which  he  built  a  city,  named  after  him  Firozeabad.  This 
city  he  watered  by  another  canal  from  the  Jumna. "(ii) 

The  seven  streams  I  cannot  explain.  "  Raeesen,  (though  this  name 
is  not  now  recognizable)  where  he  built  a  strong  castle,  calling  it  by 
his  own  name,"  is  doubtless  Hissar  Firozah,  or  "the  castle  of  Firoz." 
The  remainder  of  the  sentence  seems  almost  inextricable  from  its 
obscurity,  and  probably,  as  Major  Rennel  suggests(o),  contains  a  jumble, 
arising  from  the  multitude  of  excavations  made  by  King  Firoz,  and  the 
number  of  cities  to  which  he  gave  his  name.  There  appears,  however, 
no  reason  to  believe,  according  to  Rennel's  hypothesis,  that  a  canal 
was  ever  brought  to  Delhi  before  the  time  of  Sh4h  Jah&n. 

The  city  of  Sirsutti,  which  Major  Rennel  is  a  little  puzzled  to 
fix,  would  seem  to  be  Sirsa,  for  the  following  reasons — It  was  (Rennel 

.  fn)  Dow's  Firishta,  I*  305.  A  more  exact  translation  than  Dow's  of  the  passages 
relating  to  the  excavations  of  Ffros,  fnnn  a  copy  of  Firishta  in  the  palace  library 
at  Delhi,  is  given  by  Mr.  Seton,  Resident  at  Delhi,  in  a  letter  to  Government,  on  the 
subject  of  restoring  the  canals,  dated  September  lith,  1807.  But,  in  the  words  quoted, 
there  is  no  material  difference,  except  in  the  names  of  Hansi  and  Raeesea,  which 
Dow  writes  HoMt  and  Beraittn,  Bat  the  system  of  water  carriage  on  the  canals 
which  Dow  attributes  to  Ffros  in  the  following  sentence,  appears  to  be  a  mere  em- 
bellishment. 

(o)  **  It  may  probably  be  a  jumble  of  two  sentences,  which  relate  to  diffsrdnt  cities 
together.  The  rtoer  JSTera,  and  Firozeabad  may  relate  to  the  city  of  Ffroiepoor,  at 
the  conflux  of  the  Sutlege  and  Beyah,  and  the  canal  from  the  Jumnah  to  Ffroseabad, 
a  city  founded  by  FfroE  in  the  vicinity  of  old  Delhi.  «  «  «  •  Capt.  Kirkpatriek 
notices  an  obscurity  in  the  text  of  Firishta  in  this  place.->il«fiiie/,  page  74. 


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1846.]  on  the  Western  Jumm  Qmah.  219 

p.  76)  at  the  end  of  Tonor's  third  march  from  Bhatnor  to  Samluui,  and 
four  marches  diatant  from  the  latter  place.  Now  Sirea  lies  directly 
in  tiie  road  from  Bhatner  to  Samfina;  it  is  upwards  of  forty  miles 
distsat  from  the  former  and  about  eighty-five  from  the  latter.  This 
is  easily  reeondlsMe  with  the  number  of  marches  given,  especiaUy 
as  two  of  these  seven  are  stated  to  have  amounted  to  32  kos;  which, 
if  we  take  somewhat  under  60  miles,  the  remaining  five  marches  would 
average  14  miles  each,  and  three  such  marches  would  just  give  the 
distance  from  Bhatner  to  Sirsa.  Eirishta  also  states  that  Timur  having 
taken  and  pillaged  tiie  town  of  Battenize  (Bhatner),  and  after  that 
Smmsth  advanced  to  Fattehabad(p).  This  seems  to  fis  the  identity  of 
Sirsutti  with  Sirsa.  But  again,  Ibn  Batnta  relates,  that  on  his  journey 
from  Muk6n  to  Dehli,  after  travelling  four  days  from  Ajddahan,  he 
arrived  at  the  city  of  Sirsutti,  a  large  place  abounding  in  rice,  which  was 
carried  thence  to  Dehli.  And  from  Sirsutti  he  proceeded  to  HansiC^). 
Now  Sirsa  is  about  100  miles  distant  from  Ajodin,  (or  ¥iik  Patau) 
on  the  Gharra,  in  the  direct  line  towards  Hansi.  And  the  rich  valley 
of  the  Ghagar  might  weU  supply  the  abundant  rice  crops. 

The  canal  then  which  Firoz  drew  from  the  Ghagar  under  the  waUs  of 
Sirsutti,  is  in  all  probability  the  Cho]ra  nlili,  which  issues  from  the 
Ghagar  near  Mdnak,  passes  close  to  Krsa,  and  bears  erident  traces 
of  having  been  piurtially,  at  least,  an  excavated,  channd(f).  The  men- 
tion of  its  junction  with  "  the  rivulet  of  Kera"  is  indeed  unintelligi- 
ble. The  nlil6  in  fact  joins  the  Ghagar  again,  not  hi  from  Sirsa, 
and  a  short  distance  bek)w  their  union,  the  Revenue  map  shows  a  village 
called  Firoaabad.  I  should  be  curious  to  know  if  at  this  village  exist 
any  remains  of  greatness,  from  which  we  might  suppose  it  to  be  the 
dtf  alluded  to  by  Fiririita. 

The  remainder  of  the  senlenee  we  must  leave  alone.  Hissir  Flrozah 
might  indeed  have  been  watered  by  a  canal  from  the  Ghagar  as  weU  as 
from  the  Jumna(«),  but  certainly  not  by  a  canal  from  the  GHiagar 
passing  under  the  walls  of  Krsutti  or  Sirsa. 

(p)  Dow  II.  p.  4. 

(9)  Ibn  Batata,  p.  110. 

(r)  See  Gapt  Baker's  printed  report  on  the  Ghagar. 

(s)  An(l  probably  was.  For  the  late  M^or  Brown  traced  an  old  channel  from  the 
▼icinlty  of  the  Ghagar,  in  the  direction  of  Hiss&r.  This,  however,  the  natives  called 
an  old  bed  of  the  Sirsatti  river.    But  the  Sirsatti  has  a  gift  of  ubiquity  I 

2g 


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220  A  Canal  Act  of  the  Emperor  Akbar,  {No.  171. 

Major  Rennel's  words  with  regard  to  the  Hisa&r  canals  are  as  follows : 
*'  It  appears  that  previous  to  the  building  of  Hiss^,  Firoz  had 
made  a  canal  from  the  Jumna,  near  the  northern  hills,  to  Safid^ 
a  royal  hunting  place ;  for  the  purpose  of  supplying  it  with  water. 
This  canal  was  in  length. 30  royal  cosses  or  full  60  G.  miles;  and  it 
passed  by  KamlU  and  Toghlukpoor.  After  the  foundations  of  Hisa^ 
were  laid,  he  drew  two  principal  canals  to  it ;  one  of  which  was  a  pro- 
longation of  the  canal  of  Safiddn,  the  whole  extent  of  which  was  then 
80  (common)  cosses,  or  about  1 14  G.  miles.  The  other  principal  canal 
was  drawn  from  the  Sutlege  river  to  Hiss&r  Firozabad.  The  outlet 
and  course  of  this  canal  is  not  so  clearly  defined  as  the  other :  Capt. 
Kirkpatrick,  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for  the  information  concerning 
Hissdr  and  its  canals,  had  it  from  a  history  of  Firoze  written  by 
Shumse  Seraje,  soon  after  the  death  of  that  great  monarch  which  hap- 
pened in  1388." 

With  regard  to  this  Sutlege  canal  to  Hissar  Firozah  having  ever 
been  successfully  executed,  we  may  feel  sceptical.  The  only  line  within 
possibility  would  be  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Rupar  to  the  Sirhind 
n^&,  and  thence  crossing  the  Ghagar  into  the  Hiss^  district,  according 
to  the  general  line  sketched  by  Capt.  Baker  in  1841.  But  leaving  this 
and  turning  to  the  Safiddn  canal,  we  remark  that  in  Hodgson  and 
Herbert's  map,  a  branch  of  the  Ghitang  is  represented  as  quitting  the 
main  channel  and  passing  within  a  short  distance  of  Safiddn(Q.  And  this, 
guided  by  the  Sanad  before  us,  we  might  suppose  to  be  the  original  canal 
of  Firoz,  were  not  the  statement  so  distinct  that  his  canal  was  drawn 
from  the  Jumna.  Toghlukpdr  I  have  no  knowledge  of,  but  the  mention 
of  Kamid  points  to  the  existing  line  of  canal,  as  the  Chitang  is  ten 
miles  distant  from  that  city.  It  is  difiicult  to  doubt  this  evidence,  and 
yet  it  is  almost  equally  difficult  to  throw  overboard  the  clear  statement 
of  Akbar's  Sanad,  It  is  indeed  possible  that  Firoz  may  have  connected 
the  Chitang  at  a  much  higher  point  of  its  course  with  the  Jumna,  by 
a  cut  which  could  only  convey  a  supply  of  water  into  the  niM  when  the 
river  was  at  high  levels ;  or  that  a  canal  from  the  Jumna  was  by  Firoz 
Sh^  attempted  unsuccessfully,  upon  which  recourse  was  had  to  the 

(<)  **  Of  this  branch  all  I  am  aware  of  is,  that  in  seasons  heavy  of  rain  great  floods 
pour  into  the  canal  near  Barod,  said  to  be  consequent  on  the  destruction  of  the  earthen 
dams  of  the  ChiUng.— Co/.  Coltfin  in  J.  A,  S.  11.  106. 


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1846.]  oa  the  Wetterm  Jmnna  Canals.  221 

temporary  supply  derivable  from  the  Chitang,  and  as  the  latter  flows  for 
sixty  miles  almost  parallel  to  the  Jumna  and  at  no  great  distance  from 
it,  a  misrepresentation  thus  arose.  Otherwise  we  can  only  suppose  that 
Akbar,  in  self-glorification,  falsely  represented  his  own  renewal  and  re- 
pair of  lus  predecessor's  work,  as  an  original  enterprize  of  his  own. 

Singularly  enough  the  SoMod  itself  does  not  speak  of  the  new  canal 
having  been  fed  from  the  Jumna,  but  "  from  the  n&Uis  and  streams  at 
the  foot  of  hiUs  which  are  collected  in  the  Sonb  river  and  flow  into  the 
Jumna."  But  the  Emperor  speaks  of  his  canal  as  capable  of  supplying 
water  all  the  year  round,  and  the  Jumna  is  the  only  accessible  source  of 
such  a  supply.  Doubtless  then  as  noijr,  the  supply  of  water  crossed  the 
Sonb,  that  is,  flowed  inio  it  and  again  out  of  it,  so  that  the  canal 
might  with  truth  be  said,  to  be  drawn  from  n^^  collected  in  the 
Sonb. 

It  is  certainly  somewhat  singular  that  Firishta,  who  flourished  in  the 
latter  part  of  Akbar's  reign,  and  has  made  prominent  mention  of  the  an- 
cient excavations  of  Ffroz,  should  not  have  alluded  to  this  work.  But 
the  historian  residing  in  the  Deccan  had  probably  no  personal  know- 
ledge of  the  work,  whilst  contemporary  documents  would  be  less  ac- 
cessible than  those  relating  to  past  times.  It  is  true  also  that  the 
Hansi  canal  is  still  known  universally  as  the  Canal  of  Firoz,  and  the 
name  fondly  bestowed  by  Akbar  in  honour  of  his  infant  heir  has  been 
utterly  forgotten(tf).  But  new  names  always  adhere  loosely  among 
the  many :  DeMi  and  Agra  are  likely  to  outlive  the  remembrance  of 
Shdhfdhdudhdd  and  Akbardbdd,  and  though  the  canab  have  had  as  many 
names  as  a  Parisian  place  during  the  Revolution(v),  yet  Nahr  Ffrozah, 
the  first  name  known  to  the  people,  keeps  its  place  in  their  mouths. 

There  seems  no  good  reason  to  doubt  the  genuineness  of  the  Sanad. 
It  is  dated  in  the  month  of  Shawfl  A.  H.  978,  from  Firozpdr  in  the 
Sdbah  of  Lahaur.    Now  it  appears  from  Firishta,  that  Akbar,  on  the 

(ti)  Akbar  appears  to  ha?e  been  particularly  fond  of  this  kind  of  nomenclature. 
He  called  the  new  Sdbah  of  Kandfsh  Ddndish,  after  his  son  Daniel.— f'/Zenne/.j 
(0)  Some  of  these  names  are— 

Nahr  Ffrozah. 

Shaikh  Nai. 

Nahr  Bihisht. 

Fyz  Nahr, 

Sh&h  Nahr. 


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222  A  Canai  Act  of  the  Emperor  Akbar,  C^o.  171. 

birth  of  his  son  Marid,  in  the  first  month  of  978,  went  on  a  pilgrimage 
to  the  shrine  of  Muyinuddin  at  Ajmir,  thence  by  way  of  Nagor  and 
Ajodin  on  the  Sutluj  to  Lahaur,  which  he  qtiitted  for  Ajmir  and  Agia 
in  the  second  month  of  979.  So  that  he  might  well  have  been  at 
Firozpdr  on  the  date  g^ren. 

It  is  easy  to  concdTe  how  the  canals  fell  into  decay.    In  the  decline 
of  the  imperial  power,  when  the  irrigated  country  was  a  seat  of  constant 
war,  and  the  lands  along  the  banks  were  aiienated  among  Tarious  chiefs, 
any  system  of  conservancy  became  impossible,  and  the  works  most  ra- 
pidly have  been  mined.    The  Hansi  canal  was  the  first  to  suffer,  as 
early  as  1 707,  we  are  told(i9),  the  6ikhs  taking  advantage  of  the  weakness 
of  government  during  the  contentions  of  Aurang  Zeb's  sons  for  die 
empire,  converted  the  whole  of  the  canid  waters  to  theur  own  nae. 
And  this  at  once  reducing  the  country  around  Hiss^  to  its  original  ste- 
rility, forced  almost  the  whole  of  the  inhabitants  to  seek  a  more  favour- 
able soil.    A  hundred  years  afterwards,  in  1807  (as  we  are  told  by  an 
officer  on  Survey  in  the  Sikh  States  at  that  time),  there  was  not  a  single 
inhabitant  in  the  extensive  city  of  Hissfir(d?).    The  Dehli  canal,  or 
Ali  Mardin  Khan's  branch,  continued  to  flow  to  a  much  later  period. 
The  officer  just  referred  to  learned,  from  aged  zamindars,  that  the  oonn- 
try  had  been  deprived  of  the  advantages  of  this  canal  since  the  accession 
of  Alamgir  II.  in  1 763.   The  same  authority  informed  him  tiiat  for  pur- 
poses of  canal  police,  and  the  ready  repair  of  accidents,  a  Darogha  was 
stationed  at  every  three  or  four  koss,  with  peons  and  beld&rs  under  him. 
The  water  rent  appears  to  have  been  regulated  by  the  time  that  the 
outlets  remained  open.      1000  armed  peons  and  600  horse,  as  Mr. 
Seton  was  informed  by  the  son  of  one  of  the  last  native  superinten- 
dents,(y)  were  maintained  on  the  establishment.    According  to  a  pro- 
verlnal  expression  current  at  Dehli,  the  net  revenue  from  the  canals 
was  reckoned  equal  to  the  maintenance  of  12,000  hane{z). 

As  Colonel  Golvin's  paper  on  the  history  of  the  canals  contains  few 
dates,  it  may  be  worth  while  to  add  the  following : — 


(w)  Letter  dated  May  1807,  from  Lieut  F.  White,  Surveyor  to  the  Resident  at 
Dehli.    In  the  Office  of  the  G.  G.  A.  N.  W.  P. 
(«)  Ditto  ditto. 

(y)  Letter  from  Mr.  Seton  to  Govt.  11th  September,  1807. 
(«)  Ditto  ditto. 


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1846.]  an  the  Western  Juwum  Canals.  223 

CkrontUofify  of  the  Western  Jumna  Canals, 

A.  D.  1351, — Firoz  Sh4h  brought  a  stream  down  the  channel  of  the 

.    Ohitang  to  Hansi  and  Hiss^. 
Abwt  1468.-^The  watmn  of  the  above  named  channel  ceased  to  flow 

fbrther  than  the  lands  of  Kythal. 
A.  D.  1568.-«Akbar  re-excaTated  the  work  of  Firoz  and  brought  a 

supply  from  the  Jumna  and  8onb,  by  the  present  line, 

into  the  Chitang. 
Abemt  l626.-^Firom  the  last  named  line,  Ali  Mardfin  Khlb  drew  a 

canal  to  Dehli;  first  by  way  of  Goh&n&,  and  afterwards, 

on  that  failing,  by  the  present  channel,  passing  near 

Paniput  and  Soneput. 

A.  D.    1707. — ^The  water  ceased  to  reach  Hari^a. 
„       1740. — Ceased  to  flow  at  Safiddn. 

..       1753  1 

to     VThe  Dehli  branch  ceased  to  flow. 
,.       1760  J 

„       1817.-— Gapt.  Blane  appointed  to  restore  the  Dehli  Canal. 
„        1820. — ^The  water  again  entered  Dehli. 
„       1823.— Restoration  of  Firoz's,  or  the  Hansi  branch  commenced. 
„       1825.— The  water  turned  down. 
SMa :  November  ist,  1845. 


P.  8.— Oapt.  Abbott  having,  since  the  above  was  written,  famished 
me  with  a  copy  of  the  ori^nal  Persian  of  the  Sanad,  it  is  enclosed.  I 
have  also  since  ascertained  that  the  Ayin  Akberi  makes  no  mention  of 
Akbar's  having  engaged  in  this  work,  which  is  singular. 


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224 


Notes,  chiefly  Geobgkal,  an  the  fVeatem  Coasi  of  South  India. 
By  Capi.  Nbwbold. 

I  have  not  yet  had  an  opportunity  of  examining  the  Western  Coast 
from  Cape  Comorin  to  Beypoor,  but  by  specimens  received  thence, 
and  by  information  from  General  Cuiien^  l^terite  is  doubtless  the  pre- 
valent  surfitoe  rock.  General  CuUen  writes  me  that  he  has  found  a  bed 
of  lignite,  in  the  laterite  at  KarkuUy,  about  fifteen  miles  south  of  Quilon, 
in  a  stratum  of  dark  shales  and  clays.  At  Cape  Comorin  itself  are 
beds  of  sandstone,  and  shell  limestone^  of  which  a  good  account  is  adesi- 
deratum. 

CaHeui.'^  At  Calicut^  the  ancient  capital  of  the  Zamorin,  (a  cormp. 
tion  by  the  Portuguese  for  Raja  Samudri)  and  the  landing  place  of 
Albuquerque  on  the  shores  of  India,  laterite  is  also  the  prevalent  rock. 

The  modern  town  exhibits  few  traces  of  this  once  frimous  city.  Of 
the  old  fort  scarcely  a  vestige  remains  beyond  a  ruined  doorway,  the 
traces  of  a  fosse  and  counterscaip,  some  mounds  marking  the  southern 
gateway,  and  the  site  of  a  few  bastions. 

Another  fort,  it  is  said,  was  built  by  Tippoo;  but  this  too  has  been 
destroyed  ;  and  the  present  shoal  of  Calicut  was  pointed  out  to  me 
by  an  old  native  as  the  site  of  a  still  older  fort  overwhelmed  by  the 
sea.  Tradition  states  that  the  place  where  the  Syrians  landed  near 
Quilon  is  also  engiilfed.* 

The  modern  town  is  a  large  assemblage  of  garden  houses,  on  a  low 
sandy  sea  coast,  under  a  grove  of  cocoanut  and  jack  trees,  and  extend- 
ing a  considerable  distance  inland.  A  broad  street  runs  down  to  the 
sea  through  the  midst  of  this  scattered  town.  The  houses  flanking 
it  are  usually  contiguous,  built  of  laterite,  or  brick  and  chonam, 
whitewashed. 

The  streets,  that  branch  off  from  it  to  the  right  and  left,  are  narrow, 
winding,  and  dirty,  like  those  in  the  oldest  parts  of  Lisbon.  Here 
dwell  the  Moplay  and  other  native  merchants. 

On  the  beach  fiicing  the  sea  runs  a  row  of  warehouses  for  timber, 
coir  rope,  split  bamboos  and  other  marine  stores.  The  rope  is  manu- 
factured on  the  spot. 

*  Madras  Journal,  No.  30,  p.  146. 


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Notes,  chiefly  Geological,  Sgc.  225 

In  the  roadsteftd  I  observed  native  craft  only.  The  boats  used  for 
oommanication  with  the  shore,  though  composed  of  planks  sewn 
together  with  coir»  like  the  Massoolah  boats  at  Madras,  differ  from  them 
in  being  lighter,  lower,  and  flat-bottomed,  and  are  extremely  pointed  at 
the  stem  and  stem.  As  the  surf  here  is  much  less  powerful  than  on 
the  Coromandel  Coast,  a  boat  of  a  heavier  description  is  not  required. 

The  laterite  continues,  by  Mahe  and  Tellicherry,  to  Cannanore,  a 
little  north  of  whidi  it  overlies  some  carbonaceous  looking  clay,  and 
slate  clay.  Lateritic  iron  ore  is  found  at  Augadipur,  Satimangalum, 
and  many  other  places  throughout  Malabar ;  iron  sand  (magnetic)  in 
most  of  the  ghaut  streams.  Gold  dust  is  also  found  in  similar  localities, 
especially  in  Wynaad  and  Emaad,  and  other  places  elsewhere  specified. 

Payengal^, — Payengady  is  about  sixteen  miles  NNW.  from  Ganna- 
nore,  and  stands  on  the  sea  coast  near  a  back  water.  A  coup  dtceU  from 
the  rising  ground  near  the  village  presents  a  low  flat,  stretching  between 
an  inland  ridge  and  the  sea ;  and  which  has  all  the  appearance  (tf 
having  been  covered  by  the  sea  up  to  the  base  of  the  laterite  cliffs. 
This  flat  is  for  the  most  part  covered  by  marine  sand,  and  thinly 
scattered  with  houses  shaded  by  cocoanuts.  A  few  marine  shells 
were  found  at  the  base  of  the  difb  about  a  mile  inland.  Whether 
drifted  by  the  wind  or  conveyed  here  by  the  sea  under  former  condi- 
tions is  uncertain. 

The  hills  in  the  back  ground  stretch  out  like  promontories,  termina- 
ting abruptly  at  the  inland  edge  of  the  flat. 

The  laterite  overlies  granitic  and  hypogene  rocks.  Between  Covai 
and  Cautcutcherry  the  Nelisir  back  water  is  crossed  from  Malabar  to 
Circar  Canara,  or  from  Malayala  to  Tuluva,  where  Canarese  is  spoken 
and  Malayalum  ceases. 

Casaergode* — The  laterite  continues  the  sur&ce  rock  by  Hossdroog, 
Bekul,  and  Chundergherry,  to  Cassergode.  It  rests  as  usual  on  gra- 
nitic and  hypogene  rocks ;  which,  near  fiekul,  are  veined  with  quartz, 
and  imbed  garnets  and  amethystine  quartz,  fragments  of  which  are 
numerous  in  the  sand  on  the  shore.  There  is  also  a  black  magnetic 
iron  sand  derived  probably  from  the  dark  and  beautifully  crystalline 
hornblende  schists.  The  strike  of  strata  is  westerly :  the  dip  is  confused, 
often  vertical.    The  fort  stands  on  laterite,  capping  basaltic  greenstone. 


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226  Noies,  chiefly  Geological,  [No.  171. 

The  soil  on  the  rice  flats  is  a  rich  mould,  deposited  in  part  by  the 
rivers  in  their  passage  to  the  sea  from  the  ghauts.  These  bring  down 
a  considerable  portion  of  the  decayed  vegetable  matter  of  the  deaae 
jung  leson  their  banks,  mingled  with  Uie  detritus  of  granitic  hypogene 
rocks,  and  of  the  laterite.  When  lateritic  detritus  is  in  excess,  vege. 
table  matter  is  added  by  the  natives  as  a  manure.  Inland,  to  the 
NE.,  the  granitic  masses  of  Jumalabad,  Murbiddry,  and  CareuUa  rise 
above  the  sur&ce,  the  former  to  a  great  height,  almost  inaccessible  from 
the  steepness  of  its  sides. 

Mangalore. — Laterite  is  stiH  the  surfiMse  rock  as  before  obserred. 
The  numerous  back  waters  or  marine  lagoons,  which  lie  along  the 
Malabar  Coast,  are  formed  at  the  mouths  of  rivers  by  sand  bars  thrown 
up  by  the  antagonizing  forces  of  the  mountain  torrents  and  the  tidal 
wave.  These  sand  bars  are  liable  to  be  broken  through,  and  alter  their 
position  by  the  force  of  extraordinary  storms.  Their  beda  afford  ia* 
struetive  examples  of  the  manner  in  which  both  fresh  water  aod 
marine  exuviss  may  be  mingled  and  embedded  in  the  same  stratam. 
Numerous  sand  dunes  also  occur  at  the  embouchures  of  rivers  near 
back  waters.  These  tranquil  marine  lagoons  greatly  facilitate  native 
commerce  along  the  coast* 

Kundapur.-^khoMi  a  mile  inland  from  the  present  embouchure  of 
the  Kundapur  river,  stands  the  town  of  Barcelore,  the  supposed 
Barace  of  Ptolemy:  a  place  (d  great  traffic  in  former  tines  with 
Arabia  and  Egypt,  and  which  is  supposed  to  have  stood  upon  the  \)ld 
embouchure  of  the  river  before  the  land  gained  upon  the  sea. 

Vicramaditya,  or  his  dynasty,  is  said  to  have  ruled  2,000  years  at 
Barcoor  (Barcelore),  and,  afiber  him  Salivahana,  to  whom  tucoeeded 
Buddha  Penta  Raja  and  the  Bijanugger  dynasty.  A  human  aaerifiee, 
offered  up  to  increase  ito  oommeree,  is  alluded  to  in  the  Mackeiine  M8S. 

I  observed  near  the  old  Pagoda  at  Knndapur,  an  inscription  en  stone, 
which  opportunity  did  not  permit  me  to  copy.  Barcelwe  is  stiU  a  place 
of  great  native  trade. 

The  present  bar  at  the  river's  mouth  does  not  admit  vessels  of 
more  than  fifty  or  sixty  corges,  whidi  find  secure  anchorage  under  the 
lee  of  the  north  bank.  Its  entrance  was  protected  by  a  battery  built 
by  Hyder,  and  an  old  fort  now  in  ruins. 


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1846.]  on  the  Western  Coast  of  South  India.  227 

Honafwr  (OnoreJ  and  Sedaakepur. — ^Tbe  geology  of  Honawer,  or 
Onore,  has  already  been  touched  upon.  SuflSce  it  to  say,  that  laterite 
is  the  prevalent  rock. 

Sedaehegur  is  about  168^  miles,  northerly  from  Mangalore,  about 
three  miles  south  of  the  southern  fnmtier  of  the  Portuguese  terri- 
tory  of  Goa.  The  western  ghauts  here  advance  boldly  to  the  ocean 
and  affbrd  some  points  of  view,  which  truly  approach  the  magnifi- 
cent. The  back  ground  of  the  picture  is  filled  with  the  wild  moun- 
tain scenery  of  the  ghauts,  from  whose  forests  issues  the  Kali,  or 
Black  River,  to  the  Indian  Sea  in  the  fore  ground,  expanding  into  a 
broad  and  beautiful  lake  near  its  embouchure,  and  stretching  between 
two  bdd  promontories,  the  northernmost  of  which  is  crowned  by  the 
picturesque  ruins  of  the  old  fort  which  once  guarded  the  entrance. 

Across  the  mouth  of  the  river  runs  a  sand  bar,  over  which  at  high 
water  there  is  a  draught  of  about  two  and  three-quarter  futhoms.  Vessels 
of  about  forty  corge^  find  a  snug  anchorage  within  the  bar ;  and  boats 
of  frt>m  twenty  to  twenty-five  corges  pass  up  the  river  eighteen  miles 
to  Mallapur,  where  there  is  a  salt  depot.  They  carry,  up  salt-fish 
and  salt  from  Gokum,  and  bring  back  rice  and  firewood,  chiefly  for 
the  Goa  and  Bombay  markets.  Mr.  Oakes  attempted  to  make  this  a 
depot  for  the  cotton  shipped  from  the  interior  to  Bombay,  &c.,  as 
being  a  much  more  convenient  harbour,  and  nearer  Bombay  than  that 
of  Kompta.  But  the  project  failed  in  consequence  of  the  opposition 
of  the  Gujerati  merchants  of  Kompta,  who  were  averse  to  quitting 
their  Mamool  village. 

The  formation  of  the  ghauts  near  Sedashegur  to  the  south,  is  chiefly 
granite  with  gneiss  and  hornblende  schist,  penetrated  often  by  large 
dykes  of  basaltic  greenstone,  which  at  their  base  are  covered  partially 
by  laterite.    Their  summits,  I  had  no  opportunity  of  examining. 

A  little  south  of  Sedashegur,  between  Ancola  and  Chendaya,  the 
beach  of  a  small  and  pretty  indentation  of  the  sea  is  strewed  with  nodules 
of  a  stiff  black  day,  resembling  in  colour  that  of  the  lignite  deposit  at 
Beypoor :  the  situs  cannot  be  very  far  distant.  Iron  is  said  to  be  smelted 
at  Gopdiatta. 

The  soil  is  usuaUy  a  sandy  loam.  The  staple  articles  of  cultivation 
are  rice,  cocoanuts,  sugarcane  and  raggi.    The  latter  and  hill.rice 

2h 


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228  Notes,  chiefly  Geological,  [No.  171. 

occupy  the  dry  lands  and  cleared  sides  of  the  moantains  (like  the 
wheat  on  the  high  sierras  of  Spain,)  while  the  irrigated  flats  of  the  Tal- 
lies smile  with  abundant  crops  of  paddy  and  sugar-cane.  Yearly  the 
mountains  blaze  with  the  fires  of  the  clearers,  who  are  obliged,  like 
the  Malays,  to  shift  from  one  spot  to  another  as  the  soil  of  the  clearing 
becomes  exhausted. 

.  The  fort,  it  is  said,  was  built  by  the  Soday  Rajas  of  Sircy,  from  whom 
the  Portuguese  wrested*  it.  It  next  fell  with  Anoola  and  Gokum 
into  the  hands  of  Hyder,  and  eventually  into  those  of  the  English. 

I  observed  about  thirty-two  guns,  apparently  of  Portuguese  manu- 
facture, lying  about. 

At  present  (1840),  Sedashegur  (Siveswargur)  contains  about  600 
houses,  inhabited  principally  by  Concanni  Mahrattas  engaged  in  culti- 
vation, by  Christians  from  Goa,  Cojnarapaiks,  and  Mussulmans.  Three 
n\iles  north  commences  the  Kankana  region,  where  that  of  Tuluva 
terminates.  Near  the  junction,  the  two  languages,  viz.  Canarese  and 
Mahratta,  are  mixed.  The  old  inscriptions  on  stone  at  Ookurn  and 
other  places  /south  of  this,  are  mostly  in  the  old  Canarese  language 
and  character.  Some  of  the  earlier  ones  belonging  to  the  ninth  century 
of  the  Salivahana  era,  show  that  this  part  of  the  country  was  under 
the  sway  of  the  kings  of  the  Cadumba  dynasty  of  Bunwassi ;  and  those 
of  the  fifteenth  century  show  the  extension  of  the  Bijanugger  empire 
to  the  western  coast. 

Gokum,  about  thirty  miles  south  of  Sedashegur,  is  one  of  the  sacred 
places  of  Hindu  pilgrimage,  ranking  with  Tripati,  Ramisseram,  Jug- 
gemath,  Sondur  and  Sri  Sailam  or  Perwut. 

It  is  the  reputed  scene  of  Parasuram's  exploits,  who  raised  the  whole 
of  the  western  coast  from  the  ocean's  bed  to  the  base  of  the  ghauts,  and 
divided  the  new  born  territory  among  the  Brahmans.  Many  subdivi* 
sions  of  this  tract,  and  other  changes,  are  known  to  have  taken  place  at 
various  historical  epochs ;  for  instance,  the  tract  from  Honawer  to  6o- 
kurn  was  called  Haiga  ;  but  it  is  probable  the  three  provinces  as  they 
now  exist,  viz.  the  Concan,  (or  Kankana) ;  Canara  (or  Tuluva)  ;  Mala- 
bar  or  Travancore  (or  Kerala),  distinguished  by  the  Mahratta,  Canarese, 
and  Malayalum  languages,  were  the  original  geographical  and  political 
divisions  of  the  western  coast  of  India,     After  descending  the  ghauts. 


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1846.]  on  the  Western  Coast  of  South  India.  229 

with  the  physical  aspect  of  the  country,  the  vegetable,  animal,  and 
social  systems  undergo  a  striking  change.  A  new  language  strikes  the 
ear,  and  the  eye  is  astonished  at  the  sight  of  the  wives  and  daughters 
of  the  upper  classes,  walking  abroad  naked  from  the  waist  upwards. 
The  houses  of  towns  and  villages,  instead  of  being  huddled  together  as 
in  the  Carnatic,  are  widely  separated  in  gardens  or  desams  like  the 
Malay  Campong,  and  the  generality  of  inhabitants  struck  me  as  re- 
sembling Malays  in  their  habits  and  customs.  The  singular  right  of 
inheritance  enjoyed  by  the  sister's  son  is  precisely  similar  to  that  of 
the  Menangcabowe  Malays.  Sheep  are  no  longer  seen,  and  instead  of 
the  fine  oxen  of  Coimbatore,  one  sees  a  miserable  breed  of  black  cattle, 
hardly  larger  than  donkies.  The  peculiar  manners  and  customs  of  the 
various  castes  are  too  various  for  detail  here. 

Goa  and  Maiwan. — Laterite  covering  granite  and  the  hypogene 
rocks,  continues  from  Sedashegur  to  Goa,  and  probably  from  Goa  by 
Vingorla  to  the  north  of  Maiwan. 

At  Maiwan  gneiss  occurs,  and  a  bright  magnetic  iron  ore,  resem- 
bling that  of  Salem,  disseminated  in  grains  and  nests,  or  in  alternate 
layers  with  quartz.  The  rocks  off  the  coast,  washed  by  the  breakers 
from  their  white  colour  and  shape  have  the  appearance  of  a  boat  under 
sail. 

Mr.  Eraser  describes  the  overlying  trap  as  coming  down  to  Maiwan, 
but  I  did  not  meet  with  it  on  the  coast  till  1  rea(fhed  the  village  of 
Sarki. 

Sarki, — I  had  no  opportunity  of  examining  the  rock^  at  Ratnagherry, 
which  lies  between  Maiwan  and  Sarki :  but  the  contour  of  the  ghauts 
here  is  apparently  trappean.  At  Sarki  the  trap  hills  descend  towards 
the  coast  in  long,  flat-topped,  walUlike  promontories,  becoming  higher 
and  wilder  around  Sevemdroog. 

Bancoot  or  Fori  Victoria, — Th6  trap  rises  from  the  sea  beach  in  a 
high  steep  rock,  on  the  western  extremity  of  which  stands  the  fort  com. 
manding  the  entrance  of  the  river.  The  citadel  and  flag-staff  |ire 
conspicuous  objects  at  sea.  The  town  extends,  at  the  base  of  the  rock, 
towards  the  sea,  and  is  well  studded  by  cocoanut  trees. 

The  rocks  in  the  little  bay  of  Shiwurdin  are  dark  basalt  and  amyg. 
daloid,  imbedding  zeolites,  geodes  and  veins  of  chalcedony  and  quartz. 
At  the  water's  edge  the  basalt  is  much  honeycombed. 


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230  Notes,  chiefly  Geological,  [No.  171. 

The  outline  of  the  ghaats  in  the  back  ground  is  bold  and  pictur-  ' 
esque.    A  little  to  the  north,  the  mountains  of  overlying  trap  attain 
their  maximum  elevation,  which  never  approaches  that  of  the  peaks 
of  granite  and  hypogene  schist  farther  sou^h,  although  they  sometimes 
attain  4,500  feet  of  altitude  above  the  sea's  level. 

They  usually  rise  from  the  low  maritime  tracts  of  the  Concan  in  bold 
escarpments,  broken  by  steps  or  terraces,  to  the  table  land  of  the  Deccan. 

The  Cancan, — The  foregoing  observations  from  Goa  were  made 
as  I  was  sailing  up  the  coast  from  Sedashegur  in  a  native  pattamar, 
with  a  foul  wind  to  Bombay.  After  leaving  Fort  Victoria  the  wind 
became  fair,  and  consequently  I  had  no  longer  any  opportunity  of 
going  ashore  and  examining  the  Concan  between  Bombay  and  Ban. 
coot.  The  ghauts  in  this  region,  we  know,  are  of  trap  from  the  obser- 
vations of  Colonel  Sykes.  Their  long  horizontal  outline,  varied  occa. 
sionally  by  truncated  conoidal  peaks,  are  characters  in  which  their  na- 
ture  is  plainly  written. 

The  rock  composing  the  Concan  is  chiefly  trap.  My  lamented  fnend 
Malcolmson  found  beds  of  sandstone  at  Atchera,  dipping  at  a  consi- 
derable  angle  to  the  NW. 

As  the  existence  of  fossiliferous  deposits  is  by  no  means  improbable 
on  this  low  maritime  tract,  through  the  rocky  fissures  of  which  many 
hot  springs  find  vent,  and  which  have  not  yet  been  fully  examined, 
I  should  strongly  recommend  its  minute  geological  exploration. 

Bombay, — The  geology  of  this  and  the  neighbouring  beautiful  islets 
of  Elephanta,  Salsette,  &c.  has  been  so  well  and  minutely  described 
by  Dr.  Thomson,  that  I  shall  content  myself  with  observing  that  th^ 
>  are  all  of  the  overlying  trap  formation,  and  the  rocks  composing  them 
embrace  every  variety  from  dark  basalt  to  light  coloured  amygdaloids 
and  wackes,  from  compact  to  crystalline  and  porphjrritic. 

I  must  not  however  omit  to  mention  a  curious  variety  termed 
while  basalt,  of  which  the  base  of  Sir  John  Malcolm's  statue  at 
Bombay,  if  I  recollect  right,  is  composed.  Externally  it  often  re- 
sembles a  soft  felspathic  granular  sandstone,  white,  with  a  slight  shade 
of  yellow,  but  it  is  clearly  seen  passing  into  a  true,  rough,  crystalline 
trachyte. 

It  is  dug  at  the  quarries  of  iSalsette,  and  composes  a  large  part  of 
the  island;  some  of  the  granular  varieties  are  extremely  hard,  and 


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1846.]  on  the  Western  Coast  of  South  India.  231 

take  a  fine  polish.  Crystals  of  glassy  felspar  occur  imbedded  when 
the  rock  passes  into  trachyte  porphyry ;  but  I  have  never  seen  it  with 
scales  of  mica,  assimilating  granite,  like  th^  trachytes  of  Smyrna  and 
Mitylene.  In  some  places  it  has  the  appearance  of  a  stratified  sand, 
stone,  and  in  others  there  can  be  no  doubt  of  its  volcanic  origin.  In 
one  place  it  is  felspathic;  in  the  other  imbedding  rock  crystal,  and 
globules  of  quarts. 

As  this  curious  rock  is  without  parallel  in  India,  a  detailed  descrip- 
tion  of  its  relations  with  the  contiguous  trap,  and  a  series  of  specimens 
exhibiting  the  dilBerent  mineral  alterations  the  rock  undergoes  in 
various  parts  of  its  mass  from  the  line  of  contact  to  its  most  dis- 
tant point  from  the  trap,  would  be.  highly  interesting  and  instructive. 
It  18  probable  that  the  molten  mass  of  trap  and  trachyte  may  have 
here  invaded  the  sandy  bed  of  a  lake  or  sea,  and  thus  become 
blended. 

The  amygdaloid  of  Bombay,  among  other  beautiful  specimens  of 
the  zeolite  family,  contains  that  rather  rare  mineral  (in  Europe), 
apophyllite.  Chalcedony  in  most  of  it9  varieties,  and  beautiful  agates, 
are  common. 

The  temperature  of  sea  water  in  the  harbour  of  Bombay  in  April 
was  87^  Fahr.  a  foot  below  the  surfiice.  The  temperature  of  air  in  the 
shade  was  85''  the  time  of  observation  3  p.  m. 

The  temperature  of  water  in  a  well  at  Bombay,  20  feet  deep,  was 
82'' ;  (which  approaches  the  mean  temperature  of  the  place) :  the  tem- 
perature  of  air  in  the  shade  was  86^ ;  time,  noon ;  month,  April.  The 
temperature  of  the  cave  of  Elephanta — same  month— time,  noon — 
was  85^ ;  the  temperature  of  the  water  of  a  well  in  Elephanta  was 
750.  5' — temperature  of  air  in  the  shade  at  the  moment  was  8^** ;  time 
of  observation,  noon. 


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232  [No.  171. 


The  Coins  of  Arakan  : — The  Historical  Coins,  by  Capt,  A.  P.  Phatbb, 
Principal  Asst,  Commr,  Arakan, 

The  art  of  coining  appears  to  have  been  introduced  among  the  Ara- 
kanese  only  at  a  very  late  period.  Their  oldest  legendary  coins  were 
suggested  to  them  by  the  coined  money  of  the  Mahumudan  sovereigns 
of  Bengal.  I  say  their  legendary  coins,  since  it  is  probable  that  a  medal 
similar  to  that  described,  and  so  happily  explained  by  Ideut.  Latter 
(in  the  Jour.  As.  Soc.  Vol.  XIII.  p.  571)  was  struck  in  Arakan  at  a 
period  much  earlier  than  were  the  coins  now  to  be  noticed.  It  is  indeed , 
certain,  that  to  coin  money  is  a  but  lately  known  art  among  the  Bur- 
mese race.  The  term  in  their  language  for  coin, — ding-ga, — seems  not  to 
be  a  native  word,  but  adopted  from  the  Hindooee,  tu-ka.  In  ^e  domi- 
nions of  Ava,  coined  money  is  still  unknown ;  payments  are  made  by 
silver  ingots  weighed  out  as  required. 

The  Arakanese  sovereigns  no  doubt  wished  to  follow  the  kingly  prac- 
tice existing  in  Bengal,  of  coins  being  struck  in  the  name  of  the  reign- 
ing monarch.  We  learn  from  their  annals  that  about  the  middle  of  the 
fifteenth  century  of  the  Christian  era,  they  conquered  Bengal  as  far  as 
Chittagong,  of  which  they  kept  possession  for  about  a  century.  It  was 
then,  that  they  first  struck  legendary  coins.  On  the  obverse  of  the  earliest 
of  these,  we  find  the  date  and  the  king's  nances  written  in  the  Burmese 
character,  together  with  barbarous  attempts  at  Mahumudan  names  and 
titles ;  these  they  assumed  as  being  successors  of  Mussulman  kings,  or  as 
being  anxious  to  imitate  the  prevailing  fashion  of  India.  Indeed,  there  is 
some  reason  to  believe  that  Ba-tsau-phyii,  a  Bdddhist  king  like  the  rest, 
who  ascended  the  throne  A.  D.  1459,  obtained  among  his  own  subjects 
the  epithet  kalamashd,  (the  son  of  the  Kalama)  from  havings  issued  a 
coin  with  the  Mahumudan  kulima  inscribed  upon  it.  The  reverse  of 
most  of  the  earlier  coins,  contains  unintelligible  Persian  and  Nagri  in- 
criptions.  The  Arakanese  kings  were  frequently  known  to  their  subjects 
by  names  and  titles  different  from  those  which  appear  on  their  coins. 
This  circumstance  will  explain  a  discrepancy  observable  between  the  coin- 
names  of  kings  given  here,  and  the  sovereigns  of  the  same  period  found 
in  the  list  of  Arakanese  kings,  published  in  the  Society's  Jour.  Vol.  XIII. 
page  50.  The  coin-date  generally  coincides  with  the  year  of  the  king's 


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1 846]  T^e  HistoriaU  Coitu  of  Arakan.  233 

accession  to  the  thione ;  but  in  some  instances  it  does  not :  more  than 
one  coinage  having  occasionally  been  issued  in  the  same  reign. 

Old  coins  are  frequently  discovered  buried  in  the  ground  in  various 
parts  of  Arakan.  Several  valuable  ones  thus  found  have  been  kindly 
sent  me  by  Major  David  Williams,  Principal  Assistant  Commissioner 
(then)  of  Ramree.  Many  have  also  been  met  with,  hung  as  charms  or 
ornaments  round  children's  necks,  which  have  been  retained  in  families 
for  several  generations.  At  present  I  have  the  means  of  describing  only 
a  few  of  those  I  once  possessed ;  the  greater  portion  having  been  lost 
when  the  Society's  cabinet  was  robbed  some  months  ago.  All  those 
now  described  are  of  silver,  for  though  a  few  of  mixed  metal  are  to  be 
met  with,  their  legends  do  not  differ  from  these. 

The  oldest  Arakanese  coin  I  now  possess  is  that  marked  No.  1.  The 
obverse  is  as  follows  : — 

qq^     Qo6g^  ooo(S  ^Gp8gc8ca)oo85og|o 

Tbanslatiok. 

963.  Lord  of  the  White  Elephant,  Nard-dib-ba-di  Tshau-Um  Shyd, 

Here  963  in  the  Arakanese  era  is  equivalent  to  A.  D.  1601.  Sard- 
dih-ba-di  is  a  Pali  title  signifying  I  believe  "  Ruler  of  men ;"  while 
Tshaulim  Shyd,  is  nothing  more  than  a  barbarous  attempt  at  the  Mahu- 
mudan  title  Zalim  Shah  I  The  reverse  of  this  coin  bears  some  unintel- 
ligible  compound  of  Persian  and  Nagri  letters.  The  above  king  stands 
No.  17  in  the  list  of  Arakanese  sovereigns  of  the  Myouh-il  dynasty,  in 
the  Jour.  As.  Soc.  1844,  p.  50,  under  the  name  of  Meng-Rd-dzd-gyL  I 
long  considered  the  date  of  this  coin  to  be  863,  the  first  figure  on  that 
I  possess  being  imperfect,  and  the  date  863  corresponding  with  the 
accession  of  a  king  styled  Meng  Rd-dzd  in  the  above  mentioned  list 
No.  8.  However,  on  seeing  a  duplicate  of  this  coin  in  the  possession  of 
Lieutenant  Fytche,  I  was  struck  with  the  resemblance  of  the  first  figure 
to  a  9  and  looking  into  the  Rd-dzd-weng  or  Arakanese  history,  I  found 
Meng»Rd'dzd-gyi  mentioned  with  the  Pali  and  Mahumudan  titles  (the 
latter  differing  slightly  in  the  spelling)  as  inscribed  on  the  coin.  The 
coin  must  have  been  struck  in  the  eighth  year  of  his  reign. 


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234  The  Historical  Coins  of  Arakan.  [No.  171. 

No.  2.  The  next  coin  is  that  of  the  son  and  succeBsor  of  the  preced- 
ing  king ;  the  obverse  bears  the  following  date  and  inscriptioii : — 

e^q     Qo6g^  odq6  OG[ogcpG)0  gcogjD^o^o 

Tbanslation. 
974.  Lord  of  the  White  Elephant,  Wa-ra-dham^ma  Rd-dzd 
Oo'Shyoung-shya, 
This  date  is  equivalent  to  A.  D.  1612.      Wa-ra-dham^ma  Rd-dzd  is 
a  Pali  title  said  to  signify  "  Excellent-law-observing  king ;"  while  in 
Oo'Shyoung'Shya  we  have  another  instance  of  the  barbarous  adoption  of 
a  Mahumudan  name,  it  appearing  to  stand  for  Hoosein  Shah !    This 
king  was  commonly  known  to  his  subjects  by  the  name  Meng  khamoung,* 
The  reverse  of  this  coin  bears  like  the  preceding  one  an  illegible  in- 
scription in  Persian  and  Nagree. 

No.  3.  The  obverse  of  this  coin  has  the  following  date  and  inscription:— 

goq     3o6g^  odq6  Qo6f  coo6  c8£[cqogGpG»o 

Translation. 

984.  Lord  of  the  White  Elephant,  Lord  of  the  Red  Elephant, 

m-ri'thU'dham-ma  Rd^dzd. 

This  date  is  equivalent  to  A.  D.  1622.    There  is  no  Mahumudan 

name  on  this  coin.    The  Pali  title  is  translated  "  Excellent  righteous 

king.'*    On  the  reverse  is  an  illegible  Persian  and  Nagree  inscription. 

No.  4.  This  coin,  and  all  those  posterior  to  it,  have  the  same  inscrip- 
tion on  the  obverse  and  reverse.  On  this  one  the  date  and  inscription 
are  as  follows  : — 

0000     s)0(S^  odqS  3o6?  odqS  ^Q\pS^ 

Translation. 

1000.  Lord  of  the  White  Elephant,  Lord  of  the  Red  Elephant, 

Na-ra^ba-di'-gyi, 

This  date  answers  to^.  D.  1638,  the  very  year  in  which  the  Historj 

of  Bengal  informs  us  that  the  "  Mugh  Chief  who  held  Chittagong  on  the 

*  Khamounff,  in  Bunnese  writing  signifies,  the  '^canopyof  state"— being  part  of 
the  regalia  of  their  Kings.  It  is  probable  that  this  title  Meng  Khamoung^wai  a 
translation  of  some  Mahumudan  epithet,  which  this  King  took  to  himself.  It  may  be 
rendered,  "  The  Canopy  of  Kings."— T.  L. 


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1846.]  'ne  Hiitancal  Coin$  of  Arakan.  285 

part  of  the  Raja  of  Arakan/'  delivered  it  up  to  the  Mogul  Viceroy, 
Islam  Khan.  This  circumatance  accounts  for  the  Persian  inscription 
bong  wanting  on  this  coin.  This  chief  is  called  in  the  Bengalee  His- 
tory, Makat  Ray,  a  corruption  of  his  title  Meng*r4,  i.  e.  «  War  Chief." 

No.  5.  The  date  and  inscription  of  this  coin  are  as  follows  :— 

oooT^     Qo6f  ooo6  ^>o(Sg  ooo(S  000^6  oSsoocps 

Translation. 
1007.  Lord  of  the  Red  Elephant,  Lard  of  the  White  Eiephent  Tha-dd 
the  monarch* 
This  king  does  not  appear  to  have  been  known  by  any  other  name 
than  that  here  mentioned.    The  date  is  equivalent  to  A.  D.  1645. 

No.  6.  Date  and  inscription  are  thus  : — 

oooq     og^^  ooo6  0|o^ogcpGiO 

Translation. 

1014.  Lord  of  the  golden  Palace,  Tsan-da  Thoo-dhaw^ma  Rd-dzd. 

llie  date  answers  to  A.  D.  1652.  The  style  of  the  king  is  here  al- 
tered ;  he  is  no  longer  Lord  of  the  White  Elephant,  but  of  the  "  golden 
Falace.*'  This  style  was  retained  until  the  fall  of  the  kingdom  in  A.  D. 
1784.    The  Pali  title  signifies  "  The  moOn-like  righteous  king." 

No.  7.  The  obverse  and  reverse  run  thus  :— 

Translation. 
1047.  Lord  of  the  golden  Palace,  Wa-^ra^dJuKBuma  Rd-dtd. 
This  date  is  equivalent  to  A.  D.  1685.  In  the  list  of  Arakanese  kings 
^ore  referred  to,  the  date  of  this  monarch's  accession  is  erroneously 
given  as  1054. 

No.  8.  The  date  and  inscription  are  as  follows : — 
^0\  J       Og^$  0096  0|8CMXX) 

^     Translation. 
'  1072.  Lord  of  the  golden  Palace,  Tsan-^a  Wi-dza-yd. 

This  date  answers  to  A.  D.  1710. 

*  The  words  meng  tard  might  perhaps  be  interpreted  **  Lord  pf  justice*"  Whilst 
*«"«w  generally  refers  in  the  Burmese  Language  to  the  "  sacred  law,"  tard  alludes 
to  *e  "law  of  the  land."-.T.  L. 

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236  The  Historieai  Coins  of  Arakan,  [No.  171. 

No.  9.  Date  and  inscription. 

0069      og|^^  0098  OlO^^OdCpOtO 

Tbanslation. 
1093.  Lord  of  the  golden  Palace,  Tsan-da  Thu-n-ya  Rd-dzd. 
This  date  answers  to  A.  D.  1731. 

No.  10.  Date  and  inscription. 
00  6  @       Og|^^  OD9(S  QSq6lGpG»0 
Translation. 
1099.  Lord  of  the  golden  Palace,  Mu'da-rit  Rd^dzd, 

No.  11.  Date  and  inscription. 
OOOq       Og^?  ODQ(S  ^qSOODOOCpGiO 
Tbakslation. 
1104.  Lord  of  the  golden  Palace,  Na^ra-a^pa-ya  Rd^dzd, 

No.  12.   Date  and  inscription. 

00  J  9     og|^$  0006  ojoqocpao 

Tbanslation. 
1123.  Lord  of  the  golden  Palace,  Tsan-da  Pa-ra-tna  Rd^dzd. 

No.  13.  Date  and  inscription. 
00  J  e       Og^^  0006  90ODO0OOD0CpO>0 
Translation. 
1126.  Lord  of  the  golden  Palace,  A-pa-ya  Ma^hd  Rd-dzd. 

No.  14.  Date  and  inscription. 

0^93     99??  ooo(S  o|o:^Q^cpo»o 

Translation. 
1135.  Lord  of  the  golden  Palace,  Tsan^da  Thu-ma-na  Rd-dzd. 
For  this  coin  I  am  indebted  to  the  kindness  of  Ueatenant  A.  Fytcfae» 
Jnnior  Assistant  to  the  Commissioner  of  Arakan. 


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I 


1846.]  The  HisioriciU  C(nn$  of  Arakan.  237 

No.  15.  Date  and  inscription. 
009  e       Cg^^  0006  0|00§OOCpGkO 

TSANSLATION. 

1139.  Lord  of  the  golden  Palace,  Tsan-da'tha-di'tha  Rd-dzd. 

No.  16.  Date  and  inscription. 
OOqO        Cgg^  000(S   OgGp(SGpO>0 
Tbanblation. 
1140.  Lord  <f  the  golden  Land,  Dham-ma-rit  Rd-dzd. 

No.  17.  Date  and  inscription. 

OOqq       Cg^?  0006   QCX)OOOQCX)Gp0>O 

Translation. 
1144.  Lord  of  the  golden  Palace,  Ma-^d  Tha^ma-da  Rd-dzd. 
This  was  the  last  native  sovereign  of  Arakan.     In  the  second  year  of 
his  reign  being  1146  or  A.  D.  1784,  the  Burmese  conquered  the  coun- 
try.   They  immediately  issued  the  next  coin. 

No.  18.  Date  and  inscription. 

Translation. 
1146.  Conquered  country  of  the  Amarapura,  many 'White*  Elephant -Lord, 

This  coin  was  also  placed  at  my  disposal  by  Lieutenant  A.  Fytche. 
Daring  the  forty  years  the  Burmese  held  Arakan,  they  did  hot,  I  believe, 
issae  a  coin  with  any  other  date  stampt  upon  it. 

There  is  another  coin  which  has  been  lent  to  me  by  Lieutenant 
Latter,  and  which  should  have  come  immediately  after  No.  9.  I  now 
mark  it. 

No.  19.  Date  and  inscription. 

Translation. 
1097.  Lord  of  the  golden  Palace,  Na-ra-pa-wa-ra  Rd-dzd. 
The  date  is  equivalent  to  A.  D.  1735. 


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238  [No.  171. 

V     The  CoiM  of  Arakan-^The  Symbolical  Coins.    By  Lieut,  Thos.  Lattbb. 

The  coins  of  which  the  accompanying  facsimUes  are  given,  are  inter- 
esting, in  that  they  represent  whatever  ideas  they  were  intended  to  con- 
vey, by  means  of  pure  symbolism  alone ;  and  afford  no  clue  by  which 
to  connect  them  with  any  particular  prince.  They  are  all,  I  believe,  of 
a  type  peculiar  to  Trans- Gangetic  India.  No.  1,  was  found  in  the  city 
of  Haleng,  in  the  Empire  of  Burmah,  and  has  been  already  described  at 
some  length  in  a  former  number  of  the  Society's  Journal.  It  is  placed 
here  for  the  purpose  of  shewing  how  the  same  type  of  symbol  runs 
through  the  whole.  The  remainder  are  peculiar  to  Arakan,  the  last 
being  somewhat  common.  Knowing  these  coins  to  be  Buddhistical  from 
their  being  found  only  in  localities*^ where  no  other  than  that  faith  has 
obtained,  and  having,  as  I  have  already  said,  no  due  to  justify  our  con- 
necting them  with  any  particular  monarch ;  it  is  only  by  viewing  them 
as  representing  by  means  of  symbols  certain  dogmas,  or  tenets,  (whe- 
ther religious,  or  philosophical)  of  the  Buddhist  faith,  that  we  can 
hope  in  any  way  to  resolve  their  meaning. 

In  the  description  of  No.  1,  I  speculated  that  the  side  (6)  might  be 
intended  to  convey  a  symbolical  representation  of  the  cosmology  of 
Buddhism.  The  twenty-eight  circular  figures  in  the  outer  ring  repre- 
senting the  twenty-eight  Buddhs  characteristic  of  a  Mahdgabhha,  oc 
grand  period  of  nature ;  and  the  five  drop-shaped  figures  within  the 
circle  representing  a  Buddhagabbha,  or  lesser  period  of  nature,  the  pre- 
sent period  being  characterized  by  the  presence  of  five  Buddhs ;  which 
are  therefore  made  to  preside  over  a  curious  emblem  composed  of  certain 
triangles  representing  this  world  in  particular.  Although  I  could  not 
at  the  time  account  for  the  reason  why  this  singular  combination  should 
be  able  to  convey  such  an  idea ;  yet  in  a  subsequent  paper,  (on  the 
Buddhism  of  the  emblems  of  architecture),  I  ventured  to  suppose  (taking 
the  triangles  with  their  points  downwards  to  represent  "  water ;"  and 
those  with  their  apices  upwards  to  typify  *'  fire ;"  that  their  being  made 
to  meet  in  a  circle,  (the  universe)  with  a  point  in  it,  (this  earth)  meant 
to  convey  the  belief  in  the  reiterated  destruction  of  the  world  by  fire 
and  water,  whence  its  PaU  name,  kmga,  from  lau,  "  to  be  again  and 
again"  renovated  and  destroyed.  It  is  singular  that  in  the  two  coins, 
Nos.  2  and  3,  my  interpretation  is  indirectly  corroborated,  for  in  them 


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1846.]  Tk0  SffmbolktU  Coins  of  Arakan.  239 

this  emblem  of  "  renovation  and  destruction/'  ia  conformably  repre- 
sented by  tbe  Bull  Nimdi^  the  peculiar  cognizance  of  Shiva,  the  Ood  of 
"  destruction  and  renovation." 

The  two  last  coins  are  Shivite,  but  probably  appertain  to  a  time  when 
the  emblems  of  the  worship  of  Shiva,  and  those  of  Buddhism  had 
something  in  common.  Struck  perhaps  by  this  similarity  as  well  as 
by  their  novelty,  they  seem  to  have  been  adopted  by  some  of  the 
Princes  of  Arakan.  The  fact  of  the  characters  on  them  being  Pali  does 
not  in  any  way  militate  against  this  supposition,  as  the  Burman  Alpha- 
bet IB  but  a  modification  of  the  Pali,  and  the  similarity  of  the  two  in- 
creases in  proportion  to  the  earHness  of  the  date.  We  see  on  these  coins 
the  Buddhist  triglyph  represented  by  the  trident  of  Shiva.  On  each  side 
is  a  scroll;  and  beneath  are  certain  round  dots.  These  dots  are  curious,  fcnr 
they  here  occupy  the  same  position  in  reference  to  the  triglyph  of  Shiva, 
that  the  guttse  do  to  the  trigljrph  of  architecture.  In  three  coins  in 
my  own  possession,  evidently  of  two  different  dies,  their  number  is 
"  five."  In  another  from  the  collection  of  Gapt.  Phayre,  figured  No.  3, 
their  number  is  "  nine ;"  this  last,  however,  is  a  peculiarly  expres- 
sive and  powerful  number  in  Buddhism.  The  legend  over  the  Bull 
varies  in  three  coins,  they  are  given  separately,  (a.  b,  c.  No.  5,).  (c) 
presents  the  characteristics  of  the  old  Pali  alphabet,  with  the  exception 
of  the  first  letter ;  I  read  it  "  Skri  Frieghau,  the  last  member  of  the  sym- 
bol of  the  last  vowel  being  effaced ;  so  that  it  appears  to  the  eye 
Vriegh^,  The  other  two  may  be  determined  by  those  better  versed  in 
the  old  Nagri  character.  (6)  ia  of  a  more  ancient  type  than  (a)  ;  which 
last  ia  of  the  same  class  as  the  characters  composing  the  inscription  on 
the  temple  of  Shiva  in  the  village  of  Harshi,  described  in  the  Society's 
Journal,  No.  43,  July,  1835. 

The  popular  tradition  connected  with  these  coins  is  the  following : 
There  was  a  king  who  set  off  to  China  to  find  the  skuU  which  he  owned 
in  a  former  state  of  existence  when  he  was  in  the  body  of  a  dog ;  his 
astrologers  having  told  him  that  this  skull  being  wedged  into  the  cleft 
of  a  tree  was  the  reason  why  he  was  troubled  with  such  incurable  head- 
aches, and  that  on  removing  it  he  would  be  cured.  On  his  departure 
he  left  with  his  wife  a  ring,  and  told  her  that  in  case  he  should  not 
come  back  in  seven  years,  she  was  to  raise  to  the  throne,  and  marry 


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240  The  SymboUcai  Coins  of  Arakan.  [No.  171. 

that  one  of  her  subjects  whom  it  would  fit.  On  his  way  back  the 
daughter  of  the  Ocean  king  who  was  in  love  with  him,  begged  her  fa- 
ther to  raise  a  storm  to  drown  his  fleet,  and  thus  procure  her  lover. 
This  being  done,  the  prime  minister  who  escaped  informed  the  queen  of 
the  death  of  her  husband ;  she  immediately  gave  out  throughout  her 
kingdom  that  he  should  be  her  husband  whom'  this  ring  would  fit. 
Though  numbers  tried,  it  was  not  till  an  herdsman  from  the  hills  with 
his  brother  and  nephew  came  down,  that  it  was  found 'to  fit  any  one. 
It  fitted  them  all  three,  the  queen  married  the  eldest  brother,  who  thus 
became  king,  and  he,  in  commemoration  of  his  origin,  put  an  ox  upon 
his  coins,  as  also  the  goad  (the  trident),  the  implement  of  his  craft. 

The  coin  No.  4,  is  much  more  modem  in  appearance  than  any  of  the 
others.  It  would  be  impossible  to  determine  its  age,  its  appearance 
would  not  give  it  more  than  100  years.  It  is  evidently  the  handywork 
of  an  artist  who  has  concocted  together  a  quantity  of  symbols  that 
most  struck  his  fancy  from  coins  of  a  more  ancient  date.  On  the  side 
(a)  we  see  the  parasol  roof ;  being  a  part  of  the  ts^ya  emblems.  On 
each  side  are  figures  appearing  to  guard  it.  Below  is  that  flame-shaped 
symbol,  mistaken  by  Marsden,  if  I  remember  right,  for  the  conch  of 
Vishnu.  On  the  obverse  (b)  is  the  symbol  of  combined  triangles,  over 
which  are  three  **  Z"  shaped  figures. 

No.  6.  The  coin  No.  6,  though  not  belonging  to  the  country,  is  re- 
presented here,  having  been  found  on  the  sea  shore  of  the  Ishmd  of 
Ramree  with  several  others.  It  is  of  gold,  and  thin.  The  central  portion 
represents  an  animal  like  a  pig,  with  the  representation  of  the  Bo-tree 
above,  and  a  monographic  character  b  beneath.  Around  are  certain  cha- 
racters which  an  intelligent  Buddhist  priest  declares  to  be  old  Cinga- 
lese, and  to  compose  the  words,  "Pawaraganran  thooradza"  commenc- 
ing from  the  letter  marked  (a).  The  first  letter  appears  to  have  been 
mistaken  by  him ;  the  first  half  composing  it,  being  indistinct,  appears  to 
.  have  escaped  his  attention.  The  name  he  gives  is  that  of  one  of  the 
old  kings  of  Ceylon. 


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fftstcrical    Coirvs    cf  ^rouk^xJiy. 

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fi-** 


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Fl  ■■  UL 


SymiolicaL  Coirv^    of ^raJuMri . 


(9 


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J-WX^Lidit^  UL 


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JOURNAL 


ASIATIC  SOCIETY. 


CATALOGUE  OF  MAMMALIA 

IfUiabiting  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands, 

Collected  or  observed  by  Theodora  Cantor,  M.  D., 
Bengal  Medical  Service. 


^  Localities  printed  in  Italics  signify  those  from  whence  the  animals  of  the  Cata- 
logue were  obtained :  localities  in  ordinary  type  those  previously  given  by  authors. 


[Continued  from  p.  203.] 
Gbn. — Herpbstbs,  Illiger, 

Hb&pestbs  JAVANICU8,  Desmarest. 

Syn. — Ichneumon  javanicus,  Gteoffroy. 
Mangusta  javanica,  Horsfield. 
"  Garangan,"  Horsfield. 
Hab. — Pinang,  Malayan  Peninsula. 
Java. 
The  species  is  numerous.     The  largest  male  measured  from  the  apex 
of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  one  foot  four  and  a  half  inches ;  the  tail 
one  foot  one  and  a  half  inch. 
No.  172.     No.  88,  New  Sbbibs.  2  k 


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242  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting  [No.  172. 

Hbbpbstbs  aukopunctatus,  Hodgson. 

Stn. — Mangusta  auropunctata,  Hodgson. 

Herpestea  nepalensis,  Gray. 

Herpestes  Edwardsii,  apud  Ogilby  (?) 

Herpestes  javanica»  Hodgson,  apud  Gray :  List. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

Bengal,  Nipal,  Scinde,  Afghanistan. 
This  species  somewhat  resembles  H.  javanicus,  but  the  ground  colour 
is  lighter,  and  the  lower  surface  uniformly  pale  yellowish- grey ;  whereas 
in  the  former  species  it  is  similar  to  the  back,  or  a  shade  paler.  A  sin- 
gle female  observed,  measured  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of 
the  tail  one  foot  one  inch ;  the  tail  nine  inches. 

Hbbpbstbs  6BI8BUS,  Dcsmarcst. 

Stn. — Ichneumon  griseus,  GeofFroy. 

Mangouste  de  Malacca,  F.  Cuvier,  \ 
Mangusta  malaccensis,  Fischer,  / 
Mangusta  grisea,  Fischer,  V  Apud  Schinz. 

Herpestes  Edwardsii,  Fischer,  1 
Mangusta  Nyula,  Hodgson,  J 

Herpestes  griseus,  Nyool,  apud  Ogilby. 

Herpestes  pallidus,  Schinz. 

Forsan  H.  nipalensis,  Gray,  Var.  apud  Schinz. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

Bengal,  Hindoostan,  Scinde,  Nipal. 
The  present  differs  from  the  other  species  not  only  by  its  grey  colour, 
but  by  its  broader  head,  particularly  between  the  prominent  eyes,  and 
by  its  shorter,  blunter  nose,  which  places '^e  eyes  comparatively  nearer 
to  the  muzzle.  In  a  single  female,  measuring  from  the  apex  of  the 
nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  one  foot  two  and  a  half  inches,  the  tail  nine 
and  a  half  inches ;  the  intestinal  canal  was  of  the  following  dimensions : 

Small  Intestines,  . .         . .  . .      3  feet  H  inch. 

Large  ditto 0    „    5^     „ 

C»cum 0    „    I 

By  a  contraction  in  the  middle  of  the  greater  curvature,  the  stomach 
is  distinctly  separated  into  a  cardiac  and  pyloric  cavity. 


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1846.]  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands.  243 

Hbkpbstbs  bbachtubus.  Gray. 

Stn. — "  Musang  Tdroa"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula, 

The  largest  male  measured  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of 
the  tail  one  foot  six  and  a  half  inches,  the  tail  nine  inches.  It  is  distin- 
gaished  from  the  other  species,  not  only  hy  its  colours  and  comparatively 
short  tail,  but  by  its  larger  size  and  much  more  robust  make. 

Gbn. — Fblis;  Linne. 
Fblis  tigbis,  linn^. 

Syn. — Hgris  regalis,  Gray :  List. 

"  Harfmau"  or  "  Rimau"  of  the  Malays. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula, 

India. 
Lieut.  Colonel  James  Low  has  communicated  the  following  denomi- 
nations, by  which  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula  distinguish  different  varie- 
ties : 

"  Rimau  Sipai,"  reddish  coated,  striped. 

"  Rimau  Bdllu,"  darker  coloured. 

*'  Dautt  Pinang,"  reddish  coated,  without  stripes. 

"  Tuppu  Kassau,"  darkish,  without  stripes,  but  with  longer  hairs 
than  the  others. 

"  Puntong  Prun,"  very  dark,  striped. 

Fblis  lbopabdus,  Schreber. 

Syn. — Fells  Pardus,  Linn6,  } 
Felis  varia,  Schreber, 
Felis  Panthera,  Erxleben, 

Felis  chalybeata,  Hermann,  ^Apud  Gray :  List. 

Felis  antiquorum,  Fischer, 
Felis  fusca,  Meyer, 
Felis  Nimr,  Ehrenberg, 

Leopardus  varius,  Gray  :  List. 

Felis  Leopardus,  apud  Schinz. 

"  Rimau  Bintang"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 

Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

India. 


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244  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting  [No.  172. 

Dakk  Vak. 

Stn. — Felis  melas,  P^ron,  apud  Gray :  List. 

*'  Rimau  Kdmbang/'*  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 

The  ground  colour  is  a  shining  beetle-brown,  mixed  with  white 
hairs,  not  however  sufficiently  to  impart  a  grey  appearance.  The  black 
spots  become  distinctly  visible  in  certain  lights  only.  The  skin  of  a 
male  killed  at  Malacca,  measured  from  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail 
four  feet  four  and  a  half  inches,  the  tail  two  feet  ten  and  a  half  inches. 

The  Leopards  of  the  Malayan  Peninsula  appear  to  attain  to  a  larger 
size,  and  to  be  more  ferocious  than  is  generally  the  case  in  India.  In- 
stances of  their  having  killed  and  carried  off  Malays  are  on  record. 

Fblis  mabmorata,  Martin. 

Syn. — Felis  Diardii,  Fischer,  apud  Schinz. 

Felis  Diardii,  apud  Jardine.    Tab.  21  and  22. 

Leopardus  marmoratus.  Gray  :  List. 

*'  Rimau  dahan"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

The  ground  colour  varies  from  rusty-grey,  or  fulvous  to  grey,  and  the 
black  markings  are  scarcely  quite  alike  in  any  two  individuals,  nor  is  the 
extremity  of  the  tail  constantly  black.  The  adult  exceeds  the  size  given 
in  the  original  description;  a  female  measured  from  the  apex  of  the 
nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  two  feet  half  an  inch ;  the  tail  one  foot  nine 
inches.     The  species  is  numerous. 

Fblis  javanbnsis,  Desmarest. 

Stn. — Felis  javanensis,  Desmarest,  apud  Horsfield. 
"  Kuwuk,"  Horsfield. 
Felis  minuta,  Temminck,      "j 
Felis  servalin,  Temminck,      I  ^     j  o  i.- 
Felis  sumatrana,  Horsfield,    (^^''^  ^^^'"'^• 
Felis  undata,  Desmarest,      J 


*  **  Ktimbang"  signifiei  a  beetle  ;  applied  par  excellence  to  a  ipeciet  olOryctet, 
resembling  Scarabeus  nasicomis,  Linn6,  which  is  ?ery  de8tructi?e  to  cocoanut  planta- 
tions. "  Rfmau  Kdmbang,"  Raffles,  is  by  Schinz  referred  to  FeUt  Pardus,  Temmiack, 
Var,  nigra,  Muller;  Felis  melas,  F.  Cuvier,  the  habitat  of  which  is  saidtobe  Jtfa 
and  Sumatra. 


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1846.]  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands,  245 

Felifi  Diardii,  Griffith,  \  .      ,  ^  t  .  . 

.  J      .  •  .  >  Apud  Gray :  List. 

Leopaidus  javanensis,  J     ^  ^ 

"  Rimau  dkar"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 

Hab. — Pinang,  Malayan  PeniMula. 

Java,  Sumatra  ? 

The  ground  colour  in  the  Malayan  individuals  varies  from  pure  grey 

to  greyish  brown  or  ferruginous.     The  largest  adult  male  measured 

from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  one  foot  eleven  and  a 

half  inches,  the  tail  ten  inches ;  another  of  equal  dimensions  of  the  body 

had  the  tail  eight  inches  in  length.     The  intestinal  canal  was  of  the 

following  dimensions : 

SmaU  Intestines,        ..  ..  ..  3  feet  8  inches. 

Large,  0     ..     9^     „ 

Caecum,  ..  ..  ..  ..         0     „     1|^    „ 

In  the  scansorial  habits  of  this  very  numerous  species  originates  its 

local  denomination  "  &kar,"  signifying  a  climber  as  well  as  a  root. 

FxLis  PLANiCBPS,  Vigors  and  Horsfield. 
Stmt. — Chaus  (?)  planiceps.  Gray :  List. 

"  Kdching-titan,"  or  "  j&lang"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
UnB.'^Malayan  Peninsula. 

Sumatra,  Borneo. 
The  Malayan  individuals  of  this  apparently  not  numerous  species 
di£Fer  from  the  Sumatran,  originally  described,  in  having  the  whitish 
throat,  chest  and  abdomen,  and  the  inner  side  of  the  limbs  undulated 
with  brown,  transversal,  interrupted  bands.  In  none  of  the  Malayan 
wild  cats  is  the  length  of  the  tail  more  variable.  In  a  male,  measuring 
from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  two  feet  one  and  a  half 
inch,  the  tail,  consisting  of  twelve  gradually  diminishing  caudal  vertebrae, 
measured  five  and  a  half  inches  ;  in  another,  one  foot  ten  and  three- 
fourth  inch  in  length  from  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail,  the  latter 
organ  measured  two  inches,  consisting  of  four  slightly  decreasing  verte- 
brae, the  last  one  of  which  was  broad,  flattened,  and  rouhded  at  the  poste- 
rior extremity.  It  is  of  most  ferocious  habits,  and  untameable.  In  the 
smaller  individual  the  intestinal  canal  was  of  the  following  dimensions ; 

Small  Intestines,     . .  . .      3  feet  6i  inches. 

Large,         0     „     5J 

Caecum, 0     „     0| 


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246  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting  [No.  172. 

FbLIS   D0HB8TICA,    Auct. 

"  Kdching"  of  the  Malays. 
The  Malays,  like  most  Muhamedans,  are  as  partial  to  cats  as  they  are 
the  reverse  to  dogs.  As  observed  by  Sir  S.  Raffles,  some  of  the  Ma- 
layan, like  the  Madagascar  domesticated  cats,  have  a  short  twisted  or 
knobbed  tail,  others  are  tailless.  Among  those  of  an  uniform  colour,  a 
light  ashy  and  a  bluish  (or  slaty>grey)  variety,  with  single  longer  black 
hairs  on  the  back  and  tail,  are  conspicuous.  They  frequently  relapse 
from  a  state  of  domestication,  resort  to  the  jungle,  and  shun  the  pre- 
sence of  man. 

RODENTIA. . 

ScinaiDiB, 

Gen. — SciuRus,  Linn^. 

SciUKUs  BicoLOR,  Spamnaun. 
Stn. —  Das  javanische  Eichhorn,  Schreb.*  apud  Horsf. 

Sciurus  giganteus,  McClelland  MSS.  1  Apud  Horsfield,  Proc. 
Sciurus  bicolor,  Sparrmann,  /     Zool.  Soc. 

Sciurus  madagascariensis,  1  .      ,  ^  . .  ^ 

Sciurus  macruroides,  Hodgson.  /  ^P^^  ^'^y  •  ^»^- 

"  Chingkr^wah  ^tam"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Pinang,  Malayan  Peninsula. 

Java,  Sumatra,  Borneo,  Siam,  Tenasserim,  Assam.  Nipal. 
The  original  diagnosis  will  prevent  misunders'tanding  as  to  the  species 
under  consideration.  "Sciurus  supra  niger,  infra  fiilvus,  auriculis 
acutis  imberbibtts,  palmarum  ungue  pollicari  magno  rotundato."  (Sparr* 
mann,  apud  Horsfield.)  The  colour  of  the  head,  back,  tail,  outside  of 
the  extremities,  and  the  feet,  is  intense  shining  black,  the  single  hairs 
being  bhu;kish-grey  at  the  root,  those  of  the  tail  blackish-brown  at  the 
root.  In  some  individuals  the  black  hairs  generally,  in  others  those  of 
the  tail,  or  some  part  of  the  back  only,  have  a  broad  subterminal  band 
of  bright  cinnamon,  or  Indian  red,  which  imparts  a  reddish  tint  to  the 
general  black  colour.  The  mostachios,  whiskers  and  the  superciliary 
bristles  are  black ;  those  of  the  throat  and  forearm  are  black  in  some, 

*  Sciurus Javensis^  Schreber,  and  bicohr^  Sparmann.  apud  Gray  :  List,  is  Sciatriu 
LescAenaultii,  Desmar.  apud  Honfield.  Syn.  S.  hypoleucut,  Honfieid. 


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1846.]  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands.  247 

ferruginous,  or  with  the  apex  of  that  colour,  in  others.  The  under* parts 
vary  from  a  deep  golden  fulvous  to  isabella  colour.  Whatever  be  the 
prevailing  shade,  it  is  always  most  distinct  on  the  lateral  line,  which, 
commencing  from  the  cheeks,  passes  along  the  sides  of  the  body.  The 
fur  of  the  lower  parts  of  the  body,  and  of  the  inside  of  the  extremities, 
is  much  shorter,  softer,  and  less  dense,  than  that  of  the  back.  The  sin- 
gle hairs  are  greyish,  or  blackish  at  the  root,  with  the  apex  of  the  shade 
of  yellow  prevailing  in  the  individual.  Single  long  bristles»  either  uni- 
formly, or  partially  black,  or  fulvous,  appear  on  the  chest  and  abdomen. 
The  species,  under  the  present  garb,  is  very  numerous  in  the  Malayan 
forests  and  hills. 

Vab.  P^  Horsfield. 

"  Sciurus  supra  fuscus,  varians  a  fusco-nigricante  ad  sordide  fulvum, 
pilis  velleris  fulvis  et  canescentibus  intermixes,  subtus  fulvus  vel  pallide 
flavescens." — Horsfield. 
Stn. — Sciurus  auriventer.  Is.  Geoff,  apud  Schinz. 

Sciurus  aurei venter.  Is.  Oeoff.  apud  Gray :  List. 
"  Chingkrawah"  or  '*  Chingkrdwah  puteh"  of  the  Malays  of  the 
Peninsula. 

Single  individuals,  resembling  the  Javanese  one  figured  in  '  Zoological 
Researches  in  Java,'  occur  at  Pinang,  but  there,  as  in  Java,  tawny  of 
different  shades,  with  a  greyish  cast,  is  more  frequent.  In  some  the 
head  is  of  a  darker  colour,  in  others  large  spots  of  dark  appear  on  the 
back,  or  the  tail  is  above  barred  with  dark.  The  upper  part  of  the  nose, 
a  ring  encircling  the  eyes,  and  the  ears  appear  'in  all  individuals  to  be 
of  a  darker  brownish  colour,  and  all  have  a  more  or  less  distinct  large 
white  spot  on  the  anterior  and  upper  part  of  the  thigh.  The  back  of 
the  feet  is  either  dark  brown  or  fulvous.  The  palms,  soles,  mammae 
and  genital  organs,  are  black  in  all.  The  single  hairs  of  the  back  are 
greyish-brown  at  the  root,  darker  than  the  apex,  which  imparts  the 
general  colour  to  the  back.  With  the  hairs  of  the  tail  the  reverse  is 
the  case,  the  basal  half  being  isabella  or  white ;  the  apical  darker.  On 
the  lower  surface  of  the  distichous  tail,  the  roots  of  ^the  hairs  form  a 
white  line  on  either  side  of  the  vertebrae,  which  are  covered  with  short, 
dark-brownish,  or  fulvous  hairs.  The  under- parts  of  the  body  are  of 
the  same  colours  as  those  of  the  black-coated  animal,  but  their  roots 
are  yellowish-white.     The  mustachios,  whiskers,  and  other  bristles,  are 


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248  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting     '  [No.  172. 

in  all  of  a  blackish-brown ;  but  the  single  bristles  of  the  abdomen  are 
sometimes  fulvoas. 

The  black-coated  individuals  stand  in  a  similar  relation  to  the  light- 
coloured  varieties,  as  that  in  which  the  black-coloured  Hylobates  Lar 
stands  to  the  light-coloured.  Such  differences  of  colour»  wide  no  doubt, 
are  of  no  uncommon  occurrence  among  the  Malayan  Mammalia,  and 
ought  to  be  well  considered  by  Zoologists,  who  have  not  the  oppor- 
tunity of  studying  the  living  animals. 

This,  as  well  as  the  rest  of  the  Malayan  squirrels,  is  capable  of  being 
tamed  to  a  certain  extent,  and  evinces  attachment  to  those  who  feed 
them,  but  the  appearance  of  a  strange  person,  animal,  or  even  an  unu- 
sual sound,  startles  them,  and  recalls  their  natural  shyness.  The  largest 
of  a  great  number,  measured  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root 
of  the  tail  one  foot  six  inches ;  the  tail  one  foot  nine  and  a  half  inches. 
The  intestinal  canal  was  of  the  following  dimensions  : 

Small  Intestines,      . .  ^ .  . .      9  feet  6  inches. 

Large  ditto, 4     „     9     ,. 

Csecum,         .;         I     „     2     „ 

SciuBUs  Kafflbsii,  Vigors  and  Horsfield. 
Syn. — Sciurus  rufogularis,  Gray. 

Sciurus  rufoniger.  Gray. 

Sciurus  Prevostii,  Desmar.  apud  Schinz. 

*'  Tiipai  baling**  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula, 

Java,  Borneo,  China*  (Canton.) 

*  China  is  the  habitat  assigned  to  Sciurus  rufogularis^  Gray.  Without  doubting  the 
anthenticity,  it  is  perhaps  as  well  to  observe,  that  skins  of  the  more  showy  animals  and 
birds  of  India,  Malacca,  and  the  Indian  Archipelago,  are  (^ered  for  sal«  as  indige- 
nous productions  in  the  shops  of  Canton  and  Macao.  Skins  of  Halcyon  Smymensit 
for  instance,  and  other  birds  from  different  parts  of  India,  are  bought  up  by  the 
Chinese  merchants  of  our  colonies  in  the  Straits  of  Malacca,  who  annually,  on  Chinese 
Junks,  ship  quantities  of  considerable  value  to  China,  wher«  tbey  are  manufactured 
into  fans  and  artificial  flowers.  In  a  list  of  birds,  contained  in  a  collection  of 
T3hinese  productions,  exhibited  in  London  in  1842,  Mr.  H.  E.  Strickland  observes 
in  his  communication  to  the  Zoological  Society,  that  some  of  them  appear  to 
have  been  imported  from  Malacca.  Skins  and  other  parts  of  a  host  of  animals,  from 
the  most  distant  parts  of  Asia,  form  items  in  the  Chinese  Pharmacopoeia.  On  my  visits 
to  Chinese  Dispensaries  in  China  and  in  our  Malayan  Colonies,  1  have  been  shewn 
horns  of  rhinoceroses  and  deer,  tusks  of  the  Duyong,  beadi  of  Buceri,  tortoise-shells, 
and  well  preserved  skins  of  Trigonocephalus  Blomhoffii,  from  Japan ;  Ammonites  and 
other  fossils,  cum  multis  aliis^  all  supposed  to  possess  specific  virtues,  and  accordingly 
prescribed  by  Chinese  Medical  practitioners. 


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1846.]  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands.  249 

This  species,  numerous  in  the  Malayan  countries,  occurs  with  the 
following  individual  variations  of  colour — 

Cheeks  and  throat  iron-grey,  shoulders  uniformly,  or  mixed  with  red. 
(Sciurus  ru/ogularis.  Gray.     Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1842,  p.  263.) 

The  cheeks  are  sometimes  dark-brown,  or  ferruginous. 

In  some  the  white  lateral  line  commences  from  the  side  of  the  nose, 
passing  over  the  cheeks,  the  side  of  the  neck,  and  over  the  shoulder. 
The  lateral  line  is  either  pure  white,  more  or  less  distinct,  or  mixed 
with  single  longer  hairs  with  black  apex. 

Some  have  a  short  black  line  immediately  below  the  white ;  in  others 
there  is  above  the  latter  a  grizzled  line,  sometimes  continued  over  the 
outside  of  the  thigh.  The  tail  is  seldom  uniformly  black,  frequently 
partially  black,  reddish  or  grizzled,  owing  to  the  apex  of  the  hairs  being 
white.     The  tuft  is  frequently  reddish  or  rust-coloured. 

The  feet  are  sometimes  white  or  pale  ferruginous. 

The  Museum  of  the  Asiatic  Society  possesses  a  specimen  from  Java, 
differing  from  Sciurus  ru/oniger.  Gray,  in  having  the  tail  grizzled  instead 
of  black.  Sciurus  redimittis.  Van  der  Boon,  is  probably  another  variety 
of  S.  Rafflesii. 

A  young  male,  about  a  fortnight  in  confinement,  after  having  finished 
his  usual  meal  of  cocoanut,  seized  and  devoured  an  lora  typhia,  which 
had  just  been  shot,  and  happened  to  be  placed  within  reach.  Sparrows 
and  other  smaller  birds  were  subsequently  eaten,  and  apparently  relished. 

The  largest  male  measured  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of 
the  tail  eleven  and  a  half  inches ;  the  tail  one  foot  two  inches. 

SciuKUS  HiFFuaus,  Is.  Geoflroy. 

Syn. — Sciurus  erythrssus,  Pallas  (?)      "| 

Sciurus  caudatus,  McClelland  ?  >Apud  Gray  :  List. 
Sciurus  anomalus,  Kuhl.  J 

Sciurus  rufogaster.  Gray. 
Sciurus  castaneoventris.  Gray. 

"  Tdpai  Jinjang,"  "  Ummu,"  or  **  Jau"  of  the  Malays  of  the 
Peninsula. 
Has. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

Java,  Sumatra,  Assam,  China  (Canton). 

2l 


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250  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting  [No.  172. 

The  ground  colour  of  the  Malayan  individuals  differs  but  slightly, 
accordmg  to  the  more  red  or  yellow  rust  colour  of  the  bands  of  the  hairs. 
The  anterior  part  of  the  tail  above  is  of  the  same  colour  as  the  back, 
the  rest  is  either  uniformly  black,  reddish,  or  with  transverse  bands,  or 
has  the  tuft  of  that  colour.  The  colour  of  the  ears  is  brownish  in 
some,  but  generally  of  the  leaden  grey,  grizzled  colour  of  the  head,  cheeks, 
chin  and  outside  of  the  limbs.     The  feet  are  black  or  slightly  grizzled. 

The  largest  individuals  of  this  numerous  species  measure  from  the 
apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  one  foot ;  the  tail  one  foot  and 
half  inch.  i 

SciuRus  viTTATUs,  Rafflcs. 
Stn.— T6pai.  Raffles. 

Sciurus  bivittatus.  Raffles,  Desmar.  1  ^     ^  u     i:  i  ^ 
EcureuU  Toupai,  F.  Cuvier,  /  ^P'*^  Horsfield. 

Macroxus  Toupai,  Lesson,  apud  Gray  :  List. 

Sciurus  flavimanus.  Is.  Geoffroy,  apud  Schinz. 

"  Tdpai"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Singapore,  Pinang,  Malayan  Peninsula. 

Sumatra,  Borneo,  Canton. 
This  is  the  most  numerous  species  in  the  Straits  of  Malacca,  the  larg- 
est individuals  measuring  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the 
tail  eleven  inches  ;  the  tail  eleven  inches. 

SciuBus  NiGBoviTTATus,  Horsfield. 

Syn. — Sciurus  griseiventer.  Is.  Geoffroy,  apud  Schinz. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula, 

Java,  Sumatra,  Borneo,  Canton. 
Not  numerous ;  the  largest  individual  observed,  a  female,  measured 
from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  nine  inches ;  the  tail 
eight  and  half  inches. 

SciUBUs  TBNuis,  Horsficld. 
Stn. — Sciurus  modestus,  S.  Miiller  ? 
Hab. — Singapore,  Malayan  Peninsula. 
Java,  Sumatra,  Borneo,  Canton. 
Of  two  individuals  observed,  the  larger,  a  male,  measured  from  the 
apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  six  inches ;  the  tail  seven  inches. 


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1846  ]  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands,  251 

SciuBUs  LATiCAUDATUs,  Diard,  Var. 

Stn. — Sciunis  laticaudatus,  Diard,  apud  S.  MuUer  ?* 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula, 

The  present  squirrel  differs  from  the  diagnosis  of  Sdurus  laticaudatus 
from  the  west  coast  of  Borneo,  (communicated  in  Natuur  en  Genees- 
kundig  Ar chief,  ^c.  II  Jaarg,  I  Aflev.  p.  87,)  in  having  neither  the  first 
nor  the  fifth  molar  of  the  upper  jaw  very  large.  Both  are  of  nearly 
equal  size,  and  much  smaller  than  the  rest.  The  following  is  a  descrip- 
tion of  the  Malayan  animal. 

The  shape  of  the  head  is  depressed,  elongated,  conical,  gradually 
attenuated  towards  the  laterally  compressed  nose.  The  whole  outline, 
the  slender  form,  and  general  colours,  render  the  animal  strikingly  simi- 
lar to  Tupaia  ferruginea.  The  eyes  are  large,  hrilliant,  dark ;  the  ears 
large,  oval,  with  smooth  short  hairs;  the  mouth  is  small,  the  upper 
incisors  are  very  minute,  the  lower  slender,  flattened,  and  almost 
straight ;  the  black  mustachios,  whiskers,  superciliary  and  gular  bristles, 
and  the  few  white  ones  of  the  forearm,  are  all  shorter  than  the  head ; 
the  muzzle  hairy,  leaving  the  margins  of  the  small,  and  at  the  apex 
laterally  pierced  nostrils,  naked.  The  limbs  and  feet  slender  ;  the 
nailless  tubercle  of  the  thumb  rudimentary,  barely  perceptible  in  the 
living  animal.     The  claws  are  small,  sharp,  compressed,  whitish. 

The  colour  of  the  head,  back,  outside  of  the  limbs  and  feet,  is  a  rich 
rusty- red,  mixed  with  shining  black,  particularly  on  the  occiput,  the 
back  and  the  feet,  less  on  the  sides,  where  the  ferruginous  prevails ; 
the  throat,  chest,  abdomen  and  inner  side  of  the  limbs,  whitish ;  in  some 
individuals  pale- yellowish.  The  fur  is  soft  and  delicate.  The  separate 
hairs  are  leaden-grey  at  the  base,  shining  black,  or  with  a  broad  subter- 
minal  ferruginous  band.  The  tail  is  shorter  than  the  body,  distichous, 
broadest  in  the  middle,  attenuated  at  the  root,  terminating  in  a 
thin  tuft.  It  may  be  compared  to  a  feather,  black  on  each  side 
of  the  quill,  successively  ferruginous,  again  black,  margined  with  buff. 

*  In  the  lAtt  qf  Mammalia  in  the  British  Museum  occurs  a  genus :  Rhinosdurus, 
Gray,  and  a  species  12.  tupaiddes.  Gray,  Syn.  Sciurus  laticaudatus,  Muller??  Generic 
or  specific  characters  being  neither  given  nor  referred  to,  it  is  impossible  in  India  to 
decide  whether  the  specimen  in  the  British  Museum  thus  labelled,  is  identical  with 
the  animal  here  characterised. 


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252  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting  [No.  172. 

Such  is  the  succession  of  the  bands  on  the  separate  hairs.     This  organ 
is  less  full  and  ornamental  than  in  the  generality  of  squirrels.     The 
species  is  apparently  not  numerous ;  the  largest  out  of  five  examined,  a 
female,  was  of  the  following  dimensions — 
Length  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail,    10  -  inch. 

„       of  the  tail,  •  . .  . .  . .  . .      6 1       „ 

„       of  the  head,       . .          . .           . .         . .          . .  2  f  ,, 

„       from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  anterior  angle 

of  the  eye.     . .          . .          . .          . .          . .  1  -  „ 

„       from  the  posterior  angle  of  the  eye  to  the  ear.  .  0  -f  ., 

Breadth  above  the  apex  of  the  nose.      . .  . .  . .  0  ^ 

..       between  the  anterior  angles  of  the  eyes.          . .  0  -^  .. 

,.       between  the  ears,          . .          . .          . .          . .  0  ^  „ 

o 

Diameter  of  the  head  at  vertex.. .  . .  . .  . .      1 

Its  habits  in  confinement  presented  nothing  remarkable. 
Gbn. — Ptbromts,  Cuvier. 
Ptbbomts  nitidus,  Geoffroy. 
Syn. — Sciurus  petaurista,  Lin.  apud  Cuvier  ? 

Sciurus  petaurista.  Chin  Krawa,  Raffles  ? 
Pteromys  albiventer.  Gray  lUustr. 

•'  Tdpai  T^rbang"  or  *•  Kdbin"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Singapore,  Pinang,  Malayan  Peninsula, 
Java.  Sumatra,  Borneo. 
The  part  of  the  head  anterior  to  the  ears,  the  cheeks,  the  chest,  and 
the  abdomen,  are  white  in  some  individuals  of  either  sex.  one  of  which 
is  figured  in  Hardwicke's  Illustrations  of  Indian  Zoology,  under  the  de- 
nomination of  Pteromys  albiventer.  Gray. 

The  black,  or  dark- brown  eyelids,  nose,  chin,  feet  and  tip  of  the  tail, 
appear  to  be  constant  characters.  The  shade,  and  intensity  of  the  red 
colour  is  liable  to  considerable  variations.*  In  the  very  young,  there  is 
a  short  black  stripe  behind  the  ears ;  and  the  posterior  part  of  the  back 
and  anterior  half  of  the  tail  are  shining  black,  from  each  separate  hair 
having  the  apex  of  that  colour.  Traces  of  these  characters  occur  in 
some  adult  individuals.  This  species  is  very  numerous  in  the  Malayan 
countries.     It  is  not  strictly  nocturnal,  for  it  is  frequently  seen  abroad 

*  la  an  individual  from  Malacca,  the  back  was  very  dark  Indian-red.  with  a  few 
dashes  of  pure  white.    The  identity  of  the  species  is.  however,  doubtful. 


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1846.]  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands.  253 

during  the  day.  It  is  particalarly  fond  of  the  Durian,  the  fruit  of 
Durio  Zibet hinus,  Linn6.  The  flying  squirrel  has  this  partiality,  in 
common  with  various  other  animals,  as  monkeys,  Pteropi  and  Para- 
doxuri;  nay,  the  Malays  assert,  that  they  have  to  watch  this,  their 
favourite  fruit,  against  tigers. 

In  a  female,  measuring  from  the  extremity  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of 
the  tail,  one  foot  six  and  half  inches ;  the  tail  one  foot  nine  inches  :  the 
intestinal  canal  was  of  the  following  dimensions — 

Small  Intestines,  . .  .  •     7  feet  4^  inches. 

Large, 5     „    2      „ 

Caecum,..  ..  ..  ..  ..      2     „   4      „ 

SciuBOPTBRUs,  Fred.  Cuvier. 

SciUROFTBRus  HoBSFiBLnii,  Waterhousc, 
Syn. — Pteromys  aurantiacus,  Wagner,  apud  Gray :  List. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 
Java  ?  Sumatra  ? 
A  single  skin,  brought  from  K^ddah,  measured  from  the  apex  of  the 
nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  eight  and  three- eighth  inches ;  the  tail  eleven 
inches. 

SCIUBOPTBRUS  OBNIBARBIS. 

Syn. — Pteromys  genibarbis,  Horsfield. 

"  Kechubu"  Horsfield. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula, 

Java. 
Of  two,  the  larger,  a  male,  measured  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the 
root  of  the  tail  seven  and  half  inches  ;  the  tail  seven  inches. 

MURIDJI. 

Gbn. — Mus,  Linn^. 
Mus  BAKDicoTA,  Bccbstein. 

Syk.— Mus  giganteus,  Hardwicke, 
Mus  malabaricus,  Shaw, 

Mus  perchal.  Shaw,  ^Apud  Gray  :  List. 

Mus  Icria,  Buchan.  Ham.  MS.    I 
Mus  nemorivagus,  Hodgson,        j 

Tikus  bes&r  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab.— Pfjiflny,  Malayan  Peninsula. 

Southern  Mahratta  Country,  Bengal,  Nipal. 


I 


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254  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inkabiting  [No.  172. 

Mu8  DBOUMANUS,  Pallas. 

Syn. — Mus  javanus,  Pallas,  apud  Schinz. 

Mus  norvegicus,  Brisson,  apad  Qray :  List. 

*'  Tikus"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula,  Pinang. 

Cosmopolita. 

Mus  ssTiFBB,  Horsfield. 
Syn. — •  Tikus  virok/  Horsfield. 

Mus  giganteus,  Temminck,  apud  Gray. 
Hab. — Pinang. 

Java,  Sumatra,  Borneo,  Van  Diemen's  Land. 
The  larger  of  two  individuals,  captured  in  gardens,  measured  head 
and  body,  ten  and  one-eighth  inches ;  the  tail   seven   and  four-eighth 
inches. 

Mus  BUFESCBNS,  Gray. 

Syn. — Mus  flavescens,  Elliot,  \  .      ,  ^  •  •  * 

Musrufus.  Elliot.         |  Apud  Gray  :  Lut. 

Hab. — Pinang, 

Dharwar,  Madras,  Bengal,  Arracan. 

In  the  young,  the  brown  bristles  are  fewer,  and  leave  the  lead- coloured 
under- fur  more  apparent.  The  colour  of  the  abdomen  is  paler  yellowish- 
grey  than  in  the  adult.  The  species  is  numerous  at  Pinang  in  out- 
houses. In  the  largest  observed,  the  head  and  body  measured  seven 
and  six-eighth  inches;  the  tail  (mutilated,)  four  and  two-eighth  inches. 

Mus  MuscuLus,  Linn6  ? 
Syn.—"  Tikus  rdma"  of  the  Malays. 
Hab. — Pinang, 

In  colours,  this  slightly  differs  from  the  European  mouse,  the  upper 
parts  being  a  mixture  of  shining  grey  and  tawny.  The  separate  bain 
are  leaden- grey  at  the  base,  then  tawny  with  black  apex ;  some  are 
longer  and  uniformly  dark-brown.  Beneath  pale- ash.  The  ears  are 
large,  more  than  one-half  of  the  length  of  the  head,  with  very  short 
hairs,  rounded,  blackish.  Toes,  palms  and  soles,  whitish.  Tail  slender, 
dark-grey,  with  very  short  appressed  brown  hairs.  Length  of  the  head 
and  body,  two  and  five-eighth  inches :  tail  two  and  four-eighth  inches. 


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1846.]  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands,  255 

Gbn. — Rbizomts,  Gray. 

Rhizomts  sumatbbnsis^  Gray. 

Stn. — Mus  sumatrensis,  Raffles. 
••  Dekan,"  Raffles. 
Hypudeus  de  Sumatra,  Temm. ' 


} 


Nyctocleptes  Dekan,  Temm.      ^  A  pud  Gray:  List. 
Spalax  javanus,  Cuvier» 

Rhizomys  chinensis.  Gray,  apud  Schinz. 

Rhizomys  cinereus,  McClelland.* 

Rhizomys  Decan,  Schinz. 

"  Tikus  bdlow"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

China,  Moulmein,  Assam. 
Although  the  animal  was  first  described  in  Sir  Stamford  Raffles* 
catalogue  of  collections,  made  in  Sumatra,  the  author  distinctly  states 
that  it  was  forwarded  from  Malacca  by  Major  Farquhar ;  nor  does  it 
appear  to  inhabit  Sumatra,  although  the  specific  name  would  lead  one 
to  suppose  that  such  is  the  case.  The  colour  of  the  adult  is  liable  to 
individual  variations,  from  grey  of  different  shades  to  isabella  or  silvery- 
buff.  The  separate  hairs  are  mostly  of  the  colour  prevailing  in  the 
individual,  mixed  with  single  dark-brown  hairs  with  whitish  apex,  parti- 
cularly on  the  vertex,  continuing  along  the  centre  part  of  the  back.  On 
the  nose,  anterior  part  of  the  head,  and  on  the  cheeks,  the  hairs  are  of 
a  pale  rust  colour.  On  the  vertex  some  white  hairs  form  either  a  spot 
or  a  short  line  of  that  colour.  The  scanty  hairs  of  the  abdomen  are  all 
of  a  pale-greyish  or  isabella  colour.  The  mustachios,  whiskers,  superci- 
liar  and  gular  bristles,  are  either  of  a  pale-brown  or  buff  colour.  The 
young  are  above  of  a  dark-grey,  with  a  brown  streak  on  the  vertex  and 

*  The  description  of  this  supposed  species  f  Calcutta  Journal  qf  Nat.  Hist.  Vol.  II. 
J)'4S^,  PL  XIV.)  states,  **  There  are  four  toes  to  each  fore-foot,  and  five  to  each 
hind-foot."  The  draughtsman  of  PI.  XIV,  **  Rhizomys  cinereus,**  has,  at  all  events, 
observed,  that  all  the  feet  are  five-toed,  however  incorrectly  he  has  represented  the 
animal.  Another  error  occurs  in  the  description,  viz :  **  Sir  Stamford  Raffles  describes 
a  species  of  Bamboo  Rat  found  in  Sumatra  by  Colonel  Farquhar,"  &c.  Sir  S.  Raffles* 
words  are  these :  **  Mos  Suuatrbnsis.  A  drawing  and  specimen  of  an  animal,  which 
appears  related  to  the  Mus  Pilorides,  was  forwarded  from  Malacca"  (not  Sumatra, 
as  erroneously  asserted)  *<  by  Major  Farquhar,  to  the  Asiatic  Society  at  the  same  time 
with  the  Binturong.  I  am  informed  by  him  that  it  is  not  uncommon  at  Malacca, 
and  is  perhaps  to  be  found  in  most  parts  of  the  Malay  Peninsula,"  &c.  Transact 
Unn.  Society,  Vol.  XIII.  Part  II 


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256  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting  [No.  172. 

back ;  beneath  pale-grey.  The  forehead,  nose,  temples,  and  cheeb, 
are  ferruginous.  The  adult,  like  some  squirrels  and  rats,  is  subject  to 
enlargement  of  the  scrotum.  In  confinement,  it  is  very  savage,  scarcely 
tameable.  The  length  of  the  tail  varies  from  about  one-third  to  little  more 
than  one-fourth  of  the  length  of  the  body.  It  is  blackish,  or  brownish ; 
the  apex  whitish.  The  largest  male  examined,  measured  from  the  apex 
of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  one  foot  seven  and  a  half  inches ;  the 
tail  five  and  a  half  inches.  The  female,  in  size  and  colours  equalling 
the  male,  has  ten  mammae,  viz.  two  axillary,  and  three  inguinal  pairs. 

Gen.— Hystbix,  Cuvier. 

Hystkix  lokgicauda,  Marsden. 

Stn. — Acanthion  javanicum,  Fred.  Cuvier  ? 
Hystrix  brevispinosus.  Schinz.* 
*'  Bdbi  L^dak"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

Java,  Sumatra,  Borneo. 
Sir  Stamford  Raffles  has  pointed  out  the  inaccuracy  of  Marsden's 
figure,  representing  the  fore-feet  with  five  toes,  instead  of  with  four,  and  a 
rudimentary  thumb  with  a  flat  nail.  The  figure  also  has  a  few  mane-like 
long  bristles  on  the  head,  whereas  the  mustachios  are  situated  on  the 
side  of  the  nose,  the  whiskers  below  the  ear,  and  one  or  two  bristles 
above  the  eye.  In  colours,  this  species  resembles  Hystrix  leucurut, 
Sykes,  from  which  it  differs  in  the  absence  of  the  long  mane- like  bristles 
of  the  head  and  neck.  Although  single,  scattered,  thin,  flexible  spines, 
upwards  of  twelve  inches  in  length,  occur  on  the  posterior  part  of  the 
back,  the  majority  of  inflexible  spines  are  much  shorter  than  in  Hystrix 
leucurus  or  H,  cristatus,  and  are  either  pure  white,  or  with  a  blackish 
band  in  the  medial  portion.  The  short,  blackish,  slightly  iridescent 
spines  of  the  neck,  anterior  part  of  the  back,  the  limbs,  and  abdomen,  are 
generally  grooved  on  the  upper  surface.  The  short  white  pedunculated 
tubes  of  the  posterior  part  of  the  tail  are  at  first  closed,  terminating  in 
a  short  spine,  which  latter  wears  off,  leaving  the  tubes  open.  The  pubes 

*  In  *'  Nachtrdge  zum  *lUn,  Bande"  this  species  is  supposed  to  be  identical  with, 
and  substituted  for  Atherura  fasciculata^  although  a  very  correct  description  is  giren 
of  both. 


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1846.]  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands,  ^57 

are  disposed  in  a  wreath  of  stiff  bristles,  frequently  of  a  deep  rust 
colour.  The  epidermis  of  this  species,  as  well  as  of  Atherura  is 
remarkably  thin  and  liable  to  be  torn.  Beneath  the  skin  appears  a 
fatty  tissue,  upwards  of  an  inch  in  thickness.  The  anterior  molars  are 
slightly  larger  than  the  rest.  Viewed  from  above,  tit  situ,  the  crown  of 
the  anterior  lower  molar  of  either  side  presents  the  form  of  two  letters 
S,  facing  each  other  (S8).  In  a  foetus, — of  which  the  head  measures 
two  and  one-eighth  inches,  the  body  four  and  three-eighth  inches,  the 
tail  one  inch  in  length, — ^the  whole  of  the  body,  and  the  anterior  half  of 
the  tail  have  numerous  short  hairs,  disposed  on  separate  transverse  lines 
of  six  to  eight  distant  black  hairs,  becoming  longer  on  the  posterior 
part  of  the  back  and  sides.  The  posterior  part  of  the  tail  has  longer 
and  closer  hairs.  In  a  female,  measuring  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to 
the  root  of  the  tail  two  feet  five  inches,  the  tail  four  inches ;  the  intes- 
tinal canal  was  of  the  following  dimensions : 

Small  Intestines, 21  feet     6  inches. 

Large  ditto,         5   j,     10      „ 

Caecum, 1    „       7      „ 

The  stomach  is  of  a  heart-shaped  outline,  with  thin  membranes 
externally  smooth,  internally  with  a  few  longitudinal  rugae  near  the 
narrow  fundus. 

The  species  is  numerous,  and,  as  it  is  considered  a  delicacy  by  the 
Chinese  population,  is  frequently  brought  to  market. 

Gbn. — Athbbuba,  Cuvier. 

Athebuba  fasciculata,  Cuvier. 

S^.— Hystrix  fasciculata,  Lin.,  apud  Cuvier.* 
Hystrix  orientalis,  Brisson,  apud  Gmelin. 
Hystrix  macroura,  Linn6. 
Pore- epic  de  Malacca,  Buffon. 
Hystrix  fasciculata,  Shaw,  apud  Raffles. 
Mus  fasciculatus,  Desmarest. 
Hjriitrix  fasciculata,  Linn6,  apud  Gray :  Illust.f 

*  No  species  of  that  name  occurs  in  Systema  NaUinSy  Ed.  XIII.  Gmelin,  1788, 
but  Hystrix  macroura  is  described  <*cauda  longitudine  corporis" (??)  *'  apice  fasciculo 
pilorum**  &c. 

t  In  the  figure,  the  anterior  foot  has  one  toe  too  many,  the  animal  having  four  toes 
and  a  rudimentary  flat-nailed  thumb.  Nor  is  the  back  of  the  hind  foot  naked,  unless 
indeed  become  so  by  accident. 


2  M 


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258  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting  [No.  172. 

Acantbion  jayanicum,  F.  Cut. 

Atherurus  lasciculatos,  Schinz. 

AtheruruB  macrouros,  Scbinz. 

"  L^dak"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Has. — Pinang,  Malayan  Peninsula. 

Java,  Sumatra,  Borneo. 
The  nose,  lips,  forehead,  and  bade  of  the  feet,  are  covered  with 
greyish-brown  hairs.  The  body  and  limbs  at  the  root  of  the  spine,  are 
covered  with  dense  soft  silky  hairs,  grey  on  the  upper  parts,  and  silvery 
on  the  abdomen.  Single  longer  flexible  spines,  white  with  a  dark 
central  band,  are  scattered  over  the  back.  Hie  anterior  part  of  the  tail 
is,  like  the  back,  covered  with  fUit- grooved  spines,  white  at  the  root, 
then  slightly  iridescent  brown*  and  frequently  with  white  apex.  The 
centre  part  of  the  tail  is  scaly,  with  very  short  spines  between  the  scales. 
The  posterior  part  is  white ;  with  white  or  silvery,  flexible,  and  in  length 
gradually  increasing,  spines,  which  Buffon  has  aptly  compared  to  nar- 
row slips  of  irregularly  cut  parchment.  The  pubes  are  of  a  deep  rust 
colour. 

This  species  is  very  numerous  in  the  Malayan  valleys  and  hills.  ^.  In 
fretful  habits,  and  in  its  food,  it  resembles  the  preceding  porcupine, 
like  which,  it  is  carried  to  the  market  at  Pinang  and  Malacca,  where  as 
many  as  twenty  to  thirty  may  frequently  be  seen.  In  a  male,  measur- 
ing from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  one  foot  ten  inches, 
the  tail  ten  inches ;  the  intestinal  canal  was  of  the  following  dimensions : 

Small  Intestines.  . .  19  feet  4^  inches. 

Large. 5     „     3         „  j 

Caecum,  1     „     3         „ 

The  stomach  is  of  a  general  outline,  resembling  that  of  H.  longieaudat 
but  it  diflers  in  having  an  external  deep  vertical  sulcus,  dividing  the 
stomach  into  a  pyloric  and  a  cardiac  portion,  which  latter  presents  6  to  7 
deep  oblique  sulci.  The  membranes  of  the  stomach  are  thick  and  mos- 
eular.  Internally  the  cardiac  portion  is  transversally  divided  by  six  or  seven 
ridges,  corresponding  to  the  external  sulci,  intersected  by  numerous  con- 
centric rugse.  The  pyloric  portion,  separated  from  the  cardiac  by  the 
rugae  produced  by  the  external  vertical  sulcus,  is  much  smoother,  and 
has  but  few  rugae. 


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1846.]  the  Mi^an  Peninsula  and  Islands.  259 

EDENTATA. 

Gek. — Manis,  Linn^. 
Mahis  jayanica,  Deemarest. 

Stn. — Mftnis  pentadactyla,  Lin.»  &pad  Raffles. 
Mahifi  aspera,  Sundeval. 
M.  qttinqaedaetyla.  Raffles,  apad  Gray :  List. 
**  Ptengdling"  or  "  Tangiling"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Pinang,  Malayan  Peninsula, 
Java,  Sumatra,  Borneo. 
The  series  of  dorsal  scales  vary  in  individuals  from  16  to  19.     The 
number  of  central  dorsal  vary  from  20  to  22  ;  the  central  and  the  mar- 
ginal caudal  from  26  to  29  :  in  the  young  all  the  scales  are  finely  linea- 
ted  and  the  rounded  apex  only  is  smooth.     With  age  the  lines  become 
obfiterated  on  the  exposed  surface  of  the  scales,  between  which  appear  a 
few  long  whitish  bristles.    The  very  young  animal  corresponds  to  the 
description  of  Manis  aspera,  Sundeval.     The  eyelids,  the  margins  of 
the  ears,  and  the  scaleless  parts,  except  the  palms  and  soles,  are  scantily 
prorided  witih  short  whitish  habs.     The  two  pectoral  mammse  are 
situated  at  a  short  distance  from  the  axilla.     Its  habits  present  nothing 
difierent  from  those  of  Manis  crassicaudata  (M,  pentadactyla ,  Linn6), 
of  which  an  interesting  account  is  communicated  by  Lieut.  R.  S.  Tickell 
in  Journal  Asiatic  Society,  Vol.  XI.  1842.  p.  221. 

The  present  species,  although  nun[ierous  in  rocky  situations,  is  not 
often  captured,  as  it  is  seldom  abroad  till  after  sunset.  The  largest  male 
measured  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  one  foot  nine 
and  a  half  inches ;  the  tail  one  foot  eight  inches.  In  a  younger  mEile, 
the  entire  length  of  which  was  one  foot  eleven  inches ;  the  intestinal 
canal  was  of  the  following  dimensions : 

Small  Intestines,        . .  . .  8  feet  4  inches. 

Large  ditto, 0    „    6      „ 

Caecum  is  rudimentary,  indicated  by  a  slight,  yet  distinct  widening  of 
the  intestines.  The  stomacb  is  capacious,  the  pyloric  region  thickened 
and  gizzard-like.  On  the  external  surface,  where  the  greater  curvature 
begins  to  ascend,  is  situated  a  small  (one  inch  in  length,  one  and  three- 
eighth  in  breadth)  triangular,  externally  gyrated,  glandular  body,  firmly 
attached  to  the  stomach,  but  not  communicating  with  the  cavity.     Its 


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260  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting  [No.  172. 

external  appearance  might  be  compared  to  that  of  a  crest  of  ostrich  fea- 
thers. The  narrowed  apex,  towards  the  pylorus,  is  provided  with 
a  small,  thick,  rounded  and  wrinkled  opening,  surrounded  by  concentric 
fibres,  leading  by  a  common,  short,  cylindrical  duct  to  the  broader  cavi- 
ty, which  latter  is  divided  by  two  longitudinal  parietes  into  three  sepa- 
rate portions.  If  a  tube  is  introduced  into  the  common  duct,  the 
air  injected  will  simultaneously  fill  all  three  portions  of  the  cavity,  bat 
if  the  tube  is  inserted  into  any  one  of  the  three  separate  portions,  the 
air  will  fill  that  particular  portion,  leaving  the  two  others  collapsed. 
The  interior  surface  of  this  organ  secretes  a  whitish  mucus.  Adjoining 
the  common  opening,  from  ten  to  eleven  small  rounded  glands  com- 
mence, arranged  on  a  line  towards  the  pylorus.  Each  gland  has,  in  its 
centre,  a  minute  wrinkled  opening,  leading  into  a  small  cavity  secret- 
ing mucus. 

The  stomach  was  extended  by  the  remains  (heads  and  legs,)  of  a  pro- 
digious quantity  of  large  black  ants,  inhabiting  the  hills.  The  contents 
of  the  stomach  were  involved  in  mucus,  deeply  tinctured  with  bile,  and 
among  them  appeared  five  small  rounded  fragments  of  granite.  Another 
individual  expired  after  10  days  confinement,  during  which  period  it  took 
no  food,  although  it  was  repeatedly  placed  among  swarms  of  the  black 
and  red  ants,  so  excessively  numerous  in  the  valley  of  Pinang.  Water  it 
always  took  when  oflfered,.  lapping  it  up  with  the  tongue  in  the  same 
manner  that  serpents  drink. 

Costae  verse  8  pairs ;  spuriae  7  pairs  =15  pairs.  The  ensiform  process 
of  the  OS  sternum  is  greatly  elongated,  terminating  in  a  broad,  rounded, 
thin  cartilaginous  plate. 

PACHYDERMATA. 

Proboscoidba. 

Gbn. — Elbfhas,  Linne, 

Elephas  indicus,  Linn6. 

Syn.— "  G6jah"  of  the  Malays. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

India,  Burma,  Siam,  Ceylon,  Sumatra,  Borneo. 


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200  ., 
220  .. 
400  ,. 
420  „ 
an  advance  on  the  last 


1846.]  tke  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands.  261 

Elephants  are  very  numerous  on  the  Malayan  Peninsula.     They  may 
be  procured  at  the  following,  rates  : — 

"  For  an  elephant  4  feet  6  inches  high,   ..      120  Dollars. 

Ditto,     5     „    3  „ 

Ditto,     6     „    0 

Ditto,     6     „    9  „ 

Ditto,  7  „  6 
Those  exceeding  this  height  are  paid  for  at 
mentioned  rate  of  20  dollars  for  one  foot  six  inches.  If  ahove  eight 
feet  and  three  inches,  then  an  addition  of  40  doUarHor  each  one  foot  six 
m\itiS  is  charged.  Elephants  ten  feet  six  inches  in  height  are  taken  hy 
the  Siamese  to  the  Capital,  and  it  is  not  permitted  to  sell  them.  The 
Keddah  chiefs  used  formerly  to  breed  elephants,  a  speculation  rarely, 
if  ever,  attempted  elsewhere.  Coromandel  Native  Traders  were,  until  late 
years,  constantly  in  the  habit  of  loading  vessels  with  elephants  for  that 
Coast."  (Extract  from  Lieut.  Colonel  James  Low's  **  Dissertation"  *c.) 

O&DINABIA. 

Gen. — Sus,  LinnS, 
Sus  iNDicus,  Schinz. 
Syn.— Sus  Scrofa,  Linn^,  apud  Elliot. 

Sus  indicus,  f  Ap^j  Qrav  List 

Sus  Scropha,  Hodgson,        ^    ^  ^' 

Sus  vittatns,  Schlegel. 

Sus  cristatus,  Wagner,  apud  Schinz. 

"  B&bi  titan"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Has. — Malayan  Peninsula,  Pinang,  Singapore,  Lancavy  Islands, 

Bengal,  Nipal,  Southern  Mahratta  Country. 
The  difference  between  the  Indian  and  the  German  wild  hog  (^us 
Scrofa  ferus,  Lin.)  have  been  pointed  out  by  W.  Elliot,  Esq.  ("Madras 
Journal,  Vol.  X.  1839,  p.  219.)  The  colour  of  the  adult  is  brown- 
ish-black,  scantily  covered  with  black  hairs,  of  which  few  retain 
^e  infantile  yellowish  sub-terminal  band.  Besides  the  black  recum- 
bent mane  of  the  occiput  and  back,  the  whiskers  and  bristles  above 
^d  below  the  eye,  there  is  a  bundle  of  long  black  bristles  on  the 
^oat.  The  hairs  of  the  throat  and  chest  are  reversed.  The  tail  is 
scantily  covered   with  short  hairs,  the  apex  compressed,  with  long 


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262  Caialegue  of  Mammalia  mhabiting  [No.  172. 

lateral  bristles,  like  those  of  the  elephant,  arranged  like  the  wings  of  an 
arrow.  The  young  is  more  hairy,  with  the  plurality  of  hairs  tawny  or 
fulvous,  some  with  black  root  and  apex,  which,  as  they  are  more  or  less 
mixed  with  black  hairs, .produce  on  the  sides  of  the  body  saturated 
fulvous  stripes.  The  hairs  of  the  throat,  chest,  abdomen,  and  elbows, 
(in  the  two  latter  places  very  long,)  are  black  at  the  basal,  and  white  at 
the  apical  half.  Wild  hogs  are  exceedingly  numerous  on  the  Peninsula, 
and  most  of  the  Malayan  Islands.  The  largest  boar  examined  measur- 
ed from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail,  five  feet ;  the  tail 
one  foot.  The  stomach  of  a  young  boar,  examined  shortly  after  it  had 
been  speared,  was  extended  with  food,  principally  consisting  of  the  re- 
mains  of  a  very  large  coleopterous  larva,  some  small  seeds  of  difierent 
kinds>  leaves,  grass  and  roots. 

Sirs  ScBOFA,  Vae.  siksnsis,  liinn^. 

Syn.— "  Babi"  of  the  Malays. 

Introduced  by  the  Chinese  settlers. 

Gbn. — RHiNOCBRoa,  Linne. 

Rhinoceros  unicornis,  Linn^. 

Syn. —-Rhinoceros  indicus,  Cuvier. 

Rhinoceros  asiaticus,  Blumenbach. 

Rhinoceros  inermis,  lesson. 

"  B^dak"  of  the  Mahiys  of  the  Peninsula. 
Has. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

Bengal,  Assam,  Nipal. 

Rhinocbros  sondaicus,  Cuvier. 

Syn. — Rhinoceros  sondaicus,  Cuvier,     \  a     a  u^   4i^^A 
"  W^ak,"  -  Bddak/'  f  ^P'^^  Horsfield. 

Rhinoceros  javanensis,  F.  Cuvier,  apud  Schinz.  , 
HAB.-^MalayMn  Peninsula. 

Java. 
This,  as  well  as  the  former  species,  appears  to  be  numerous  on  the 
Malayan  Peninsula. 


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1846.]  the  Muiafan  Pemnwla  and  Islands.  263 

A  two-homed  Rhinoceros  is  stated  by  the  Malays  to  inhabit,  but  rare- 
ly to  leave,  the  densest  jangle.  The  Museum  of  the  Asiatic  Society 
possesses  a  skull,  and  also  a  head  with  the  skin  on,  of  Rhinoceros 
Simatranus,  Raffles,  from  the  Tenasserim  Provinces,  in  which  locality 
the  existence  of  the  species  has  been  recorded  by  Dr.  Heifer  and 
Mr.  Biyth.  This  fact  would  seem  to  corroborate  the  statement  of 
the  Malays,  and  the  habitat  of  Rhinoceros  Sumatranus  may  reasonably 
be  expected  to  be  hereafter  found  to  extend  over  the  neighbouring  Malayan 
Peninsula.  As  such,  it  has  indeed  been  enumerated  by  Capt.  Begbie, 
the  author  of  "  Malayan  Peninsula"  4c.,  Madras,  1834.  In  lieut. 
Gol.  Low's  History  of  Tenasserim  (Journal  Royal  Asiatic  Society*  vol.  3. 
1 1836J  is  figured  the  head  of  a  young  Rhinoceros,  which,  from  the  con- 
nderable  protuberance  between  the  eyes,  appears  to  represent  a  two- 
homed,  probably  the  present,  species. 


Gen. — ^TAPiaus,  Linn4. 

Tapirus  malatanus,  Raffles. 

Stit. — Tapirus  malayanus,  apud  Horsfield. 

Tapirus  indicus,  Fred.  Cuvier. 

Tapirus  sumatranus,  Gray. 

Me  des  Ohinois,  Remusat,  young  ?  apud  Gray :  List. 

Tapirus  bicolor,  Wagner,  apud  Schinz. 

"  B^dak/'  «•  K6da  Ayer,"  "  Tennd"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Penin- 
sula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

Sumatra,  Borneo. 
The  body  of  a  newborn  male,  found  in  Province  Wellesley  in  August 
1844,  was  shortly  after  its  death  carried  over  to  Pinang.  As  described 
by  Colonel  Farquhar,  it  was  of  a  beautiful  black  velvet  colour,  with  purple 
reflections,  with  numerous  small,  and  other  larger,  irregular  spots  on 
the  body,  arranged  in  longitudinal  stripes,  above  of  a  rich  gamboge, 
beneath  and  on  the  inner  side  of  the  extremities,  paler  yellow.  The 
under-lip  was  white.  The  shrivelled  remSdns  of  the  black  funiculus 
umbilicalis  were  upwards  of  four  inches  in  length.  The  fur  very  short, 
dense,  and  velvety.  The  separate  hairs,  of  either  of  the  two  prevailing 
colours,  slightly  curly. 


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264 


Catalogue  of  Mammalia  ifikabiting 


[No.  172. 


Dimensions. 

Length  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail,  1  foot  10  inches. 
,,     of  the  head,     . .  . .  . .  . .  . .      0    ,,     7      i, 

„     of  the  tail,       . .  . .  . .  . .  . .      0    „      1  i    „ 

„    of  the  ear 0    „      1|    „ 

Diameter  of  the  head  from  vertex,  .  •         . .         . .      0    „     5      „ 
Height  of  the  shoulder,        . .  . .  . .  .  •      0     „     8^    „ 

„     „     „      haunch,         0     „      9      „ 

The  animal,  from  which  a  sketch  was  taken  on  its  arrival  at  Pinang, 
was  the  property  of  the  Rev.  R.  Panting,  a.  m.  The  skin,  imperfectly 
preserved,  has  lately  been  deposited  in  the  Museum  of  the  Asiatic. 
Society. 

On  the  16th  of  May  1845,  I  obtained  a  living  young  female  Tapir, 
captured  in  Keddah  a  few  days  previously.  Though  still  in  its  infan- 
tile garb,  it  was  older  than  the  preceding.  The  ground  colour  was  a 
brownish-black,  like  worn-out  velvet ;  the  spots,  stripes,  and  the  poste- 
rior part  of  the  abdomen  were  of  a  dirty-white.  The  separate  hairs  were 
longer  and  curly ;  the  hairy  ears  retained  numerous  white  spots  on  the 
margins  and  external  surface.  The  lips  were  blackish,  with  numerous 
short  distant  bristles,  which  also  appeared  round  the  nostrils,  on  the 
ridge  of  the  nose,  above  and  below  the  eyes,  on  the  cheeks  and  on  the 
throat.  Two  black  mammae  were  situated  between  the  hind  legs,  three 
and  a  half  inches  behind  the  large  naked  cicatrix  of  Funiculus  umbOicalis. 

Dimensions. 


Length  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail,  3  feet  4f  inches. 

„     of  the  head, 

„      of  the  tail,     . . 
„     of  the  ear. 
Diameter  of  the  head  from  vertex,. . 
Height  of  the  shoulder, 
„  „      haunch. 

Greatest  circumference  round  the  body. 
Circumference  at  the  root  of  the  ear. 


1 

>> 

0     .. 

0 

»f 

ll.. 

0 
0 

I* 

5|„ 
4      .. 

1 

>» 

1 

„ 

6      .. 

2 

»» 

6      „ 

0 

j> 

6      ., 

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1846.]  the  M^OM  Penmsuia  tmd  liknds.  265 

Dentition. 

6     ^    .       0.0  . ,  ,         3.3 

Incis.    -^    Canin.  "fTT  "*°**"*»    3.3 

From  the  fint,  although  fresh  from  its  native  wilds*  this  young  Tapir 
shewed  a  remarkably  gentle  disposition.     The  daytime  it  spent  in 
sleeping  in  a  dark  recess  of  the  portico  of  my  house,  though  it  would 
rouse  itself  if  noticed.    Towards  sunset  it  became  lively,  would  bathe, 
feed,  saunter  abroad,  and  with  its  lengthened  nose  examine  objects 
in  the  way.     Within  a  few  days  after  its  arrival,  it  commenced  to 
exhibit  a  marked  partiality  to  the  society  of  man,  not  indeed  to  its 
keeper  in  particular,  whom  it  scarcely  had  discrimination  enough  to 
distinguish,  but  to  any  body  who  happened  to  notice  or  caress  it. 
Towards  sunset,  it  would  follow  a  servant  on  the  green  in  front  of 
the  house,  and  punctually  imitate  his  movements,  Whether  standing, 
walking,  or  running.      If  the  man  suddenly  hid  himself,  the  Tapir 
would  hasten  to  the  spot  where  it  had  lost  sight  of  its  leader,  look 
about  in  all  directions,  and,  if  unsuccessful  in  discovering  him,  express 
its  disappointment  by  a  peculiar  loud  whistling.    On  the  re- appearance 
of  the  man,  it  expressed  its  pleasure  by  rubbing  its  side  against  his 
legs,  running  between  them,  occasionally  giving  out  a  short  singular 
sound,  resembling  that  produced  when  the  larger  wood-peckers  tap 
the  trees,  but  more  sonorous.     When  of  an  evening  it  heard  the  voices 
of  people  in  the  verandah  above  the  portico,  it  exhibited  strong  marks 
of  impatience,  till  let  loose,  when  of  its  own  accord  it  would,  awkward^ 
I7  enough,  ascend  a  flight  of  stairs  leading  to  the  verandah.     It  would 
then  quietly  lie  down  at  their  feet,  and  by  stretching  its  limbs  and  shak- 
ing its  head,  express  the  satisfaction  it  derived  from  being  caressed ; 
and  it  was  only  by  compulsion  that  it  could  be  made  to  leave  the 
company.     Ita*  food  consisted  of  plantains,  pine-apples,  mangustins, 
jambu,  leaves  of  Ficus  pipul,  sugar-cane,  and  boiled  rice,  of  which 
latter  it  waa  particularly  fond,  if  mixed  with  a  little  salt.     Its  drink 
was  water,  and  also  milk  and  ooooanut  oil,  which  latter  taste  the 
Tapir  possesses  in  common  with  the  O'rang-dtan.     It  delighted  in 
bathing,  and  was  otherwise  cleanly.     When  roaming  about  the  garden, 
(its  walk  was  like  that  of  the  elephant,)  it  would  select  a  spot  with  soft 
earth,  and  like  a  cat  form  with  its  hind  legs  a  small  excavation,  and 

2n 


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2BS  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting  [No.  172. 

again  coyer  it.  The  whole  body  has  a  peculiar,  and  by  no  means  offen- 
sive exhalation,  somewhat  resembling  that  ^oted  of  Arcticiis  Binturong, 
Indeed*  this  is  so  tenacious*  that  although  the  skin  of  the  individual  above 
described  has  been  preserved  more  than  a  twelvemonth,  and  kept  in  a 
strongly  camphorated  case,  the  odour  is  still  perceptible. 

On  the  27th  of  June  1845,  the  subject  of  the  preceding  notice 
expired  after  two  days'  illnes?,  from  inflammation  of  the  lungs,  brought 
on  by  the  strong  southerly  winds,  prevailing  throughout  the  Straits  of 
Malacca  during  the  season,  which  in  man  produce  a  slight  influenza, 
in  animals  frequently  terminating  fatally.  The  few  adult  Tapirs* 
which  occasionally  have  been  kept  in  confinement  by  residents  at  Ma- 
lacca, have  acquired  the  character  of  being  hardy  animals.  During  the 
short  period  that  the  present  lived  in  my  possession,  no  perceptible 
change  appeared  in  its  growth,  but  a  striking  alteration  took  place  in  its 
colours.  Nearly  all  the  white  spots  on  the  head,  nape  of  the  neck,  and 
back  of  the  ears,  gradually  disappeared,  and  the  upper  part  only  of  the 
margin  of  the  earis  remained  white,  which  colour  it  retains  in  the 
adult  animal.  On  the  posterior  part  of  the  back  and  sides,  the  black 
and  white  stripes  were  in  a  state  of  progressing  obliteration,  their  hairs 
had  faded  to  a  brownish  colour,  and  were  about  being  replaced  by  a 
shorter  and  less  dense  fur  of  the  fresh  white  hairs,  which  were  to  form 
the  characteristic  permanent  white  mark,  already  appearing  in  outline, 
when  death  terminated  the  unfinished  process  of  nature. 

Vertebrae ;  cervical  seven,  of  which  the  atlas  and  epistrophseus  are  the 
largest;  dorsal  twenty;  lumbar  four;  sacral  seven;  caudal  three. 

Sternum.  The  anterior  extremity  cartilaginous,  sharply  keeled,  arched, 
continued  over  manubrium,  composed  of  two  rounded  angularly-joined 
pieces,  as  far  as  the  second  pair  of  ribs ;  corpus  composed  of  five  pieces, 
of  which  the  two  posterior,  in  a  pair,  are  connected  by  cartilage. 

Gostse  verae,  eight  pairs;  spuriae,  twelve  pairs  =  twenty  pairs;  the 
last  spurious  rib  is  rudimentary,  and  absent  on  the  left  side. 

Femur,  five  and  two-eighth  inches  long ;  the  large  bony  sub-troclian- 
teric  process,  described  by  Sir  Everard  Home,  is  developed,  though  partly 
cartilaginous,  measuring  one  inch  in  length  at  the  base. 

liver  of  mod^te  size,  each  lobe  divided  into  two  portions  of  nearly 
equal  size. 

Gall-bladder;  none. 


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1846.]  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands ,  267 

Spleen ;  tongue-shaped,  flattened,  with  catting  marginfl,  seyen  and  a 
half  inches  in  length,  one  and  six-eighth  in  breadth. 

Pancreas ;  in  a  state  not  to  admit  of  accurate  examination. 

Kidneys ;  three  and  six-eighth  inches  in  length  ;  one  and  six-eighth 
in  breadth. 

Renes  succenturiad ;  none. 

Urinary  bladder ;  very  large. 

Stomach ;  capacious.  Its  dimensions  in  the  state  in  which  it  appeared, 
distended  with  food,  were — 

Length  along  the  smaller  curvature,    .  •  .  .^  0  feet  5  i  inches. 

»              »>       greater,      „             ..  ..  1  „  9^    „ 

Circumference  from  cardia  round  fundus,  . .  1  „  0      „ 

„            round  pylorus,  . .          . .  . .  0  „  3^    „ 

The  internal  surface  smooth,  villous. 

Where  the  duodenum  joins  the  pylorus,  it  is  considerably  widened. 
Length  of  the  intestinal  canal : 

Small  Intestines, 27  feet  7  inches. 

Large,        „        6     „    4      „ 

Caecum, 0     „     6      ,*, 

Average  circumference  of  small, . .  0    „     2f    „ 

„  „  larg^,  . .         • .  0    ,t    ^\    ,t 

Caecum  sacculated,  with  a  longitudinal  band  on  either  side.  Distend- 
ed with  faeces  as  it  appeared,  the  greatest  circumference  close  to  the 
fundus  was  one  foot  one  and  a  half  inch. 

In  the  adult  Tapir  dissected  by  Sir  E.  Home,  and  which  was  according 
to  Mr.  Yarrell  eight  feet  in  length,  the  relative  proportion  between  the 
length  of  the  intestinal  canal  and  that  of  the  body,  was  as  eleven  to  one. 
In  the  present  young  female,  the  relative  length  of  the  intestinal  canal 
is  proportionally  less  than  in  the  adult,  being  less  than  as  tea  to  one. 

SOLIDXTNSULA. 

Gbn. — ^Bquus,  Ltita^. 
Bauus  cABALLus,  Liuu^. 
The  horse,  "  Kuda"  of  the  Malays,  appears  not  to  be  indigenous  in 
the  Peninsula.  The  few  ponies,  which  the  wealthier  use  for  ordinary 
purposes,  are  imported  either  from  Siam,  Burma,  or  Sumatra.  The 
Malays  either  travel  by  water,  or  prefer  the  elephant- as  a  locomotive 
more  dignified  than  the  horse. 


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268  CtUMlague  of  MtmmMlia  tMhabitiMg  [No.  172. 

RUMINANTIA. 

Gbn.-*— M08CHV8,  Linnd. 

Tragulvs,  Brisson. 

Tbagulus  Kanchil,  Gray  :  List. 

St27. — Chevrotain  adulte. 


-SZS5fS?i,    }<>^.'^o^r. 


Javan  Musk,  Shaw. 

Moschos  Palandok,  Marsden. 

Moschud  Kanchil,  Raffles. 

Pelandok,  Raffles. 

Moschos  fulviventer,  Ghray. 

'*  Kanchil"  or  *'  Peldndok"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Singapore,  Pinang,  Lancavy  Islands,  Malayan  Peninsula. 

Sumatra,  Java. 
In  some  individuals  the  back  is  nearly  black.    The  colour  and  distri- 
bution of  the  marks  of  the  chest  and  abdomen  are  also  liable,  to  individual 
variations^  one  of  which  gave  rise  to  the  supposed  species:  Moschms 
/ulviventer.    The  animal  is  by  the  Malays  indiscriminately  denominated 
"  K&nchii"  and  *'  Pel&ndok  ;'*  the  latter  denomination  is  sometimes  par 
excellence  applied  to  the  young,  and  this  circumstance  in  all  probability 
gave  rise  to  the  supposed  species  Moschus  Pelandok.    The  species  ib 
astonishingly  numerous.     In  Prince  of  Wales*  Island,  any  number  may 
be  procured  within  a  short  notice,  at  the  rate  of  one  Spanish  dollar  per 
dozen.     Knowing  the  partiality  of  these  deer  to  the  leaves  of  the  swe^ 
potato,  plant  fComvolvolus  batatas  J  the  Malays  either  use  traps,  baited 
with  this  vegetable,  or  lie  in  ambush  in  moonlight  nights  in  fields  where 
it  is  cultivated,  and  disable  the  intruders  by  throwing  sticks  at  their 
legs.     In  confinement,  in  its  native  climate,  the  animal  becomes  rather 
delicate,  though  it  occasionally  survives,  and  even  breeds.    The  female 
has  four  mammae,  and  one  or  two  young  at  the  time.    The  new*  born 
measures  eight  and  six-eighth  inches  in  length,  of  which  the  head  is 
three  inches,  the  tail  one  inch.    The  skin  of  the  upper  parts  is  of  a  pale 
blackish  colour,  scantily  covered  with  short,  fine,  brown  hairs.     The 
abdomen  and  inner  side  of  the  limbs  are  pale  yellow;  the  throat  and 
chest  have  the  dark  marks  of  the  adult,  but  paler.    The  largest  adults 
measure  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail,  me  foot  six 
and  a  half  inches ;  the  tail  three  inches  in  length. 


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i 


1646.]  the  Malayan  PemnnUa  and  Islands.  269 

Tbaqulvs  jayanicus,  PallaB, 

Stit. — Moschus  javanicus,  Omelin. 

Moschos  jayanicos,  Pallas,  apad  Raffles. 

Napu,  Raffles. 

Moschos  indicus,  Ghanelin,  I  *  _ ,  f^^_ 
Cervu8javamc5iis.08bek,  ppuaway. 

Moschos  Napa,  Fred.  Cuyier. 

"  N&pu"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 

Hab. — Malayan  Petunnda. 

Sumatra,  Jara,  Borneo. 

On  the  Malayan  Peninsula,  the  species  appears  to  be  far  less  numerous 

,  than  the  preceding.    The  canines  of  the  female  are  very  small.    The 

\  four  mammae  are  situated  at  the  posterior  part  of  the  abdomen,  a  little 

in  front  of  the  hind  legs.    The  anterior  pair  are  half  an  inch  apart ;  the 

posterior  two-eighth  of  an  inch  apart.    The  two  pairs  are  half  an  inch 

distant  from  each  other.    In  an  adult  female,  measuring  from  the  apex  of 

I  the  nose  to  the  root  of  the  tail  two  feet,  four  and  two*eighth  inches ;  the 

I  tail  five  inches :  the  intestinal  canal  was  of  the  following  dimensions : 

Small  Intestines, Id  feet    6  inches. 

Large  ditto,  7    „     10     „ 

Csecum,     ..         ..         ••         ••         ••0„      6,, 

The  gall-bladder  is  very  large ;  immediately  behind  it  is  situated  Um 
right  kidney. 

Gbn.— Cbbvus,  Linnd, 

Sttlocibos,  Hamilton  Smith. 

Sttlocbbos  Mxtntjak,  H.  Smith. 

Stv.— GheyieuiL  des  Indes^  AUamand. 

Cenrus  Muntjak,  Zimmerman,  apud  Horsfield,  Sykes  and  Elliot. 

Cenrus  Muntjak,  Boddaert,  ^ 

Cervus  vaginalis,  Boddaert, 

Cervus  Muntjak,  Schreber, 

Cervus  Muntjak,  Marsden, 

Cervus  moschatus,  Blainville,  ^Apud  Horsfield. 

Cervus  subcomutus,  Blainville, 

Cervus  Munljak  ?  Shreb,  apud  Raffles, 

Cervus  Muntjak,  Desmarest, 

Cervus  moschus,  Desmarest, 


•J 


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270  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabitmg  [No.  172. 


Cervus  aureus,  Ham.  Smith,  "| 

Cervus  Ratwa,  Hodgson,  J 

Muntjacus  vaginalis,  Gray :  List. 

Cervus  Muntiac,  Linn^,  apud  Schinz.'^ 

"  Kidang*'  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula, 

Java,  Sumatra,  Banka,  Borneo,  Tenasserim,  Nipal,  Assam*  Ben- 
gal, South  Mahratta  Country,  Dukhun. 
In  a  young  male*  measuring  from  the  apex  of  the  nose  to  the  root  of 
the  tail  three  feet  and  one,  inch,  the  tail  seven  inches ;  the  intestinal 
canal  was  of  the  following  dimensions  : 

Small  Intestines,  . .         . .         .  •         . .      13  feet  10  inches. 

Large* 22    „       I     „ 

Caecum,    ..  ..  ..  ..  ..       0    „       9     *, 

The  right  lobe  of  the  liver  lies  in  contact  with  the  right  kidney ;  the 
spleen  with  the  left. 
Gall-bladder ;  none. 

Axis,  Hamilton  Smith. 

Axis  maculatus,  Hamilton  Smith. 

Stn. — ^Axis,  Plinius. 

Cervus  axis,  Erxleben,  apud  Gmelin. 

Cervus  nudipalpebra,  Ogilby,  (black  Var.)  1 

Axis  major,  Hodgson,      >  Apud  Gray  :  lost. 

Axis  minor,  Hodgson, J 

"  Rdsa  Btinga"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 

Hab.— Ma/ay  an  Peninsula,  Pinang. 

Sumatra,  Bengal,  Assam,  Nipal,  Southern  Mahratta  Country* 

Ceylon. 

*  In  *'  Nachtr'age  zum  2ten.  Bande,"  the  author  suggests  that  six  distinct  species 
are  supposed  to  lie  hid  under  the  denomination  of  Cervus  Muntiac,  vis  : 

1.  Cervus  styloceros,  Schinz,  Syn,  C,  Muntiac,  Lin.  apud  Ogilby.    Hah.  Hina- 
lay  ah. 

2.  Cervus  Ratwa,  Hodgson.    Hah.  Himalayah. 

3.  Cervus  albipes,  F.  Cu?ier.    Hah.  India. 

4.  Cervus  Mun^ac,  Raffles  and  Horsfield.    Hah*  Java,  Sumatra,  Banka,  Borneo. 

5.  Cervus  Reevesu,  Ogilby.    Hah.  China. 

6.  Cervus  antisiensis,  Pucherank    Hah.  Andes. 


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1846.]  the  Mda^an  Peninsulu  and  Islands.  271 

Sir  Stamford  Raffles  thinks  it  probable  that  the  Axis  in  Sumatra  has 
been  introduced  from  Bengal.  It  is  numerous  in  Keddah,  and  at 
present  in  Pinang.  But  it  did  not  inhabit  Prince  of  Wales'  Island  till 
one  of  the  last  Governors  of  the  late  Presidency  took  the  trouble  of  im- 
porting from  Bengal  some  pairs,  which  were  kept  in  the  park  adjoining 
Government  House,  (Suffolk  House.)  When  the  Presidency  of  Prince 
of  Wales'  Island  was  abolished,  and  with  it  all  its  paraphernalia,  ex- 
cept the  titles  of  as  many  of  its  officers  as  were  necessary  to  the  con- 
tinuance of  H.  M.  Court  of  Judicature,  the  deer  of  the  quondam  Gover- 
nor's park  found  their  way  into  the  jungle,  where  they  have  multiplied 
to  a  prodigious  extent. 

RiTSA,  Hamilton  Smith. 

RusA  EQUINA,  Hamilton  Smith. 

Stn. — Oervus  equinus.  Cuvier. 

Cervus  Rusa,  Raffles. 

Rusa  etam  or  Kumbang,  Raffles. 

<'  Rdsa"  or  **  Rdsa  ^tam"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula,  Pinang, 

Sumatra,  Borneo. 
The  Malayan  individuals  correspond  with  the  description  given  by  Sir 
S.  Raffles  of  Cervus  Rusa.  The  lips  are  whitish ;  the  posterior  part  of 
the  lower,  sometimes  dark- brown.  Round  the  &yes  and  the  lachrymal 
sinus,  on  th«  side  of  the  forehead,  root  of  the  ears,  and  on  the  throat, 
the  hairs  are  either  uniformly  pale  ferruginous,  or  have  a  subterminal 
band  of  that  colour,  the  effect  of  which  is  to  impart  a  pale  rusty  tint  to 
these  parts.  Normally,  each  horn  has  three  antlers,  of  which  the  lower 
or  anterior,  commencing  from  the  burr,  is  directed  outwards  till  towards 
the  apex,  which  turns  slightly  inward.  The  second  and  outward  turned 
antler  commences  at  the  root  of  the  third,  and  is  the  shortest  of  the 
three.  The  third  is  directed  inwards,  and  is  the  longest  of  the  three. 
In  the  number,  direction,  and  size  of  the  antlers,  numerous  individual 
variations  occur. 

According  to  Mr.  Blyth*s  observations,  Cervus  Hippelaphus  has, 
normally,  the  third  antler  much  longer  than  the  second ;  Cervus  AHsto^ 
telis  has  much  larger  and  more  divergent  horns,  of  which  the  second 
and  third  antlers  are  about  equal.     Considering  the  similarity  of  colours 


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2712  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  imkabitmff  [No.  172. 

and  size  of  Cervus  equiwus,  Hippelaphus,  and  AriatoUUs,  Mr.  Elliot  is  pro- 
bably  right  in  considering  all  three  as  varieties  of  the  great  Indian  stag, 
described  by  Aristotle  nnder  the  designation  of  Hippeiaphus,  (Madraa 
Journal,  1839.  p.  220.),  and  Cervua  Peronit,  Cuvier— Cerf  da  Timor— - 
may  probably  be  added  as  a  fourth  variety. 

Panolia,  Gray :  List. 

Panolia  acuticobnis,  Gray :  List  ? 

Stw. — Cervus  frontalis,  McClelland  ? 

Cervus  lyratus,  Schinz  ? 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

A  single  skull  of  a  stag,  killed  in  Keddah,  has  the  horns  so  like  those 
of  the  Munneepore  animal,  that  the  species  might  be  taken  to  be  identi- 
cal, but  that  the  Malays  assert  theirs  to  be  maned,  and  of  a  dark  colour, 
with  white  spots,  like  the  Axis.  This  stag  is  further  described  as  being 
extremely  wary,  and  therefore  seldom  seen  but  on  heights  inaccessible 
to  man.  The  skull  is  of  an  old  male,  with  the  teeth,  canines  in  particu- 
lar, much  ground. 

Gen. — Antilopb,  Linn^, 

Njcmobpbdus,  Hamilton  Smith. 

Njcmobhedus  suuatbbnsis,  Hamilton  Smith. 

Stk. — Kambing  utan,  Marsden. 

Antilope  sumatrensis.  Pennant,  apud  Raffles. 

Cambtan,  Fred.  Cuvier. 

Antilope  interscapulars,  Lichtenstein,  apud  Schinz. 

"  Kdmbing  dtan"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan  Peninsula* 

Sumatra,  Tenasserim. 
It  appears  to  be  numerous  on  the  Malayan  Peninsula,  but  exceedingly 
difficult  to  obtain,  as  it  frequents  the  steepest  hiUy  localities,  and  is  very 
shy  and  active. 

Gbk.— Bos,  Linn^. 

Bos  oouB,  Trail. 
Stk. — Bos  Oaurus,  Ham.  Smith. 
Bison  Gaums,  Ham.  Smith. 
Bos  aeuleatus,  Wagler. 


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1846  J  tke  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands.  273 

The  Bison,  Low :  Hist,  of  Tenasserim. 
Bos  (Bibos)  cavifrons,  Hodgson,  apud  Elliot. 
Bos  frontalis,  Lambert,  apud  Gray :  List.  ( ?  ?) 
'*  S&pi  titan"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Has. — Malayan  Peninsula. 

Tenasserim,  Hindoostan,   Assam,   Nipal,    Southern    Mahratta 
country. 
Numerous  in  the  Malayan  Peninsula. 

Bos  Taurus,  Vab.  Indigus,  Linn^. 

Syn.—  "  Sdpi"  (S.  jdntan.  Bull ;  S.  betina.  Cow)  of  the  Malays  of  the 
Peninsula. 
Although  this  kind  of  cattle  is  plentifully  bred  in  some  of  the  Malay- 
an countries,  it  is  not  in  general  use,  and  is  less  numerous  than  the 
buffalo. 


BuBALus,  Hamilton  Smith. 

BuBALUS  Abnbb,  Hamilton  Smith. 

Syn. — Bos  indicus,  Plinius. 

Bos  bubalus,  Brisson. 

Bos  amee,  Shaw. 

Bubalus  ferus  Indicus,  Hodgson,  apud  Gray  :  List. 

Bubalus  Buffelus,  Gray  :  List. 

"  Karbau"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Peninsula. 
Hab. — Pinang,  Singapore,  Malayan  Peninsula. 

Tenasserim,  Southern  China. 
The  wild  buffalo  is  reported,  but  apparently  without  proof,  to  be  in- 
digenous in  the  Malayan  Peninsula.  Domesticated,  it  is  very  plentiful, 
and  is  the  principal  draft-cattle  employed  by  the  Malays  and  the 
Chinese  settlers.  The  black-coloured,  apparently  the  hardier,  is  prefer- 
red by  the  Malays ;  the  reddish- white,  freckled  with  brown,  is  the 
greater  favourite  of  the  Chinese.  Both  are  very  slow,  and  as  observed 
by  Lieut.  Col.  Low,  delicate,  and  liable  to  sudden  attacks  of  disease  if 
worked  in  the  sun. 

2o 


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274  Catalogue  of  Mammalia  itAabiting  [No.  172. 

CETACEA. 

HXBBIYORA. 

Gbn. — Halicobe,  Iliiger. 
Halicobb  Indicub,  F.  Cuvier. 

Stn. — Dugon,  Buffon. 

TrichechuB  Dagong,  Erxleben. 

Halicore  cetacea,  lUiger. 

Halicore  Dugong,  Cuvier,  apud  Raffles. 

Halicore  Tabemacularom,  Ruppell. 

Dugongus  marinas,  Tiedemann,  apud  Schinz. 

*'  Ddyong"  or  "  Farampuan  Laut"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Fenin- 
sula. 
HiLB.'^Singapore,  Malayan  Peninsula. 

Sumatra,  Philippine,  Molucca  and  Sunda  Islands,  New  Holland, 

Red  Sea. 

The  Duyong  appears  not  to  be  numerous  at  Singapore,  still  less  so 

to  the  northward,  and  has  but  in  few  instances  been  observed  in  Kw^ 

Mi)Lda,  the  mouth  of  the  river,  which  forms  the  northern  boundary  of 

Province  Wellesley. 

Obdinabia. 

QxN. — Dblphikus,  Linn^, 

Dblphinus  FLX7MBBUS,  DusBumier. 

Stn. — Delphinus  malayanus.  Lesson,  apud  Cuvier. 

"  Farampuan  Laut"  of  the  Malays  of  the  Feninsula. 
Hab. — Coasts  of  Pinang. 

Malabar  Coast. 
The  species,  although  very  numerous,  and  rather  heavy  in  its  move* 
ments,  is  rarely  captured,  except  by  chance  in  fishing  stakes.    The 
stomach,  of  a  single  young  individual  observed,  contained  remains  of 
small  fishes,  apparently  Clupea,  and  Glyphisodon  calestinus,  Cuvier. 


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1846.] 


the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands, 


275 


Numerical  List  of  Mammalia  mhalntmg  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  JiUmde, 
and  other  localities* 


1 

Hfflobates  lar,  Ogilbj. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Siam,  Burma,  Tenasserim. 

2 

Hylobates  agilis,  F.  Cuvier. 

Malayan  PenioBula, 

Sumatra. 

3 

Reid. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 
Pinang,  Singapore. 

4 

reuSt  Schini. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Tenasserim. 

5 

Honfield. 

Pinang,  Malayan  Pe- 
ninsula, 

Sumatra,  Borneo,  ^anka. 

6 

Uonfield. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Sumatra  ?  Java  ? 

7 

Cercopithecus  cynomolgus, 

Pinang,  Malayan  Pe- 
ninsula, 

Sumatra,  Java,  Banka,  Bor- 
neo, Celebes,  Timor,  Te- 
nasserim, Nicobars. 

8 

Papio  nemestrintis,  Ogilby. 

Pinang.  Malayan  Pe- 
ninsula, 

Sumatra,  Borneo. 

9 

Nyeticehus  tardipradus, 
Waterhoase. 

Pinang,  Malayan  Pe- 
ninsula, 

nasserim,  Bengal,  Silhet, 
Assam. 

10 

Oaleopithecus  Temminckii, 
Waterhouse. 

Malayan     Peninsula 
and  islands, 

Pelew  Islands,  Borneo,  Java, 
Sumatra,  Siam. 

11 

Rhinopoma  HardwickU, 
Gray, 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Southern  Mahratta  country, 
Calcutta,  Allahabad,  Agra, 
Mirzapore. 

12 

Megaderma  spttsmUy  Geof- 
frey. 

Pinang,  Singapore, 
Malayan  Peninsula, 

Temate,  Java. 

13 

Nyctmomus    tenuis,    Hon- 
field. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Java,  Sumatra. 

14 

Taphozous  melanopogon, 
Temminck. 

Pulo  TfkuB,  Lanc&vy, 
Malayan  Peninsula, 

Java,  Caves  of  Kannera. 

15 

Taphozous  saccokumus, 
Temmiuck. 

Pinang, 

Celebes,  Borneo,  Java,  Su- 
matra, Southern  India. 

16 

field. 

Pinang, 

Java. 

17 

Bipposideros  diadema, 
Gray? 

Pinang,  Malayan  Pe- 
ninsula, 

Timor. 

18 

Pinang,  Malayan  Pe- 
ninsula, 

Amboyna,  Timor,  Java,  Su- 
matra. 

19 

Bipposideros  vulgaris,  Gray. 

Pinang, 

Java. 

20 

Bipposideros  murinus, 
Gray. 

Pinang, 

Southern  Mahratta  country, 
Nicobars. 

21 

Bipposideros  galerituSj  Can- 
tor. 

Pinang, 

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276 


Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting 


[No.  172. 


22 

VespertUio  adversus,  Hora- 
field? 

Piaang, 

Java,  Calcutta. 

23 

Kirivoula  picta.  Gray. 

Pinang, 

Borneo,  Java,  Sumatra. 

24 

Kirivoula  tenuis,  Gray. 

Pinang, 

Borneo,  Java,  Sumatra. 

25 

TrUatitus  Hor^ldii,  Gray. 

Pinang, 

Java,  Sumatra. 

26 

ScotophUus  Temmincka, 
Gray. 

Malayan      Peninsula 
and  Islands, 

Timor,  Borneo,  Java,  Suma- 
tra, Calcutta,  Pondicherry. 

27 

Pteropus  edulis,  Geoffroy. 

Malayan      Peninsula 
and  Islands, 

Java,  Sumatra,  Banda,  Ben- 
gal, Assam. 

28 

Cynopterus  marginatus,  P. 
Cuvier. 

Malayan     Peninsula 
and  Islands, 

Java,      Sumatra,     Southera 
Mahratta  country,  Bengal, 
Nipal. 

29 

Tupaia  ferruginea.  Raffles. 

Pinang,      Singapore, 
Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Java,  Sumatra. 

30 

Gymnura  RafiesU,  Vigors 
and  UorsEeld. 

Malayan    Peninsula, 
Singapore, 

Sumatra. 

31 

Sorex  murinus,  Linn6. 

Pinang, 

Java,  Sumatra. 

32 

Helarcios  malayantts,  Hors- 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Sumatra,  Tenasserim,  Assam, 
Nipal. 

33 

Arctictis  Binturong,  Fischer. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Arracan,  Tenasserim,  Assam, 
Nipal,  Bhotan. 

34 

Putorius  nudipes,  Fred.  Cu- 
vier. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Sumatra. 

35 

Mustetajtavigula,  Boddaert. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Java,  Sumatra,  Nipal. 

36 

Lutra  Nair,  F.  Cuvier. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

China,     Bombay,     Southera 
Mahratta  country. 

37 

Lttira  Barang,  Raffles. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Sumatra. 

38 

Aonyx  lepUmyx,  Gray. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 
Singapore, 

Java,  Sumatra,  Nipal. 

39 

Cuonprimatms,  Hodgson. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Bengal,  Nipal. 

40 

Fiverra  Zihetha,  Linn6. 

Pinang,      Singapore, 
Malayan  Peninsula, 

Southern  China,  Siam,  Ben- 
gal, Khasyah  HUls,  Nipal. 

41 

Viverra  Tangalunga,  Gray. 

Pinang,      Singapore, 
Malayan  Peninsula, 

Amboina,   Celebes,    Borneo, 
Philippine  Islands,  Suma- 
tra. 

42 

Fiierricula  malaccensis. 

Malayan     Peninsula, 
Singapore, 

China,  Philippines,  Java,  Co- 
chin   China,    Tenasserim, 
Bengal,  Nipal,  Hindoostan, 
Dukhun,  Bombay. 

43 

Prionodon  gracilis,  Horsf. 

Malayan    Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Java,  Sumatra. 

44 

Paguma  leucomystax, 
Gray? 

Malayan    Peninsula, 
Singapore, 

Sumatra. 

45 

Paguma  trivirgata,  Gray. 

Malayan     Peninsula, 
Singapore, 

Moluccas,  Tenasserim. 

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1846.] 


the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands. 


277 


46 

Gray. 

Pinang,      Singapore, 
Malayan  Peninsula, 

Timor,  Borneo,  Java,  Suma* 
tra. 

47 

Paradoxurus  Derhyanus, 
Gray. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo. 

48 

Cynogale  BenneUii,  Gray. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Sumatra. 

49 

Herpestes  Javanicus,    Des- 
marest. 

Penang,  Malayan  Pe- 
ninsula. 

Java. 

50 

Herpestes  auropunctaius, 
Hodgson. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Bengal,  Nipal,  Scinde,  Af- 
ghanistan. 

51 

Herpestes  griseus,  Desma- 
rest. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Bengal,  Hindooetan,  Scinde, 
Nipal. 

52 

Herpestes  brachyumSy 
Gray. 

Malayan  Peninsula. 

53 

Felis  tigris,  Linn6. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Ceylon,  India. 

54 

Felis  leopardus,  Schreber. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

India. 

55 

Felis  marmoratay  Martin. 

Malayan  Peninsula. 

56 

Pinang,  Malayan  Pe- 
ninsula, 

Java,  Sumatra? 

57 

Horsfield. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Sumatra. 

58 

Felis  domestica. 

59 

Sdurus  bicolor,  Sparrm. 

Pinang,  Malayan  Pe- 
ninsula, 

Borneo,  Java,  Sumatra,  Siam, 
Tenasserim,  Assam,  Nipal. 

60 

Sciurus  Rofflesii,  Vigors  and 
Honfield. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Java,  Canton  Pro- 
vince. 

61 

Sciurus  hippurusy  I.  Geof- 
frey. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Java,  Sumatra,  Assam,  Can- 
ton Province. 

62 

Sciurus  vittatus.  Raffles. 

Pinang,     Singapore, 
Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Java,  Sumatra,  Can- 
ton Province. 

63 

Sciurus  nigrovittatus,  Hors- 
field. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Java,  Sumatra,  Can- 
ton Province. 

64 

Sciurus  tenuis,  Horsfield. 

Malayan    Peninsula, 
Singapore, 

Borneo,  Java,  Sumatra,  Can- 
ton Province. 

65 

Sciurus  laticaudatuSyBidLTd. 
Var. 

Malayan  Peninsula. 

66 

Pteromys  nitidus,  Geoffroy. 

Pinang,      Singapore, 
Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Java,  Sumatra. 

67 

Sduropterus  Hor^eldii, 
Waterhoiue. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Java?  Sumatra? 

68 

Sduropterus  genibarbis. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Java. 

69 

Mus  bandicotQy  Bechst. 

Pinang,  Malayan  Pe- 
ninsula, 

Southern  Mahratta  country, 
Bengal,  Nipal. 

70 

Mus  decumanus,  Pallas. 

1  Cosmopolita. 

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278 


Catalogue  of  Mammalia  inhabiting 


[No.  172. 


71 

MusseUfer,  Horsfield. 

Pinang, 

Borneo,  Java,  Sumatra,  Van 
Diemen's  Land. 

72 

Mus  rufescens,  Gray. 

Pinanfff 

Oharwar,    Madras,    Bengal, 
Arracan.  ^ 

73 

Mus  musculus,  Linn^  ? 

Pinang, 

74 

Rhizomys  sumatrensis^ 
Gray. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

China,  Moulmein,  Assam. 

75 

Hystrix  kmgicauda,  Man- 
den. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Java,  Sumatra. 

76 

Atherurafasciculata,  Cuv. 

Pinang,  Malayan  Pe- 
ninsula, 

Borneo,  Java,  Sumatra. 

77 

Manis  Javanicat  Desmarest 

Pinang,  Malayan  Pe- 
ninsula, 

Borneo,  Java,  Sumatra. 

78 

Elephas  indicus,  Linne. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Burma,  Siam,  India, 
Ceylon. 

79 

Sus  indicus,  Schinz. 

Pinang,    Singaoore, 
Lancavy,   Malayan 
Peninsula, 

Bengal,  Nipal,  Southern 
Mahratta  country. 

80 

Su8  scrqfa,  Var.  Linne. 

Malayan     Peninsula 
and  Islands, 

China. 

81 

Rhinoceros  unicomiSf 
Linn£. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Bengal,  Assam,  Nipal. 

82 

Rhinoceros  sondaicus,  Cuv. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Java. 

83 

Rhinoceros  sumatranus, 
Raffles. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Sumatra,  Tenasserim. 

84 

Tapirus  malayanus, 
Raffles. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Sumatra. 

85 

Equus  caballus,  Linne. 

Introduced     in     the 
Malayan  Peninsula 
and  Islands. 

86 

Tragulus  Kanchil,  Gray. 

Pinang,      Singapore, 
Lancavy.   Alalayan 
Peninsula, 

Java,  Sumatra. 

87 

Traffulusjavanicus,  Pallas. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Sumatra,  Java. 

88 

Styloceros  Mun^ak,  Ham. 
Smith. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Borneo,  Banka,  Java,  Suma- 
tra, Tenasserim,  Nipal, 
Assam,  Bengal,  Southern 
Mahratta,  Dukhun. 

89 

ila;t«  maculatust  U,    mith. 

Malayan    Peninsula, 
Pinang, 

Sumatra,  Bengal,  Assam, 
Nipal,  Southern  MahratU 
country,  Ceylon. 

90 

/2u«a  e^uma,  H.  Smith. 

Pinang,  Malayan  Pe- 
ninsula, 

Borneo,  Sumatra. 

91 

Panolia  acuticomis.  Gray  7 

Malayan.  Peninsula, 

92 

Ifamorhedus  sumatrensiSt 
Ham.  Smith. 

Malayan,  Peninsula, 

Sumatra,  Tenasserim. 

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1846.] 


the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  Islands, 


279 


93 

Bos  gour.  Trail. 

Malayan  Peninsula, 

Tenasserim,  Hindoostan,  As- 
sam, Nipal,  SouthernMah- 
ratta  country. 

94 

Bos  taurus.   Far.  indicus, 
Lin. 

Introduced  in  the  Ma- 
layan Countries. 

95 

Bubalus  amee,  H.  Smith. 

Ditto. 

96 

HaUcore  mdieus,  F.  Cav. 

'•KSla.**''''*" 

Philippines,  Moluccas,  Sun- 
da  Islands,  Sumatra,  New 
Holland,  Red  Sea. 

97 

Delphmus  plumbeus,  Dus- 
sumier. 

Malayan  Seas, 

Bay  of  Bengal. 

Note  to  Gen.  Ntctinomus,  p.  9.  A  male  Nyetinomus  bengalensis, 
Geoffroy,  {8yn..  Vespertilio  plicatus,  Buchan. — AT.  bengalensis,  Geoffroy, 
apud  Horsfield. — Dysopes  plicatus,  Temminck,  apud  Schinz.)  examined 
after  the  Catalogue  had  passed  through  the  press,  exhibited  a  true 
caecum.  The  entire  length  of  the  animal  was  4f  inches,  of  which  the 
tail  measured  If  inch.  Extent  of  the  flying  membrane  :  1  foot  0-ginch. 

Length  of  the  small  Intestine,      9i  inches. 

„        .„         large  ditto,  .  •       . ,       .  •       . .        4^     „ 

caecum,      0^^    „ 

The  caecum  is  crescent- shaped,  with  the  concave  curvature  firmly 
adhering  to  the  external  surface  of  the  small  intestine.  The  convex 
curvature  presents  near  the  apex  a  sacculated  appearance ;  the  mem- 
branes are  thickened.  Where  the  caecum  joins,  the  small  intestine  and 
the  rectum  are  narrowed. 

Fort  William:  Dec.  IIM,  1846. 


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280 


Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  or  Little  Known  Species  of 

Birds.     By  Ed.  Blyth,  Curator  of  the  Asiatic  Society's  Museum. 

[Continued  from  p.  54,  ante.] 

In  the  intervals  that  elapse  between  the  publication  of  successive 
portions  of  these  notices,  it  regularly  happens  that  further  collections 
are  received  by  the  Society,  and  that  some  additional  informatioii  is 
derived  from  them  relative  to  groups  that  had  already  been  treated  of.  In 
the  present  instance,  we  have  been  indebted  to  Dr.  R.  Templeton,  of 
Colombo,  for  two  collections  of  birds  from  Ceylon,  in  which  some  in- 
teresting novelties  have  been  comprised,  and  much  information  gained 
respecting  the  ornithology  of  that  island,  which  of  late  years  has  been 
very  little  investigated.  Among  the  species  sent  is  a  little  Owl,  which 
appears  to  be  the  true  Strix  castanoptera  of  Horsfield;  one  of  three 
nearly  allied  Indian  species,  as  follow  :-— 

I.  Athene  castanopterus,  (Horsf.) :  Strix  spadicea,  Reinwardt.  Entire 
mantle  and  wings  uniform  deep  chesnut-rufous,  more  or  less  obscurely 
barred  with  subdued  dusky :  primaries  weak  dusky,  faintly  banded  with 
rufous  on  the  inner  web,  and  with  a  series  of  spots  of  bright  rufous  on 
the  outer  web  :  tail  dusky,  with  eight  or  nine  narrow  white  or  whitish 
bars,  the  last  of  them  terminal :  head  and  neck  closely  barred  with  light 
rufescent  on  a  dusky  ground,  and  contrasting  strongly  with  the  rufous 
of  the  back  :  breast  nearly  similar,  but  the  colours  deeper;  the  abdomen 
white,  with  longitudinal  dusky  streaks ;  and  the  vent  and  lower  tail- 
coverts  pure  white :  bill  pale  yellow.  Length  of  wing  about  five  inches. 
Three  specimens  received  are  essentially  quite  similar,  and  a  fourth  is 
mentioned  in  XIV,  185.     Inhabits  Ceylon. 

2.  Aih,  malabaricus,  nobis :  Aih.  castanopterus  apud  nos,  doubtfully 
cited  in  XIV,  134,  and  of  Jerdon,  Madr.  Joum.  No.  XXXI,  320. 
Size  of  the  preceding,  or  a  little  shorter  in  the  wing :  the  head,  neck» 
and  interscapularies,  uniformly  coloured,  of  a  lightish  rufous  with  nar- 
row and  close  dusky  rays ;  wings  the  same,  but  the  colours  deeper, 
and  the  dusky  bands  considerably  broader :  primaries  deep  rufous,  the 
three  first  barred  throughout  with  dusky,  the  rest  mostly  immaculate  (or 
with  comparatively  obscure  bars)  for  the  basal  half,  and  distinctly 
barred  for  the  remainder^  secondaries  with  broad  distinct  bands 
throughout,  rufous  and  dusky;   and  tertiaries  with  the  scapularies 


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1846.]  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New,  8fC.  281 

barred  rufescent-whitish  and  dusky,  the  outermost  scapularies  having 
the  large  white  spots  (common  to  most  Owls,)  in  general  conspicuously 
developed :  the  lower- parts  are  barred  throughout,  dusky  and  white  on 
the  belly  and  flanks,  rufous  and  dusky  on  the  breast,  except  the  vent 
and  lower  tail-coverts,  which  are  spotless  white ;  tail  dusky,  with  eight 
or  nine  whitish  bars,  somewhat  broader  than  those  of  the  preced- 
ing species.  This  inhabits  the  Malabar  Coast  and  Travancore ;  and  the 
Society  is  indebted  for  specimens  of  it  to  Mr.  Jerdon. 

3.  Ath.  radiatus,  (Tickell} :  Ath.  erythropterus,  Gould ;  Noctua  perli- 
neata,  Hodgson ;  N,  cuculoides  (?)  apud  Jerdon,  CataL  Upper-parts 
uniformly  barred  with  close  rays,  rufescent-whitish  and  dusky;  the 
wings  more  distantly  barred  with  the  same,  but  the  rufous  tinge  deeper, 
and  some  of  the  greater  coverts  have,  in  general,  conspicuous  white 
spots;  the  great  alars  are  still  deeper  rufous,  barred  with  dusky 
throughout,  and  marked  much  as  in  the  first  species;  lower- parts  barred 
whitish  and  light  dusky,  and  the  under  tail-coverts  white  as  in  the 
others.  This  species  occurs  in  most  parts  of  the  country,  as  in  the 
Himalaya,  Upper  and  Central  India,  the  eastern  coast  of  the  Peninsula, 
and  Mr.  Jerdon  says  "  Travancore  and  Malabar ;"  but  it  is  probable 
that  he  here  refers  to  Ath.  malabaricus,  in  which  case  the  synonyme  of 
cuculoides  apud  Jerdon,  must  be  transferred.  About  Allahabad,  as  Dr. 
Stewart  informs  me,  it  is  particularly  numerous. 

Although  the  first  of  these  three  species  accords  with  the  descriptions 
of  Ath.  castanopterus  of  Java,  it  may  yet  prove  (upon  comparison  of 
specimens)  to  be  an  allied  species  rather  than  the  same ;  but  it  would 
not  be  the  only  Malayan  species  that  has  turned  up  in  Ceylon,  and  in 
no  part  of  Continental  India  as  yet :  the  same  collection  contained  ex- 
amples of  Vespertilio  pictus,  (or  Kerivoula  picta,  apud  Gray,)  perfectly 
identical  with  Javanese  specimens ;  whereas,  from  Continental  India,  I 
have  only  seen  a  nearly  allied  species,  which  I  presume  to  be  Kerivoula 
Sykesi  of  Gray.  The  curious  Bittern,  Tigrisoma  melalophos,  (Raffles,) 
is  sent  from  Ceylon,  and  this  is  new  to  the  fauna  of  cis-Gangetic  India, 
though  the  Society  has  received  it  from  Arracan :  Ephialtes  lempiji  of 
Ceylon  and  Malabar  is  again  identical  with  the  species  common 
throughout  the  Malay  countries ;  but  it  has  been  erroneously  identified 
with  Eph.  lettia,  (Hodgson,)  or  the  closely  allied  (if  different)  Eph, 

lettvAdes  v.  griseus  of  Jerdon.     Athene  castanopterus  I  have  never  seen 

2p 


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282  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  172. 

from  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Straits,  but  Heifer  (a  very  unsafe  autho- 
rity) mentions  it  to  inhabit  the  Tenasserim  Provinces.  Probably  the 
Aih.  badius,  Hodgson,  from  Nepal,  mentioned  in  Mr.  G.R.  Gray's  Cata- 
logue of  the  British  Museum  Raptoree,  butf  as  yet  (I  believe)  undescribed, 
pertains  to  the  same  little  sub-group.  i 

In  p.  12,  ante,  I  suggested  that  Bucco  zeylantcus,  Ghmelin,  founded 
on  the '*  Yellow- cheeked  Barbet"  of  Brown's  illustrations,  would  pro- 
bably be  found  to  differ  from  JB.  caniceps,  Franklin,  which  Mr.  Jerdon 
had  assigned  to  zeylanicus.  There  is  now  more  reason  to  incline  to 
that  naturalist's  opinion,  as  the  B.  caniceps  is  very  common  in  Ceylon, 
being  rather  smaller,  on  the  average,  than  specimens  from  Upper  India, 
as  indeed  are  those  of  the  Peninsula  generally,  so  far  as  my  observations 
have  hitherto  gone. 

The  Picas  ceylonus,  Forster,  mentioned  in  a  note  to  p.  18  ante,  is  a 
true  Brachyptemus,  which  appears  to  be  as  common  in  Ceylon 
as  Br,  aurantius  is  in  India  generally :  and  as  there  can  be  no  doubt 
of  its  specifical  distinctness,  any  more  than  of  the  distinctness  of  Tiga 
Rqfflesii  (p.  16,  ante,)  from  T.  tridactyla  and  its  immediate  allies,  this  fact 
of  the  existence  of  a  plurality  of  decided  species  of  these  types— of  an 
undeniable  repetition  of  their  peculiar  and  marked  characters — ^adds 
much  to  the  probability  of  the  more  closely  allied  species — Br.  micropus 
(XIV,  194),  Br,  dilutus  of  Scinde  (XIV,  550),— r.  Shorei,  (Vigors),  and 
r.  intermedia  (XIV,  193),  being  also  severally  distinct  from  and  not  mere 
local  varieties  of  Br,  aurantius  and  T,  tridactyla.  Other  examples  of  this 
close  affinity  occur  in  Microptemus  badius,  M.  phaoceps,  and  M.  gularis ; 
and  Mr.  Jerdon,  in  the  third  No.  of  his '  Illustrations  of  Indian  Ornitho- 
logy', has  contended  that  his  Hemicercus  cordatus  is  probably  an  ana- 
logous representative  of  H.  canente,  (Lesson),  of  the  countries  of  the 
eastern  side  of  the  Bay  of  Bengal.  That  he  is  right  in  this  conjecture  n 
not  improbable ;  though  the  two  are  absolutely  similar  in  structure,  colour- 
ing, and  markings :  but  the  South  of  India  species  appears  to  be  constantly 
smaller  than  its  representative  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Bay.  Mr.  Jer- 
don gives  the  length  of  wing  of  the  former  as  three  inches  and  three-quar- 
ters, that  of  a  female  in  the  Society's  Museum  being  only  three  inches 
and  a  half :  but  of  several  specimens  received  from  Arracan  and  Tenasse- 
rim, the  length  of  wing  of  the  males  averages  four  inches,  and  of  the  fe- 
males three  and  three-quarters ;  the  latter  being  conspicuously  larger  than 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds,  283 

the  only  South  of  India  female  that  I  have  to  compare  them  with.  Small 
as  this  difference  may  seem,  it  is  very  perceptihle  in  the  general  size 
of  the  birds ;  and  ornithologists  will  form  their  own  opinion  as  to  its  value. 
In  the  Hemilopkur  Hodgsom,  Jerdon,  the  size  of  this  species  of  Peninsular 
India,  exceeds  that  of  the  nearly  allied  H.javensis,  Horsfield,  v.  leuco- 
gaster,  (Reinw.),  of  Tenasserim  and  Malacca.  I  might  mention  several 
more  instances  of  the  kind,  but  will  merely  observe  that  further  obser- 
vation has  confirmed  the  propriety  of  separating  Caprimulgus  albonotatus, 
C.  macrourue,  and  C.  mahrattensis,  (which  last  occurs  in  Ceylon,)  these 
species  scarcely  differing  but  in  size ;  also  C.  monticolus  and  C.  affinis, 
but  C.  arenarius  of  Bumes'  drawings  seems  merely  to  be  the  nestling 
plumage  of  C.  monticolus,  to  judge  from  a  specimen  of  the  latter 
with  which  the  Society  has  been  recently  favoured  by  Dr.  Stewart. 
To  return  to  the  Woodpeckers,  Gednus  chlortgaster  {ante  p.  16,)  b  an 
inhabitant  of  Ceylon ;  and  this  species,  though  well  distinguished  in 
the  colouring  of  its  ocdput  more  particularly,  is  as  closely  allied  to 
G.  chloropus,  as  mutually  are  many  of  the  approximate  races  to  which 
I  have  been  adverting. 

Simotes  albtvertex,  nobis  (ante  p.  19,)  is  not  from  Borneo,  but  from 
an  islet  off  the  coast  of  Waigou :  and  so  likewise  is  the  Carpophaga 
with  knobbed  bill,  referred  to  the  '  Sumatra  Pigeon'  of  Latham  in  XIV, 
857 ;  while  the  small  C.  tsnea,  supposed  to  be  from  the  same  region 
{loc.  cit.Jt  proves  to  be  from  the  Neilgherries.  What  farther  informa- 
tion I  have  obtained  on  the  Columbid^e  may  be  reserved  till  their  turn 
arrives  r  but  in  reference  to  the  remark  in  a  note  to  XIV,  846,  that  per- 
haps some  of  the  Gourina  may  prove  to  have  more  than  twelve  caudal 
rectrioes,  I  may  here  mention  that  Goura  fv.  Lophyrus),  and  also  the 
great  Phaps  group  of  Australia  (including  Leucosarcia,  if  not  also,  as  I 
suspect,  Ocyphaps  and  PetrophassaJ,  possess  fourteen — as  in  Treron, 
Carpophaga*  and  PtUinopus ;  while  Chalcophaps,  and  apparently  Peris^ 
tera,  have  only  twelve.  Of  three  specimens  of  Calanas  nicobarkms  in 
the  Society's  Museum,  all  have  the  tail  imperfect ;  and  it  is  curious  that 

*  The  curioas  Australian  Pigeon,  Lopholainuis  aniareUcus.iy,  Cot^dUopkOy  Tern.,) 
which  in  XIV,  686, 1  suggested  was  probably  a  subgeneric  formofCay^popAa^o,  is  allied 
rather  fas  I  now  find  from  inspection  of  specimens)  to  that  Carpophaga-like  group  of 
true  Columbma,  having  twelve  tail-feathers  only,  which  is  referred  to  Dendrotreron, 
Hodgson,  in  p*  53  ante,  but  which  will  bear  the  prior  name  AUocomus^ of  Tickell,  as 
Cot,  punicea  must  also  be  assigned  to  it. 


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284  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  172. 

the  rectrices  of  this  bird,  which  are  pure  white  in  the  adult,  are,  in  the 
young  of  the  same,  green-glossed  black  as  the  wing-primaries :  —  at 
least  I  presume  the  species  to  be  the  same,  the  Society's  black<tailed 
young  one  being  from  the  Nicobars,  and  one  of  the  adults  from  the 
Cocos  Isles  (a  group  of  rocks  lying  northward  of  the  Andamans,)  the 
other  from  the  Malayan  Peninsula, 

Zanclostomus  viridirostris,  Jerdon,  would  seem  to  be  a  common 
species  in  Ceylon ;  thus  confirming  my  suspicion  (XI,  1096,)  of  its 
being  Daniell's  Handee  Kootah,  as  well  as  the  supposed  Indian  rac^ 
(mentioned  by  Levaillant)  of  Serisomus  cristatus  of  Madagascar. 

Captain  Tickell  has  favoured  me  with  the  following  description  of  a 
new  Spiny-tailed  Swift :— - 

"  Acanthylis  sylvatica,  Tickell.  Entire  length,  from  tip  of  bill  to 
end  of  tail,  four  inches  and  a  fifth ;  wing  from  shoulder  to  tip  four 
inches  and  a  half,  and  reaching  an  inch  and  a  half  beyond  the  tail. 
Form  typical :  the  details  being  as  in  Ac,  nudipes,  (Hodgson)^  Wiry- 
tips  to  the  shafts  of  the  rectrices  well  developed — sharp  and  stiff. 
Thumb  versatile  but  opposive  (as  in  Ac.  nudipes^  of  which  I  killed  a 
fine  specimen  at  Daijeeling'*').  Colour — BiU,  iris,  and  legs,  black.  Rictus, 
auriculars,  chin,  throat,  and  breast,  iron-grey,  with  a  dash  of  ashy-brown. 
Belly  pure  white,  the  feathers  black-shafted.  All  the  upper-parts 
black,  with  dull  blue  metallic  reflections.  Remiges  brownish-black :  tail 
and  its  shafts  black.  Across  the  lower  back  passes  a  broad  defined 
space  of  white,  including  in  fact  the  whole  rump,  but  not  the  upper  tail- 
coverts  which  are  of  the  same  colour  as  the  upper-parts  generally. 

'*  I  shot  a  specimen  of  this  bird  so  far  back  as  Nov.  1835.  It  haunts 
open  cultivated  ground  in  the  midst  of  forest ;  also  the  cleared  patches 
on  the  sides  and  sunmiits  of  the  hills  [in  Central  India].  Is  common, 
but  local;  gregarious  and  noisy:  being  often  seen  in  company  with 
Cypselus  melba.  When  my  duties  call  me  next  into  the  wooded  regions 
of  my  jurisdiction,  I  will  do  my  best  to  shoot  some  specimens  and  send 
you  the  dried  skins,  as  vouchers  for  the  above  description." 

Psilorhinus,  p.  27,  ante.  Lord  Arthur  Hay  mentions,  in  epistoid^ 
— "  It  b  very  curious  that  though  the  Red-billed  Jay  is  found  alone  at 
Simla,  I  should  have  procured  only  the  Yellow-billed  one  after  leaving 

*  Mr.  Bardett  informs  me  that  he  had  lately  seen  a  specimen  of  this  Himalayan 
bird  shot  in  England,  at  or  near  Colchester,  in  Bssez.— E.  B. 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  285 

Jummoo,  and  in  Cachemere."  His  lordship's  description  of  the  latter 
identifying  it  with  Ps.fiaviroatrie  of  Darjeeling,  while  by  the  "  Red-billed" 
he  probably  means  P$,  occipitalis, 

Gracula,  p.  3i>  ante.  Two  species  of  this  genus  inhabit  Ceylon :  one, 
the  Gr.  religiosa  (apud  nos)»  of  southern  India,'*' — the  other  new,  which 
may  bear  the  name 

Gr,  ptUogenys,  nobis.  This  has  no  bare  skin  on  the  cheek,  but  the 
occipital  lappets  are  well  developed,  and  the  basal  half  of  the  lower  man- 
dible  is  black :  bill  moderately  strong.  Length  of  wing  six  inches. 
Colouring  as  in  the  others.f 

Amadina,  p.  36,  ante.  The  A.  malacca,  or  "  White-breasted  Indian 
Sparrow"  of  Edwards,  common  in  Southern  India,  occurs  rarely  in 
Bengal,  mingled  in  flocks  of  A,  sinensis,  or  the  "  Chinese  Sparrow"  of 
Edwards ;  from  which,  indeed,  it  only  differs  in  having  the  lower-parts 
pure  white,  with  the  same  abdominal  black  patch :  and  it  is  curious  that 
a  third  race  inhabits  the  Malayan  peninsula,  similar  to  A.  sinensis, 
excepting  in  having  no  black  patch  on  the  abdomen ;  whence  the  name 
maiacca  is  ill  applied  to  the  white-bellied  bird  of  Peninsular  India.} 


*  Mr.  Jerdon  designateB  this  Or,  minor  {Madr.  Joum.  No.  XXXI,  134) :  but  if  it 
be  not  admitted  as  Or,  reUgiosa  (vera),  as  it  ia  certainly  the  Bulahes  indicus  of 
Cuvier,  it  would  therefore  rank  as  Or.  indica. 

f  Add,  as  a  synonyme  to  Stumia  pagodarum,  the  Turdus  melanocephalus,  Bahl 
(nee  Gmelin),  Trans.  Nat  Hist,  Soc.  Copenhagen,  1792,— -Bmberiza  brumceps, 
Brandt,=17.  icterica,  Evenham ;  and  Coccothraustes  speculifferus,  Brandt,  is  proba- 
bly no  other  than  C.  camipes,  Hodgson. 

X  Immediately  as  the  above  was  consigned  to  press,  Mr.  B.  W.  G.  Frith  kindly 
allowed  me  the  pickings  of  an  extensive  Malayan  collection  just  received,  wherein 
are  four  species  of  Amadma^  comprising  one  that  I  have  been  unable  to  identify.  The 
Malayan  peninsula  yields,  at  least,  the  following  six  species  of  this  genus  of  Finches. 

1.  A,  oryzivora^  (L.),  which  deviates  a  little  from  the  type  of  all  the  rest 

2.  A,  majat  (L.) :  Loxia  leucocephalat  Raffles  :  L  ferruginosa^  Latham;  whose  L, 
bicolor  is  probably  the  young. 

3.  A, ?  The  race  resembling  A.  sinensis^  except  in  wanting  the  black  patch 

on  the  abdomen. 

4.  A,  punctularia,  (L.) :  Fringilla  nisoria^  Tem.  Distinguished  from  A,  undulata, 
(Lath.),  V.  Munia  lineoventer,  Hodgson,  of  India,  by  the  whitish«grey  on  the  rump, 
upper  tail-coverts  and  tail,  which  is  represented  by  glistening  fulvous  in  the  other. 

5.  A.  molucca  (?),  v.  Munia  acuticaudat  Hodgson,  which  is  dbubtless  Mr.  Jerdon's 
supposed  A,  striata  (v.  leuconotOt  Tem*,)  of  the  Malayan  peninsula.  This  agrees  pretty 
well  with  Latham's  description  of  A.  molucca,  except  that  the  striation  of  the  upper- 
parts  is  not  mentioned  ;  Griffith  adds,  however,  **  rump,  and  under  breast,  cross-barred, 
black  and  white."  The  belly  in  the  Malacca  species  is  pencilled  with  dusky,  but 
not  the  white  patch  over  the  rump.    Mr.  Hodgson's  Nepal  specimens  merely  differ  in 


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286  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  172. 

Certhilauda,  p.  41,  ante.  My  suggestion  that  Mr.  Jerdon  had  sent 
me  a  distinct  species  as  his  Alauda  deva,  tarns  out  to  be  well  founded: 
the  A,  deva  of  his  catalogue  is  a  Certhilauda  which  I  have  not  seen  yet; 
and  he  has  recently  again  obtained  the  true  Alauda  with  pointed  crest, 
referred  by  me  to  A.  malabarica  in  XIII,  962. 

In  XIII,  567,  it  is  remarked,  that  I  had  not  actually  compared  Ma- 
layan with  Bengal  specimens  of  Pycnonotus  jocosus,  but  had  an  impres- 
sion that  the  crimson  sub-ocular  tuft  is  considerably  less  developed  in 
the  former.  Dr.  Cantor's  rich  collection  from  the  Malayan  peninsula 
comprises  several  specimens  of  the  bird  in  question,  which  is  common 
at  Fenang ;  and  it  is  remarkable  that  the  crimson  sub-ocular  tuft  does 
not  attain  to  a  third  of  the  length  which  it  does  in  Indian  specimens.  In 
fine  examples  of  the  latter,  the  longest  of  the  hair-like  plumes  compos- 
ing this  ornamental  tuft,  measure  above  five-eighths  of  an  inch,  passing 
considerably  beyond  the  extremities  of  the  white  ear-coverts,  and  im- 
pending their  upper  half;  while  in  equally  fine  specimens  of  the  Ma- 
layan bird,  they  appear  as  if  truncated,  and  impend  only  the  basal  third 
of  the  white  ear- coverts :  in  other  respects  the  two  birds  exactly  resem- 
ble ;  as  does^  likewise  the  P.  monticolus,  (McClelland  and  Horsfield,) 
from  the  mountains  of  Assam,  which  is  described  to  have  "  a  scarlet  ring 
about  the  eye,  but  no  tuft  beneath  this  organ."  This,  and  the  Amadnia 
malacca  group,  are  accordingly  further  exemplifications  of  that  repetition 
in  different  districts  of  the  Fauna  Indica,  of  the  same  specific  types  with 
merely  a  variation  of  size,  or  some  trivial  but  constant  difference  of 
colouring,  or  (as  in  the  Pycnonotus  jocosus  group)  a  variation  in  the 
form  or  degree  of  development  of  an  ornamental  tuft :  the  specific  value 

bein;^  somewhat  paler,  and  what  white  remains  on  the  rump  appears  to  be  a  little 
striated  ;  but  they  are  in  very  bad  condition.  A,  striata  f  (v.  leuconota  Tj  of  India 
accords  with  Latham^s  description,  except  that  the  white  on  the  rump  is  not  men- 
tioned. Its  upper-parts,  and  those  of  A,  molucca  (?)  of  the  Malayan  peninsula,  are 
nearly  similar;  but  the  lower  are  very  different:  the  Indian  (and  Arracan)  bird 
having  the  throat  to  breast  inclusive,  uniform  blackish,  and  the  belly,  vent,  and  flankst 
white ;  whereas  the  Malacca  bird  has  the  chin  and  throat  only  blackish,  the  breast 
dark  brown,  with  whitish  shafts  and  borders  to  the  feathers,  and  the  belly  dull  white, 
with  dusky  pencillings. 

6.  A»  leucogastra,  nobis,  n.  $,  (?).  Size  and  proportions  of  A,  punctularia^  haviof 
the  upper-parts  throughout  dark  brown,  with  whitish  shafts  to  the  feathers  more  or  less 
developed ;  throat,  breast,  and  flanks,  brown-black ;  the  lower  tail-coverts  quite  black ; 
and  belly  white,  narrowing  to  a  point  in  front:  margins  of  tail-feathers  yellow-fulvoos: 
bill  and  feet  blackish  in  the  dry  specimens.  Individuals  vary  in  the  iutensity  of  their 
colouring. 


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1846.]  or  LUtU  Known  Species  of  Birdi.  287 

of  which  differences  will  probably  be  ever  a  subject  of  dispute.  Ana- 
logous slight  differences  occur  in  certain  of  the  mammalia,  reptiles, 
fishes,  and  insects,  of  the  same  regions,  which  are  variously  set  down 
as  allied  species,  or  local  varieties  of  the  same,  as  the  opinions  of  in- 
dividual naturalists  vary :  but  if  the  distinctness  of  such  races  be  not 
admitted,  there  is  no  demarcating  the  line  between  them  and  what  are 
conceded  on  all  hands  to  be  allied  but  distinct  species,  as  every  grade 
of  approximaticm  is  abundantly  manifested.* 

RMgula  gularis,  XIV,  576.  This  bird  is  figured  by  Mr.  Jerdon,  in 
the  third  No.  of  his  '  Illustrations  of  Indian  Ornithology ;'  and  besides 
the  ruby  throat,  it  is  both  represented  and  described  to  have  a  black 
chin-spot,  and  the  tail  is  represented  as  greenish  like  the  back.  The 
following,  however,  may  yet  prove  to  be  the  female.  Length  about  six 
inches  and  a  half;  wing  two  inches  and  seven-eighths ;  tail  two  and  three- 
quarters  :  bill  to  gape  three-quarters  of  an  inch,  and  tarse  five-eighths. 
Colour  olive-green  above,  below  yellow  throughout,  sullied  with  greenish 


*  The  opposite  opinion  is  ably  maintained  by  M.  Schle^l,  in  his  'Essay  on  the 
Geographical  Distribution  of  Serpents,'  contained  in  Dr.  Traill's  abridged  translation 
of  Schlegel's  great  work  on  serpents  :  but  that  naturalist's  hypothesis  of  climatal  and 
local  varieties  carries  him  so  far  as  to  consider  the  Himalayan  Jay  (of  course  meaning 
Gorrulus  cfmatuSf  V.  bispecularis,)  as  a  "variety"  only  of  the  European  species; 
and  he  states—"  The  Paradoxurus  typus  is  spread  over  Bengal,  Siam,  Sumatra, 
Borneo,  Amboyna,  Timor,  &c.,  and  forms,  in  these  different  places,  numerous  varie- 
ties,  which  are  chiefly  distinguishable  by  the  tint  and  difltribution  of  the  colours,  but 
sometimes  also  differ  in  size ;  in  Sumatra,  for  example,  the  species  is  stronger  than  in 
Java;  in  Java  than  in  Timor,  &c. ;  there  appears  to  exist  in  several  places  a  variety 
with  a  white  tip  to  the  tail ;  and  the  individuals  from  certain  parts  of  the  island  of 
Java  have  a  pale  yellow  fur,  with  three  stripes  down  the  back."  JNow  this  amounts, 
in  fact,  to  a  reduction  of  all  species  that  are  nearly  allied,  to  the  rank  of  varieties  only 
of  the  same  one,  however  different  their  locale  ;  and  so  far  as  climatal  or  local  influ- 
ence is  concerned,  it  happens  that  several  of  the  supposed  **  varieties"  of  Paradoxu- 
rus typus  co-exist  abundantly  in  the  Malayan  peninsula,  and  without  intermingling 
80  far  as  I  have  ever  seen  or  heard  of,  which  there  can  be  little  doubt  they  would  do 
freely,  were  they  really  the  same.  The  white  tail-tip  is  of  no  consequence  whatever, 
and  occurs  not  unfrequently  in  several  species  of  Paradoxurus,  without  affecting  their 
other  distinctive  characters :  white  feet  are  also  common,  and  occasionally  these  animals 
are  largely  pied  with  white  also  upon  the  body.  If  the  different  races  of  Paradoxuri 
inhabiting  the  Malayan  peninsula  are  not  to  be  regarded  as  species,  all  discrimina- 
tion of  species  is  at  an  end  ;  no  two  naturalists  will  agree  respecting  the  amount  of 
specifical  variation ;  and  no  confidence  can  be  reposed  in  any  list  of  names  represent- 
ing the  fauna  of  a  region.  Therefore,  (at  all  events  in  the  present  state  of  knowledge,) 
I  think  it  right  to  distinguish  species  or  permanent  races  to  the  fullest  practicable  ex- 
teat  ;  and  1  even  do  not  see  that  identity  of  origin  is  implied  by  absolute  similarity. 


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288  Noiices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  172, 

on  the  breast  and  flanks :  cap  and  ear-coverts  black,  but  no  black  cbin- 
spot :  the  tail  dusky  or  blackish,  laterally  edged  with  green  towards  its 
base ;  its  four  outer  feathers  having  a  largish  white  spot  at  tip,  and  the 
two  central  pairs  being  successively  more  narrowly  tipped  with  the  same. 
Bill  and  feet  black.  From  Ceylon.  If  new,  R.  aberrans,  nobis ;  but  I 
repeat  my  suspicion  of  its  being  the  female  of  R.  gularis. 

Genus  Calamoherpe,  Boie.  In  my  notice  of  the  Indian  species  of 
this  genus,  XIV,  594, 1  cited  C.  arundinacea,  (Lin.),  with  a  mark  of 
doubt,  in  referring  to  it  the  Agrohates  brunnescens  of  Jerdonf.  By  the 
kindness  of  H.  £.  Strickland,  Esq.,  the  Society  has  now  been  favoiired 
with  a  specimen  of  the  European  bird,  which  proves,  though  very  closely 
allied,  to  be  certainly  a  distinct  species  from  its  Indian  representative. 
It  is  rather  larger,  with  a  longer  wing,  the  latter  measuring  above  three 
inches  and  three-quarters ;  and  a  good  distinction  is  afforded  by  the 
European  bird  having  its  first  primary  somewhat  longer,  if  anything, 
than  the  next ;  whereas  the  Indian  species,  which  will  now  rank  as 
C  brunnescens,  (Jerdon,*)  has  the  first  primary  constantly  three-six- 
teenths of  an  inch  shorter  than  the  next,  the  third  being,  if  ^ything, 
longer  than  the  second :  the  general  colouring  of  the  European  species 
is  also  rather  more  intense,  and  especially  the  russet  hue  of  the  flanks 
abdomen,  and  lower  tail-coverts,  is  considerably  more  developed. 

Another  result  for  which  we  are  indebted  to  the  fine  British  collec- 
tions just  received  from  Mr.  Strickland, — Mr.  Kirtland,  of  the  Ashmolean 
Museum,  Oxford, — Mr.  Bartlett,  of  London, — and  Mr.  W.  Davison,  of 
the  Alnwick  Museum, — is  that  the  British  Nuthatch  is  a  different  species 
from  that  bearing  the  same  name  of  Sitta  europcea  in  Norway,  which 
latter  Scandinavian  bird  is  doubtless  the  true  S.  europaa  of  Linnseus. 
The  Norwegian  Nuthatch  has  the  whole  under-parts  white,  with  the  ex- 
ception of  the  deep  russet  hue  of  the  flanks  and  variegating  the  lower 
tail-coverts,  which  is  the  same  in  both  species.f  In  other  respects  they 
resemble ;  but  the  difference  is  as  marked  as  between  various  acknow- 
ledged species  of  Budytes,  or  the  Motacilla  alba  and  id.  Yarrellii,  ^c. ; 

»  Provided,  however,  that  it  also  proves  distinct  from  C.  olivetum  ff  or  olharum  f), 
Strickland,  another  allied  species  which  that  gentleman  procured  in  Greece,  and  which 
is  figured  in  Gould's  *  Birds  of  Europe ;'  but  no  description  of  Mr.  Strickland's  bird  is 
here  accessible. 

t  Some  specimens  have  an  exceedingly  faint  tinge  of  fulvous  on  the  abdomen  only. 


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1846.]  or  Utile  Knoum  Species  of  Birds.  289 

and  a  Himalayan  Nuthatch  is  equally  approximate  (S.  cinnamoventris, 
nobis,  considered  to  be  probably  the  S,  Atma/oyana,  J.  &  S.,  in  XIV, 
579),  this  having  merely  the  deep  russet  of  the  flanks  spread  over  the 
whole  under-parts  of  the  male,  and  similarly  diffused  but  much  paler 
in  the  female, — the  chin  and  sides  of  the  throat  below  the  ear-coverts 
being  alone  white,  except  the  white  variegation  of  the  lower  tail-coverts 
in  which  it  resembles  the  two  allied  European  species  under  consider- 
ation ;  another  very  slight  distinction  of  this  Himalayan  Nuthatch 
appears  also  to  be  constant,  namely  that  the  outermost  tail-feather  has 
either  no  white,  or  the  merest  trace  of  white,  on  its  exterior  web  :  but 
its  affinity  with  the  two  western  European  species  is  so  close,  that  if  the 
latter  are  held  to  be  varieties  of  the  same,  so  also  must  the  Himalayan 
bird,  notwithstanding  that  its  deep  ferruginous  hue  is  as  much  developed 
as  in  S.  castasieoventris,  though  still  not  so  dark  as  in  that  smaller  and 
slender-billed  species  of  the  hilly  parts  of  India  generally.  Referring 
to  the  notice  of  S,  europtea  in  the  Diet,  Class.,  I  observe  that  the  British 
Nuthatch  is  there  described,  and  hence  infer  that  it  is  the  species  inha- 
biting France ;  the  Scandinavian  bird  being  probably  confined  to  the  north 
of  Europe  :  and  presuming  that  the  latter  is  true  S.  europaa,  Lin.,  I  pro- 
pose for  the  British  species  the  name  Sitta  affinis.* 

Passing  now  to  groups  which  have  not  yet  fallen  under  review,  I  shall 
commence  with  that  which  should  have  received  the  name 

Muscicapida.  The  Flycatchers  (MuseicapiddR  of  authors)  are  an  as- 
semblage from  different  natural  families  of  birds,  many  of  which  are 
little  connected  by  the  physiological  proximity  we  style  affinity,  but 
by  analogy  rather,  or  similarity  of  external  adaptations  to  a  particular 
mode  of  life.  A  large  proportion  of  those  of  the  Old  World  appertain 
strictly  to  the  great  group,  branching  off  from  the  Thrushes,  which  is 
now  currently  known  by  the  name  Saxicolina.  Of  these  I  have  many 
species  to  describe;  but  the  group  under  consideration  is  altogether 
distinct  from   the  Flycatching  Saxicolince,  and  though  the  different 

*  It  has  lately  been  suggested  to  me  that  S.  nipalensis,  Hodgson,  is  identical  with  the 
British  Nuthatch ;  bat  it  is  a  widely  different  species,  distinguished  by  its  much  smal* 
ler  size,  proportionally  very  short  bill,  and  by  the  belly,  flanks,  vent,  and  lower  tail- 
coverts,  being  uniform  light  ferruginous  :  iu  some  (males?),  the  throat  and  fore-neck 
are  white,  passing  laterally  into  pale  buff;  while  in  others  (females  ?),  a  light  buffy  tint 
pervades  the  whole  throat  and  fore-neck.  The  two  outermost  tail-feathers  only,  on 
each  side,  are  marked  with  white. 

2q 


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290  Notiees  and  DeBcripiioM  of  various  New  [No.  172. 

Inditm  genera  have  all  the  Muscicapa  adaptations  fully  developed,  it 
branches  off  to  such  forms  as  Piezorhynckns  and  Monarcha  of  Australia, 
wherein  those  particular  adaptations  are  much  reduced.  At  the  head 
of  the  group  may  be  placed  the  Tchitrea;  nearly  allied  to  which  are  the 
Myiagr€e  of  Swainson,  as  exemplified  by  M.  aerulea,  (Vieillot),  of 
India  (which  is  Muse,  occipitalis^  Vigors,  and  the  female — M,  caruko- 
cephala  of  Sykes,  iiec  M.  cyanocepkaia,  Gm.,  and  'Azure-headed 
Fly  catchy'  of  Latham.*)  As  seen  alive,  or  in  the  recent  state,  the 
approximation  of  Myiagra  carulea  to  Tchitrea  paradisi  is  extremely 
close :  there  is  a  near  resemblance  in  general  structure ;  the  same  deli- 
cate blue  bill,  which  loses  its  colour  a  few  hours  after  death ;  and  the 
lengthened  occipital  crest  of  the  Paradise  Flycatcher  is  represented  by 
the  short  velvety  occipital  tuft  of  the  other,  the  plumelets  af  which 
are  similarly  erected  4  even  the  black  pectoral  cincture  of  Myiagra 
carulea  defines  the  boundary  of  the  black  throat  and  fore-neck  of  Tchitrea 
paradisi.  Allied  to  these,  again,  we  have  Leucocerca,  Sw.f  (the  Indian 
species  of  which  are  referred  to  true  Rhipidura  in  XII,  935)  :  and  Rhi- 
pidura  (vera),  v.  Chelidorhynx,  Hodgson,  XII,  936,  almost  equally  allied 
to  Leucocerca  and  Cryptolopha,  shews  that  the  last-named  genus  comes 
also  under  the  present  series.  The  Indian  Cryptolopha  is  Muse,  griseo- 
capilla,  Vieillot,  (apud  Griffith,  An.  Kingd.  VI,  343,)  and  was  figured 
by  Mr.  ^wainson  as  Platyrhynchus  ceylonensis,  afterwards  altered  by 
him  to  Cryptolopha  poiocephala.  It  is  also  Muscicapa  nitida,  var  A,  of 
Latham.      Its  real  name  will  therefore  be,  I  believe,  Cr.  griseocapUh. 


•  The  type  of  this  genus  is  M.  plumbeot  the  male  of  ^hich^ Muscicapa  leucogastra, 
nobis,  XIII,  336,  and  the  female  is  the  supposed  female  of  my  M.  rubeeuia,  toe.  cU., 
whichs=Af^'apra  rubecutoides.  Vigors  and  Horsfield :  but  the  supposed  male  of  my  J/. 
rubecula  would  seem  to  be  the  female  of  another  species,  to  which  may  probably  alio 
be  referred  the  Platyrhynchus  riifiveniris  of  Vieillot  That  I  did  not  recognise  the 
Myiagra  plumbea,  was  owing  to  the  overcbloured  figure  of  this  bird  in  both  editioni 
of  Lewin's  work. 

t  The  name  Leucocerca  is  not  felicitous,  as  shewn  by  Mr.  Swainson's  own  L.  lati' 
Cauda,  **  remarkable  for  its  broad  and  perfectly  black  tail."  ( Nat.  libr.,  ^Flycatchen.') 
The  Society  has  also  a  species  from  Java  or  the  Moluccas,  with  a  wholly  rufous  tail 
The  common  species  of  Lower  Bengal,  L.  fuscoventris,  (Franklin),  was  subsequently 
named  Muse.  (Rhipidura)  sannio,  by  M.  Sundevall ;  and  Mr.  Strickland,  in  referring 
the  latter  appellation  to  Franklin's  species,  erroneously  adds  L,  pectoraHs,  Jerdon.  as 
a  synonyme.  L.  fuscoventris  is  the  *  Broad-tailed  Flycatcher'  of  Latham,  and  L. 
albofrontata,  the  *  White-browed  Flycatcher*  of  that  author. 


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1846.]  or  Littie  Known  Species  of  Birds.  291 

This  bird  is  generally  distributed  over  all  India,  from  the  Himalaya  to 
Ceylon,  and  it  is  common  enough  in  mango  groves  in  Lower  Bengal. 

Of  the  Tchitrea,  I  am  acquainted  with  three  Asiatic  species  which 
have  the  middle  tail-feathers  elongated,  and  the  Muscipeta  airocaudata 
of  Byton  is  perhaps  a  fourth. 

1.  Teh.  parodist,  (L.),  the  fully  mature  bird :  Muscicapa  indica,  Stephens, 
and  M.  castanea*  Tem.,  the  once  moulted  bird.f  It  is  not  at  all  uncom- 
mon to  get  specimens  of  this  bird  in  a  transitional  state  of  plumage, 
variously  intermediate  to  the  phase&  above  referred  to ;  and  not  merely 
when  moulting  from  the  rufous  to  the  white  garb,  but  a  variously  in- 
termediate dress  is  occanonally  put  forth.  Thus,  among  a  number  of 
specimens  before  me,  one  white  male  has  a  considerable  intermixture 
of  rufous  on  many  of  its  back  and  rump  feathers :  another  is  almost 
unmixed  rufous  above,  and  pure  white  below ;  some  of  the  upper  tail- 
coverts  are  white,  and  there  is  a  streak  of  the  same  on  one  of  the  mid- 
dle caudal  feathers :  a  female  is  very  similar  to  the  last,  but  has  one 
primary  on  each  wing — and  not  the  corresponding  feathers — white- 
edged  r  another  and  remarkably  fine  rufous  male  has  a  single  white 
dorsd  feather  only :  and  another  again  has  only  a  single  outermost 
caudal  feather  chiefly  white,  with  a  black  outer  margin.  Females  do 
not  appear  to  assume  the  white  dress  until  they  are  several  years  old ; 
and  it  is  usual,  therefore,  to  see  a  white  male  paired  with  a  rufous 
female :  but,  in  general,  the  females  have  the  whole  neck  and  throat 
glossy-black,  like  the  male,  though  in  some  the  lower  portion  of  the 
black  passes  into  grey,  and  rarely  the  whole  throat  is  ashy,  with  the 
lower  half  of  the  neck  behind.  In  adults  of  either  sex,  the  crest-feathers 
appear  never  to  be  under  an  inch  in  length,  and  vary  from-  that  to  one  and 
a  quarter :  but  the  nestling-bird  is  crestless,  and  has  the  head  of  a  pale 
dull  ehesnut,  with  the  clothing  feathers  altogether  extremely  downy 
and  unsubstantial.  Lastly,  the  black  exterior  margin  to  the  caudal 
feathers  occurs  only  in  the  white  or  fully  mature  livery,  and  the 
elongated  central  tail-feathers  are  never  thus  margined  (as  in  the  next 
species),  but  have  a  black  shaft  for  about  half  their  length.  This  species  . 
is  more  or  less  common  throughout  India,  from  the  Himalaya  to  Ceylon. 

*  Perhaps,  however,  this  name  belongs  rather  to  the  next,  or  common  Malayan, 
species, 
t  Muse,  mutata  of  India,  Lath.,  can  only  refer  to  the  same. 

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292  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  172. 

2.  Teh,  affinis,  A.  Hay,  MS. :  Malayan  Teh.  paradisi,  aactorum ; 
Muscipeta  castanea  (PJ,  Temminck.  In  any  state  of  plumage,  this 
species  may  be  distinguished  from  the  last  by  having  the  crest  never 
more  than  seven-eighths  of  an  inch  in  length  (generally  less),  and 
the  feathers  which  compose  the  crest  are  broader  and  muck  more  com- 
mingled into  a  uniform  smooth  surface  than  in  the  other.  The  middle 
tail-feathers  of  the  male  rarely,  if  ever,  attain  a  foot  in  length  ;  where- 
as in  the  Indian  species,  they  often  exceed  fifteen  inches ;  in  form, 
too,  they  are  very  much  narrower  than  in  Teh.  paradisi  (vera). 
The  adult  male  is  white,  with  glossy-black  head  and  neck*  as  in 
the  other ;  but  the  black  on  the  shafts  of  the  feathers  of  the  upper 
plumage  generally,  is  much  more  developed;  and  the  middle  caudal 
feathers  are  black-shafted  throughout  their  whole  length,  or  nearly  so,  and 
are  more  or  less  conspicuously  margined  throughout,  both  externally  and 
internally,  with  black,  often  broadly  so  throughout.  A  mature  female 
received  from  Malacca  is  wholly  white,  with  black  head  and  nape,  and 
black  centres  of  feathers  and  edges  of  caudals,  as  in  the  male ;  the  can- 
dais  being  however  broad,  instead  of  narrow  as  in  the  other  sex. 
Young  males  in  the  chesnut  plumage  seem  never  to  have  any  black  on 
the  throat  and  fore-neck,  which,  with  the  nape,  are  whoUy  ash-colonr, 
as  in  some  young  females  of  Teh.  paradisi ;  these  rufous  males,  and  also 
the  younger  rufous  females,  have  little  or  no  trace  of  the  black  centres  to 
the  feathers, — but  in  older  rufous  females  the  latter  are  well  developed  on 
the  tertiaries,  and  the  ash- colour  of  the  nape,  throat,  breast  and  flanks, 
is  very  dark"*" :  the  inner  portion  of  the .  large  alars,  which  in  the  corres- 
ponding plumage  of  the  Indian  species  is  commonly  chesnut  throughout, 
is  in  its  Malayan  relative  always  dusky  black.  This  species  is  also 
smaller  than  Teh.  paradisi.  It  is  common  in  the  Malayan  peninsda 
the  Tenasserim  Provinces,  and  occurs  rarely  in  Arracan ;  replacing  Teh. 
paradisi  of  India  Proper. 

The  advance  from  rufous  to  white  occurs  in  several  other  species ;  as 
somewhat  fantastically  shevm  in  one  or  two  of  Levaillant's  plates :  and 
it  is  also  instanced  by  Mr.  Swainson's  figure  of  his  Muscipeta  rufiventris, 
in  the  '  Birdsof  western  Africa,'  Nat.  Lihr.,  wherein  an  admixture  of 
white  is  exhibited  upon  the  wing  of  a  rufous  specimen. 

*  The  Society  has  one  chesnut  female  with  shining  black  throat  and  fore-neck,  as 
commonly  occurs  in  Teh.  paradisi. 


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1846]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds,  293 

Teh.  leucogaster,  (Swainson),  Nat,  Libr.,  *  Flycatchers/ — is  an  alleged 
species  founded  on  (apparently)  a  female  specimen,  which  was  in  the  col- 
lection formed  in  India  by  the  Countess  of  Dalhousie.  It  would  seem  to 
agree  with  Teh.  affinis  (in  the  rufous  dress),  except  in  its  larger  size, 
measuring  "  no  less  than  five  inches  from  the  tip  of  the  bill  to  the 
vent/'  and  in  having  the  posterior  crest-feathers  long  and  narrow,  as  in 
Teh,  paradisi.  If  a  true  species,  the  form  of  the  tail  would  indicate  that 
the  central  caudal  feathers  of  the  male  are  elongated ;  which  is  not  the 
case  in  all  the  genus,  for  instance  in  the  small  Teh,  borboniea  of  the  Isle 
of  France,  the  general  structure  of  which  comes  very  close  upon 
Myiagra. 

Teh,  atrocaudata,  (Eyton),  P.  Z,  S,  1839,  p.  102.  "  Toto  eorpore  pur-, 
pureo-atro,  sed  peetore  imo  abdomineque  albis.  Long,  tot,  9  uneias" 
Hab.  Malacca.  Lord  Arthur  Hay  possesses  what  I  take  to  be  a  mature 
female  of  this  species,  having  the  head  and  neck  glossy  black,  the  rest 
of  the  upper  parts  beautiful  glossy  maroime,  or  deep  chesnut-bay,  with 
a  very  strong  maronne  gloss, — and  of  the  lower-parts  dark  ash-colour, 
passing  to  white  towards  the  vent  and  lower  tail-coverts,  which  last 
are  tinged  with  chesnut:  shafts  of  the  tertiaries  black  (as  in  Teh. 
affinis) ;  and  the  primaries  and  secondaries  dusky-black,  margined  ex- 
ternally with  dark  rufous  ;  axillaries  white :  the  central  caudal  feathers 
are  scarcely  developed  beyond  the  rest ;  and  the  crest  is  still  shorter 
than  in  Teh.  affinis.  Young  females  are  scarcely  distinguishable  from 
those  of  Teh,  affinis ;  but  have  a  shorter  crest,  the  middle  tail-feathers 
about  equal  with  the  rest  on  either  side,  and  more  or  less  of  the  beau- 
tiful maronne  gloss  is  generally  perceptible.  In  this  state  of  plumage, 
they  constitute  Museipeta  atrieeps,  nobis,  XI,  203,  790. 

Teh.  prineeps,  (Tem.),  p.  c.  584.  This  superb  species  inhabits  China 
and  Japan.  Lord  Arthur  Hay  has  received  it  from  Hong  Kong*  t  and 
1  should  acknowledge  that  I  have  been  indebted  to  his  lordship  for  the 
loan  of  some  specimens  of  Teh.  affinis,  SfC„  which  first  enabled  me  to 
come  to  some  understanding  of  these  different  species. 

In  immediate  proximity  to  Tehitrea,  we  have  the  new  genus  Philen* 

toma  of  Eyton,  of  which  two  species  inhabit  the  Malayan  peninsula : 

*  Mutdpeta  atrocattdata,  Eyton  ?,  apud  Lord  A.  Hay,  Madr,  Joum,  No.  XXXI, 
159.  His  lordship,  however,  does  not  agree  with  me  in  the  above  identification  of  his 
specimen  with  Teh,  princeps.  Perhaps  Teh.  atrocaudata  may,  indeed,  yet  prove  to 
be  no  other  than  Teh.  prineeps* 


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294  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  172. 

viz.  PA.  pectoraie  {Muscicapa  pectoralis,  A.  Hay,  Madr.  Journ,  No. 
XXXI,  161,)  and  Ph.plumosum  (vide  p.  10,  ante) :  this  is  a  genus  which 
I  had  long  instituted  in  MS,,  when  I  found  that  I  had  been  anticipated  in 
publication  by  Mr.  Eyton. 

Dicrurida,  Drongos,  or  'King  Crows.*  A  very  distinct  group, 
one  marked  character  of  which  is  to  have  constantly  but  ten  tail-fea- 
thers. An  attempt  was  made  to  reduce  the  synonymes  of  the  Asiatic 
species  in  XI,  799  et  seq.;  and  Mr.  Strickland  made  a  further  attempt 
in  the  Ann.  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1844,  p.  36.  Mr.  G.  R.  Gray,  again, 
has  more  recently  tried  his  hand  at  the  whole  series  of  them,  and 
he  adds  the  genera  Artamus  and  Irena  to  his  Ampelida  Dtcrurina,  m 
which  I  cannot  think  of  following  him.  The  generic  subdivisions  I 
would  retain  the  same  as  formerly. 

1 .  Chibia  hottentota  ;  Corvus  hottentotus,  Lin. :  Edolius  barbatus.  Gray ; 
E.  crishna,  Grould ;  Criniger  splendens,  Tickell ;  Chibia  casia,  Hodgson. 
Common  in  Bengal,  Nepal,  Assam,  Sylhet,  and  in  Central  India ;  rarer  in 
Arracan ;  and  partially  distributed  in  S.  India.  This  beautiful  bird  is  re- 
markable for  the  arched  form  of  its  bill,  which  is  high  and  carinate  at 
base,  and  attenuates  gradually  to  a  point,  with  scarcely  a  trace  of  emargi- 
nation.  It  has  a  frontal  crest  of  a  few  hair-like  stems,  which  hang  over 
the  nape ;  and  its  outermost  tail-feathers  are  very  much  twisted  over, 
forming  a  singular  ornament. 

2.  Chaptia  anea,  (Vieillot) :  Dicrurus  (eratus,  Stephens ;  Ch.  muscipe- 
toides,  Hodgson :  Butchanga  of  the  Bengallees.  This  beautiful  species 
resembles  the  last  in  the  character  and  lustre  of  its  feathers,  but  has 
the  general  form  of  a  Flycatcher.  It  is  a  loud  and  very  respectable 
songster.     Inhabits  India  generally. 

3.  Ch.  malayensis,  A.  Hay.  Very  similar  to  the  last  in  plumage,  but 
the  size  inferior,  the  tail  much  less  deeply  forked,  the  biU  deeper,  and  a 
considerable  development  of  the  peculiar  crest  impending  its  base,  of  the 
next  species.  Lord  Arthur  Hay  will  describe  it  more  particularly  in  the 
'  Madras  Journal.*    From  Malacca. 

4.  Bhringa  remi/er,  (Tem.)  :  Bh.  tectirostris,  Hodgson  ;  Eddhu 
rangonensis  apud  Horsfield,  from  Assam.  This  is  peculiarly  a  hill 
species,  common  in  the  eastern  Himalaya,  and  extending^  to  the  moon- 
tains  of  Assam,  Sylhet,  and  Arracan.  It  much  resembles  the  preceding 
in  the  general  character  and  lustre  of  its  plumage,  but  has  a  nearly 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  295 

square  tail,  with  the  stems  of  the  outermost  feathers  excessively  elongated 
beyond  the  rest,  and  harbed  only  for  the  terminal  four  inches  (or  there- 
abouts), nearly  equally  so  in  both  webs,  and  this  barbed  portion  is  not 
twisted  as  in  the  following  species  ;  the  stem,  however,  which  is  much 
smoother  or  more  completely  barbless  than  in  the  others,  takes  half  a 
turn,  80  that  the  barbed  tips  remain  vertical,  to  the  axis  of  the  body, 
with  the  upper  side  inwards. 

We  come  now  to  tbe  Edolii,  as  I  restrict  this  division  :  and  are  pre- 
sented with  a  series  of  species  closely  allied  in  other  respects,  but 
shewing  every  gradation  in  the  degree  of  development  of  frontal  crest, 
from  the  total  absence  of  such  an  ornament,  to  one  flowing  backward 
over  the  occiput.  Their  synonyme,  as  may  be  supposed,  is  much 
involved.  All  have  a  moderately  furcate  tail,  with  the  stems  of  its 
outermost  feathers  prolonged  and  naked  for  a  considerable  space,  and 
broadly  barbed  on  the  inner  side  towards  the  extremity ;  the  stem  how- 
ever giving  one  twist,  so  that  this  inner  web  appears  to  be  the  outer 
one :  in  younger  specimens,  the  inner  side  has  conspicuously  a  short 
web  throughout  its  length  (which  is  considerably  less  than  in  mature 
birds),  and  the  rudiment  of  this  inner  web  is  seen,  upon  close  inspection, 
in  adults,  as  also  a  very  slight  rudiment  of  an  outer  web,  which  latter 
becomes  further  developed  towards  the  extreme  tip  of  the  feather.  Fi- 
nally, the  barbed  tip  is  more  or  less  twisted  inwards,  and  has 
always  its  inferior  side  uppermost.  It  is  worthy  of  remark,  that  the 
crested  birds  are  successively  larger  as  the  crest  becomes  more  deve- 
loped ;  while  the  crestless  species  are  smallest :  also,  that  the  latter  have 
the  longest  and  most  spirated  outer  tail-feathers ;  while  in  the  former, 
these  are  successively  shorter  and  less  spirated. 

5.  E.  malaharoides }  Chibia  malabaroides,  Hodgson,  Ind.  Rev,  1837, 
p.  325 :  Lanius  malabaricus,  as  figured  by  Latham  and  Shaw,  but  not 
L.  malabaricus  as  described  by  Latham  from  Sonnerat :  E.  grandis  apud 
DOS,  XI,  170,  and  Ann.  Mag,  Nat,  Hist,  XIV,  46.  In  this  species,  the 
frontal  plumes  attain  a  length  of  two  inches  and  a  half,  and  flow  back- 
ward over  and  beyond  the  occiput.  The  hackles  of  the  neck  are  also 
decidedly  more  elongated  than  in  the  others.  Length  of  wing  com- 
monly six  inches  and  three-quarters.  Inhabits  Nepal,  Tipperah,  and 
the  Tenasserim  Provinces. 


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296  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  172. 

6.  E.  grandis,  Gould^  Proc,  Zool.  Soc.  1836,  p.  5 :  j&.  bengalensis, 
A.  Hay,  MS.  Crest-feathers  attaining  to  an  inch  and  a  half,  or  in  verj 
fine  specimens  a  trifle  more,  and  reaching  to  the  occiput,  but  scarcely 
ever  overhanging  it.*  Fine  specimens  are  of  equal  size  with  the  pre- 
ceding race ;  though,  in  general,  the  present  one  is  rather  smaller.  It 
is  common  in  Assam  and  Arracan,  and  occurs  in  the  Bengal  Soonder- 
buns. 

7.  E.  paradiseus ;  Cuculus  paradiseus,  Lin. :  Dicrurus  platwus,  Vieil- 
lot ;  Edolius  reti/er,  Tem. ;  E.  crist&tellus,  nobis,  XI,  171  ;  i^.  interme- 
dins. Lesson,  apud  G.  R.  Gray.  This  is  the  common  species  of  the  Te- 
nasserim  provinces,  with  crest  generally  from  an  inch  to  an  inch  and 
a  quarter  long,  and  the  wing  usually  six  inches  and  a  quarter.  It  is  not 
well  distinguished  from  the  last ;  but  when  a  number  of  specimens  are 
seen  together,  with  a  corresponding  series  of  the  Arracan  bird,  the  aver- 
age size  and  development  of  the  crest-feathers  of  the  present  race  is 
shewn  to  be  inferior,  and  the  tendency  of  the  crest  is  always  to  curve 
back  more  abruptly. 

Two  specimens  from  southern  India  (locality  not  mentioned),  with 
which  the  Society  has  been  favoured  by  Mr.  Jerdon,  do  not — at  least  that 
I  can  perceive — differ  in  any  respect  from  the  common  Tenasserim  race; 
but  Mr.  Jerdon  informs  me,  that  he  possesses  three  Edolii  from  the 
Indian  peninsula, — "  one  from  Malabar,  one  from  the  Eastern  Gh&ts, 
and  one  from  Goomsoor.  This  last  (E.  orissaj"  he  adds,  "  has  the 
bill  much  smaller  than  in  E.  dentirostris  of  the  Eastern  Gh&ts.  llie 
Malabar  species  is  crested,  and  therefore  does  not  correspond  with  Son- 
nerat's  figure**  below  referred  to. 

8.  E,  malaharicus,  (Scopoli),  founded  on  le  Grand  Gohe-mouche  de  k 
c6te  de  Malabar  of  Sonnerat :  E.  rangonensis,  Gould.  That  two  races 
even  here  remain  to  be  distinguished  is  still  my  suspicion,  one  being  the 
bird  described  as  E.  rangonensis  in  XI,  172,  and  represented  in  the 
plate  to  XI,  802.  figs.  8  and  9 ;  the  other,  the  bird  of  Sonnerat,  devoid 
of  the  slightest  trace  of  a  frontal  crest,  and  of  which  (if  I  am  not  greatlf 
mistaken)  I  saw  a  Singapore  specimen  in  the  collection  of  a  French 
gentleman  some  time  ago,  who  forwarded  that  collection  to  Pans  be- 

*  Mr.  Gould,  in  his  description  of  £.  grandis,  states—*'  The  recurved  feathers  of 
the  upper  part  of  the  head  measure  an  inch  and  a  half  in  length." 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  297 

fore  I  had  examined  it  more  particularly,  as  it  was  my  intention  to  have 
done.  That  such  a  cresUess  Edoluts  exists,  however,  in  Peninsular 
India  is  extremely  doubtful."*" 

In  fine,  I  should  not  now  be  surprised  if  a  most  complete  gradation  of 
specimens  from  the  E,  malabaroides  of  Nepal,  with  frontal  crest  two  inches 
and  a  half  long,  to  the  entirely  crestless  bird  figured  by  Sonnerat,  should 
prove  to  be  obtainable  (as  we  proceed  southward)  in  the  countries  lying 
eastward  of  the  Bay  of  Bengal ;  and  such  a  gradation  would,  I  think,  be 
due  to  the  intermixture  of  a  succession  of  allied  races,  rather  than  to  clima- 
tal  or  local  variation  of  the  same  aboriginal  race :  such  intermixture 
decidedly  taking  place  between  Coracias  indica  and  C.  affinis,  and  be^ 
tween  Treron  phcenicoptera  and  TV.  chlorigaster,  as  also  between  the 
different  Kilidge  Pheasants  (as  I  shall  take  another  opportunity  of 
shewing)t.  The  EdolH  of  peninsular  India,  I  am  not  yet  sufficiently 
acquainted  with. 

9.  Dicrurus  edoli/ormis,  nobis,  ».  s.  This  well  marked  species 
would  seem  to  be  a  common  bird  in  Ceylon.  It  much  resembles  the 
ordinary  sub-crested  bird  of  the  Malayan  peninsula,  except  that  its  tail 
is  formed  as  in  D.  macrocercus,  the  caudal  feathers  being  however  some- 
what broader.  Three  specimens  are  quite  similar.  Length  of  wing 
fire  inches  and  three-eighths,  of  middle  tail-feathers  five  inches,  the  out- 
ermost an  inch  and  a  half,  to  an  inch  and  three-quarters  more ;  bill  to 
gape  an  inch  and  three- eighths  ;  and  tarse  an  inch.  The  form  of  bill  and 
plumage  is  as  in  j^.  malabaricus,  the  frontal  crest  being  rather  more  de- 
veloped than  in  the  next  species. 

10.  D.  viridescens,  Qould,  vide  XI,  173  and  802.  figs.  10  and  11. 
Tail  almost  quadrate,  with  but  a  slightly  furcate  tendency.  Both  this 
and  the  preceding  are,  in  fact,  Edolii,  with  the  outermost  tail-feathers 
not  prolonged  as  in  that  series  of  birds. 

*  Since  the  above  was  written,  the  Society  has  been  favoared  by  Mr.  E.  Lindstedt 
with  a  fine  specimen  of  an  Bdolius  from  Malacca,  having  a  frontal  crest  half  an  inch 
in  length ;  and  I  feel  doubtful  whether  this  and  other  Malacca  specimens  can  be  safely 
identified  with  the  bird  having  very  long  and  very  spiral  outer  tail-feathers,  noticed  in 
the  description  of  ^.  rangonensiSt  XI,  172,  and  the  bill  of  which  is  figured  at  p.  802, 
nos.  8  and  9. 

t  Canms  corone  and  C.  cornix,  and  MotacUla  lugubris  and  Af.  alba  (apud  Tem- 
minck),  afibrd  similar  cases  of  intermixture  of  wild  races  in  Europe.  The  Society's 
Museum  contains  a  specimen  of  what  is  certainly  the  hybrid  between  Corvuf  corone 
and  C.  comix,  received  from  Norway ;  and  we  have  also  the  well  known  hybrid  be- 
tween Teirao  urogaUus  and  T.  tetrix,  from  the  same  country. 

2    R 


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298  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  172. 

1 1 .  i>.  balicassius ;  Corvus  balicassius,  Lin. :  Oriolus  furcatus,  Gme- 
lin,  apud  G.  R.  Gray ;  Bhuchanga  annectans,  Hodgson ;  Dicrurus  affinis, 
nobis,  XI,  1 74 ;  Corvus  qfer,  Licht. ;  and  C.  assimilis,  Bechst.,  apud  G. 
R.  Gray.  Inhabits  the  Malay  countries^  and  occurs  also  in  Nepal.'*' 
The  Australian  species  referred  to  this  by  Messrs.  Vigors  and  Horsfield, 
is  the  D.  hracteatus,  Gould. 

12.  Z>.  macrocercu^,  Vieillot :  Muscicapa  biioba,  licht.;  D.  indicus, 
Stephens,  and  also  of  Hodgson,  As,  Res,  XVIII,  described  and  figured  in 
part  II ;  likewise  Bhuchanga  albirictus,  Hodgson,  Ind.  Rev.  1837,  p.  326: 
Edolius  forficatus,  Horsfield  (apud  Strickland,  in  epistold) ;  D.  baUcas- 
sius  apud  Sykes  and  Jerdon,  also  apud  nos,  XI,  1 74 ;  and  D,  fingah 
apud  nos  (passim).  The  common  Fingah,  or  '  King  Crow,'  of  India 
generally. 

13.  2).  longicaudatus,  A.  Hay :  D,  macrocercus  apud  Jerdon,  et  nos 
passim :  Neel  Fingah  of  the  Bengallees ;  described  in  Ann.  Mag,  Nat, 
Hist.  1844,  p.  46.  Inhabits  India  generally,  but  is  much  less  common 
than  D,  macrocercus. 

14.  2>.  ccerulescens,  (Lin.) :  Lanius  Fingah,  Shaw :  both  founded  on 
Edwards'  figure.  Described  in  Ann.  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1844,  p,  47.  Not 
common  in  Lower  Bengal. 

15.  D.  leucopygialis,  nobis,  ».  s.  Similar  to  the  last  but  smaller;  the 
tip  of  the  upper  mandible  (it  would  seem  constantly)  more  produced ; 
and  the  white  confined  to  the  lower  tail- coverts,  the  abdominal  region 
being  merely  somewhat  paler  than  the  breast.  Length  of  wing  five 
inches  and  three-eighths.  This  appears  to  be  a  common  species  in 
Ceylon. 

1 6.  D.  intermedius,  nobis,  n.  s.  Also  closely  allied  to  D.  carules' 
cens,  but  having  no  white  whatever  on  the  under- parts,  which  are  dark-* 
er  than  the  throat  and  breast  of  D,  carulescens,  and  have  a  faint  steel- 
blue  gloss.  The  upper-parts  are  also  glossed  with  steel-blue  instead  of 
steel-green.  Length  of  wing  five  inches,  of  middle  tail-feathers  three 
and  a  half,  and  of  outermost  tail-feathers  an  inch  and  five-eighths 
more.  From  Penang.  In  general  aspect  intermediate  to  />.  cerulet' 
cens  and  D.  longicaudatus. 


*  Captain  Lewis  took  a  specimen  at  sea,  when  within  a  few  leagues  of  one  of  the 
Nicobar  Islands. 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  299 

17.  D.  cineraceus,  (Horsf.) : — leucophaus,  Vieillot; — ceylonensis, 
Stephens.  Lord  Arthur  Hay  has  presented  the  Society  with  a  Malacca 
example  of  this  species.  Its  length,  to  tip  of  middle  tail-feathers,  is 
ahout  ten  inches,  the  outermost  exceeding  them  hy  ahout  an  inch,  and 
the  tail-fork  much  divaricated ;  wing  five  inches  and  three-quarters : 
hill  as  in  D.  longicaudatus  and  D,  c^erulescens,  hut  less  carinate  ahove, 
especially  towards  its  base  :  general  plumage  deep  ash-grey,  passing  to 
blackish  jost  over  the  beak,  also  on  the  exterior  web  of  the  outermost 
tail-feathers  and  on  the  wing- primaries ;  ear-coverts,  and  around  the 
eye,  with  the  vent  and  lower  tail-coverts,  albescent  grey :  bill  and  feet 
black. 

Respecting  the  remaining  semi-described  species  of  oriental  Dicruri- 
d€C,  I  have  no  information  to  contribute. 

Artamus^  Vieillot :  Ocypterus,  Guv. ;  Leptopteryx,  Horsfield.  I  do  not 
range  this  very  peculiar  genus  here  from  any  belief  in  its  affinity  for  the 
DicntridtB,  but  simply  because  I  have  no  idea  where  else  to  place  it.  It 
is  chiefly  an  Australian  group,  though  one  species  inhabits  the  Philip- 
pines, another  Java,  and  a  third  occurs  throughout  India.  This  is  the 
A./useus,  Vieillot,  and  Oeypterus  rufiventer  of  Valenciennes,  referred  to 
0.  leucorhynckos  in  P.  Z.  S.  1839,  p.  158.  It  is  also  the  Murasiny* 
Chatterer,  and  Broum-coioured  Swallow,  var.  A,  of  Latham.  An  allied 
form,  the  Analcipus  hirundinaceus,  Swainson,  was  erroneously  assign- 
ed to  India  by  that  author. f  A.  fuscus  has  quite  the  same  habits 
as  the  various  Australian  species  observed  by  Gould :  except  that 
I  coald  never  hear  of  its  clustering  in  the  very  singular  manner 
stated  of  A,  sordidus ;  f .  e.  a  number  of  them  clinging  together,  like 
a  swarm  of  bees,  even  to  the  size  of  a  bushel- measure,  pendent 
from  a  high  and  bare  branch  of  a  tree.  In  other  respects,  Mr.  Qould's 
description  of  the  habits  of  A.  sordidus  might  be  transferred  to  the 
Indian  species.  Wherever  a  high  tree  rises  above  its  fellows,  and  projects 
a  bare  or  dead  branch  commanding  a  wide  view  around,  there  may 
commonly  be  seen  a  party  of  these  birds,  one  minute  sitting  together 
in  a  close  row,  anon  sallying  forth  in  quest  of  insects,  and  soon  return- 
ing (each  separately  and  independent  of  the  movements  of  the  rest.)  to 
alight  and  perch  together  as  before.     Yet  they  are  not  very  common, 

*  Mispelt  Murasing^ 
t  Vide  p.  45,  ante. 


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300  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  172. 

but  the  parties  are  met  with  here  and  there,  sometimes  at  long  inter- 
vals through  a  tract  of  favourable  country ;  but  wherever  they  are  seen,  a 
number  of  specimens  may  be  procured  with  the  greatest  facility. 

Laniada,  Of  the  true  Shrikes  (Lanius),  the  following  Indian  species 
may  be  enumerated. 

I.  L.  lahtora,  Sykes;  L.  excubitor,  var.  C,  Latham  :  Doodea  lahtora 
(<  Milky  Shrike'),  Hind.  This  differs  from  L.  excubitor  in  having  a 
narrow  black  frontal  band,  and  in  the  secondaries  having  their  whok 
inner  webs,  and  a  broad  tip  and  margin  to  the  terminal  half  of  their 
outer  webs,  white.  It  does  not  seem  to  occur  in  Lower  Bengal ;  nor 
have  I  seen  it  from  the  Himalaya,  or  from  the  countries  eastward :  but 
it  is  of  general  occurrence  on  the  plains  of  Upper  India  and  the  Northern 
portion  of  the  peninsula,  extending  to  Scinde,  and  it  is  likewise  found 
at  Rajmahl. 

There  is  a  remarkable  specimen  in  the  Museum,  with  the  habitat  of 
which  I  am  unacquainted,  and  which  is  probably  not  Indian :  but  it 
seems  to  be  a  new  species,  and  as  such  may  be  here  described : — 

L.  longipennis,  nobis.  A  large  grey  Shrike,  with  a  fine  blush  on  the 
under-parts,  a  very  broad  black  frontal  band,  and  singularly  long 
straight  wings,  having  the  first  primary  very  short,  and  the  second  near- 
ly as  long  as  the  third.  It  is,  therefore,  a  Lanius  of  Vigors,  as  opposed 
to  his  CoUurio ;  to  which  latter  all  the  other  Indian  species  belong, 
even  L.  Hardwickii.  Length  about  eight  inches  and  a  half,  of  wing 
four  and  three-quarters,  its  first  primary  but  seven* eighths  of  an  inch ; 
and  middle  tail-feathers  three  and  three-quarters,  the  outermost  three- 
quarters  less  :  bill  to  gape  seven-eighths  ;  and  tarse  an  inch.  Upper- 
parts  ash-grey,  darker  and  less  pure  than  in  L.  excubitor  and  L.  lahtora, 
except  over  the  rump ;  throat,  middle  of  belly,  and  lower  tail-coverts, 
white  ;  the  rest  of  the  under-parts  subdued  white,  with  a  roseate  blosh ; 
broad  frontal  band  to  a  level  with  the  eyes,  and  streak  comprising  the 
ear- coverts,  black ;  wings  and  tail  duU  black ;  the  basal  third  of  the 
primaries  white,  forming  a  wing-band ;  tertiaries  slightly  tipped  with 
the  same ;  and  outermost  tail-feathers  wholly  white,  the  penultimate 
with  only  a  dark  spot  on  its  inner  web,  and  a  dark  shaft,  with  a  narrow 
contiguous  stripe  on  its  outer  web,  and  the  two  next  tail-feathers  white 
at  base  and  tip ;  the  ante- penultimate  more  broadly  so.  Bill  black,  with 
white  spot  at  extreme  base  of  lower  mandible ;  and  legs  brown-black. 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds,  301 

The  following  is  a  series  of  allied  species,  certain  of  which  have  not 
hitherto  been  distinguished. 

L.  schach,  lin. :  L.  bentet,  Horsfield,  Lin.  Trans.  XIII,  144 ;  Lesson, 
in  Belanger's  '  Voyage/  Length  eleven  inches  or  less,  of  wing  four  and 
one-eighth,  and  of  middle  tail-feathers  five  inches  to  five  and  three- 
quarters,  the  outermost  an  inch  and  three-quarters  to  two  inches  short- 
er. Head  and  neck  ashy,  passing  to  whitish  on  the  vertex,  tinged 
with  rufous  on  the  back,  and  passing  to  bright  light  rufous  on  the  rump, 
upper  tail- coverts,  scapularies,  and  flanks :  lower-parts  delicate  rufoud- 
white,  whitest  on  the  throat  and  middle  of  belly  :  a  very  broad  frontal 
band,  and  streak  through  the  eyes,  comprising  the  ear-coverts,  deep 
black  :  wings  also  black,  with  lufescent- whitish  margins  to  the  tertiaries, 
and  white  edge  anteriorly :  and  the  tail  black,  with  rufescent- white  tips 
often  obsolete  on  its  middle  feathers,  and  successively  more  developed  to 
the  outermost ;  the  two  or  three  outside  feathers  merely  blackish,  and 
margined  round  with  light  rufescent,  which  colour  predominates  on  the 
outermost  feather  of  all.  Described  from  three  Ghusan  specimens,  which 
seem  to  be  identical  in  species  with  the  Javanese  bird.  This  is  the 
largest  species  of  the  sub-group,  and  is  particularly  distinguished  from 
the  others  by  having  the  black  band  on  its  forehead  fully  five-eighths 
of  an  inch  broad. 

2.  L.  nigriceps,  Franklin :  L,  nasutus,  Scopoli,  and  L,  antiguanus,  La- 
tham, both  founded  on  Sonnerat's  figure  of  his  Pie-gri^che  d'Antigue;  but 
the  former  name  is  objectionable,  as  referring  to  an  individual  deformity 
of  the  specimen  figured,  and  the  latter,  as  likely  tp  convey  the  idea  that  it 
is  a  West  Indian  bird,  from  th/e  more  familiarly  known  island  of  Antigua, 
instead  of  the  province  of  Antigue  in  Panay.  It  is  also  L.  tricolor , 
Hodgson,  Ind.  Rev.  1837,  p.  446;  and /ntftan  Shrike,  Latham.  This 
species  is  at  once  distinguished  by  having  the  whole  cap  black.  The 
rufous  hue  of  its  upper-parts  varies  much  in  depth,  and  many  have  the 
nape  more  or  less  ashy.  Inhabits  all  northern  and  central  India ;  being 
common  in  the  Soonderbuns  of  Bengal,  and  on  many  of  the  churrs  (or 
alluvial  banks  and  islands)  in  the  Ganges  and  its  branches.  It  is  also 
common  in  Assam,  Sylhet,  Tipperah,  and  Arracan. 

3.  L.  tephronotus,  Vigors,  P.  Z.  S.  1831,  p.  43:  L.  nipalensis, 
Hodgson,  Ind.  Rev.  1837,  p.  445  :  Grey-backed  Shrike  of  Latham.  Size 
of  the  last  species :  wing  three  inches  and  three-quarters.    Colour  of 


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302  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  172. 

upper-parts  dusky -grey,  faintly  washed  with  rufous  on  the  back  in  most 
specimens ;  the  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts  dark  rufous :  lores  and 
streak  through  the  eyes,  black ;  as  also  the  feathers  immediately  impend- 
ing the  nostrils  in  fine  adults  :  a  slight  pale  streak  over  the  eye,  more  or 
less  developed  :  throat,  fore-neck,  and  middle  of  belly,  white ;  the  rest 
of  the  under-parts  rufous.  The  females  and  young  have  the  breast, 
flanks,  and  sides  of  the  neck,  rayed  more  or  less  with  dusky :  wings 
dusky,  with  rufescent  margins  to  the  tertiaries  and  coverts,  more  or  less 
developed  ;  and  tail  nearly  uniform  brownish,  with  its  outer  feathers  and 
the  tips  of  all  paler.  Common  in  Nepal  and  Bengal,  and  has  been  re- 
ceived from  Tipperah  and  Arracan  ;  frequenting  the  same  haunts  as  the 
last  species. 

4.  L.  erythronotus.  Vigors  and  Gould  (nee  Jerdon).  Wing  three 
inches  and  five-eighths  to  three  and  three-quarters :  middle  tail-feathers 
four  and  a  half  to  five  inches.  Has  a  broad  black  frontal  band,  three- 
eighths  of  an  inch  and  upwards  ;  a  dark  ash-coloured  head  and  nape, 
a  little  albescent  in  some  towards  the  frontal  band  ;  and  sometimes  the 
whole  back  deep  rufous  up  to  the  neck,  at  other  times  the  upper  back 
is  merely  tinged  with  rufous.  A  good  distinction  from  the  next  species 
consists  in  the  broad  black  streak  through  the  eyes  bemg  continued  for 
some  distance  beyond  the  ear-coverts,  instead  of  terminating  with  them. 
Appears  peculiar  to  the  NW.  Himalaya. 

5.  L.  caniceps,  nobis.  Nearly  similar  to  the  last  but  smaller;  the 
black  frontal  band  much  narrower ;  the  grey  of  the  head  much  paler, 
and  spreading  considerably  more  upon  the  back,  becoming  also  much 
more  whitish  towards  the  front  and  over*  the  black  eye-band :  below, 
the  breast  is  whiter,  and  the  rufous  of  the  flanks  more  defined ;  and 
above,  this  is  often  confined  to  the  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts,  and  the 
posterior  scapularies  only  ;  whereas  in  L,  erythronotus  (verus),  the  entire 
scapularies  seem  to  be  always  deep  rufous,  and  sometimes  the  whole  in- 
terscapulary  region,  which  is  never  more  than  tinged  with  rufous  in  the 
present  species.  Wing  three  inches  and  three-eighths  to  three  and  a 
half,  and  middle  tail-feathers  four  and  a  half.  A  marked  indmdnud 
variety  of  this  species — with  grown  tail  only  three  inches  and  three- 
quarters  long,  the  whole  back  and  scapularies  grey,  and  scarcely 
any  rufous  on  the  flanks,  (but  its  plumage  altogether  much  abraded)— 
I  referred  doubtfully  to  L,  minor,  in  X,  841.     The  present  is  the 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  303 

L,  erythronotus  apud  Jerdon  and  others,  of  India  generally ;  extend- 
ing to  Scinde  on  the  west,  and  eastward  it  would  appear  to  inhabit 
Assam,  as  Dr.  Horsfield  remarks  of  the  Assamese  bird  that—"  compar- 
ed with  the  figure  in  Gould's  '  Century  of  Himalayan  birds/  it  is  con- 
aiderably  smaller,  and  the  colours  are  more  dull  than  in  the  Himalayan 
bird."  It  also  occurs  in  Arracan,  and  in  the  Rajmahl  hills  in  Bengal, 
but  not  lower  towards  the  mouth  of  the  river. 

Col.  Sykes  remarks,  of  the  L.  erjfthronotus  of  his  list  of  Dukhun 
species,  that  "  this  bird  differs  from  L.  bentet,  Horsf.,  only  in  the  crown 
being  ash-coloured  instead  of  black,  and  in  the  defined  black  bar  across 
the  forehead."  L.  schach  (v.  hentet),  however,  as  described  by  Dr. 
Horsfield,  has  no  black  crown,  but  a  black  forehead  C*L.fronte  lateribus 
colli  alis  cauddque  nigris,  vertice  dorsoque  griseis,**  8(c),  L.  erythronotus 
and  L,  hentet  are  successively  larger  than  L,  caniceps,  with  a  suc- 
cessively broader  black  frontal  band :  but  in  other  respects  all  three 
bear  a  near  resemblance ;  L,  nigriceps  chiefly  differing  in  its  black  cap, 
which  indeed  constitutes  its  only  marked  distinction  from  L.  erythro^ 
notus ;  and  among  some  birds  which  Lord  Arthur  Hay  collected  in  the 
vicinity  of  Benares,  is  a  specimen  which  has  every  appearance  of  being 
a  hybrid  between  these  two  :  it  has  the  cap  mingled  fuscous  and  ashy, 
and  the  forehead  above  deep  black  as  in  L.  erythronotus.  We  may  ac- 
cordingly look  for  the  latter  species  at  that  distance  from  the  Himalaya, 
probably  as  a  cold  season  visitant. 

6.  L.  phanicurus,  Pallas :  L.  cristatus,  Lin.,  founded  on  Edwards' 
figure  (but  the  species  is  not  crested);  L.  rutilus,  var.  A.,  and  L. 
superciliosus,  var.  A,  Latham :  L.  melanotis,  Valenciennes :  and  L. 
ferrugicepst  Hodgson,  Ind,  Rev,  1837,  p.  446.  Brown,  with  more  rufous 
head,  tail,  and  its  upper  coverts ;  streak  over  the  eye  and  the  throat 
white,  and  the  rest  of  the  under- parts  whitish  with  a  fulvous  tinge :  lores 
and  ear-coverts,  forming  a  broad  band  through  the  eye,  dull  black. 
Females  and  young  much  rayed.  This  is  one  of  the  commonest  of  Indian 
birds,  and  as  its  particularly  harsh  chattering  affords  one  of  the  earliest 
intimations  of  the  advent  of  the  cold  season  in  Calcutta,  its  note  is  then 
far  more  acceptable  than  is  warranted  by  the  music  of  it.  A  few  indi- 
viduals, however,  are  procurable  at  all  seasons  within  a  few  miles.  This 
species  is  also  common  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  ex- 
tending southward  to  the  Straits :  where  it  is  found  together  with  the 


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304  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  172. 

£.  superciliosus  and  with  L.  tigrinus  of  the  Diet.  Class,  (y.  L.  magni' 
rostris.  Lesson,  and  L.  strigatus,  Eyton).  Another  allied  species,  but 
inhabiting  farther  eastward  in  the  Philippine  Isles,  is  the  L.  lucionensis, 
Lin.     I  mention  these  to  shew  that  I  do  not  confound  them.* 

A  marked  variety  of  L.  melanotis  (for  it  can  scarcely  be  admitted  as  a 
separate  species)  was  found  abundantly  by  Capt.  Boys  in  the  country 
lying  between  Scinde  and  Ferozepore.  It  is  distinguished  by  its  pale  co- 
louring,  a  predominant  dull  sandy-grey,  scarcely  tinged  with  rufous,  : 
except  on  the  rump  and  tail ;  the  lores  being  whitish  (in  a  male  and 
female  presented  to  the  Society  by  Captain  Boys),  but  with  a  slight 
black  spot  adjoining  the  orbit  above.  If  regarded  as  new,  L.  arenarhts,  \ 
nobis. 

7.  L.  Hardwickii,  Vigors :  Bay -backed  Shrike,  Latham.   Of  this  beau- 
tiful species,  some  females  perhaps  resemble  the  males ;  but  they  usually     1 
differ  in  their  generally  duller  colours,  in  the  total  absence  of  the  black     j 
upon  the  forehead,  and  over  and  before  the  eye,  while  the  ear-coverts 
are  nearly  brown-black :  some  of  them  have  a  grey  head  and  neck,  not      • 
however  very  pure ;  and  others  a  brown  head  and  neck,  the  latter  having 
also  rays  on  the  under-parts.     This  Shrike  is  common  in  most  parts  of 
the  country  from  the  Himalaya  southward,  but  does  not  occur  below      ^ 
the   Rajmahl  hills    in  Bengal,    and    I    have  never  seen  it  from  the      < 
countries  eastward.  | 

Tephrodornis,  Swainson.     To  this  genus  must  be  referred —  ] 

1 .  T,  sylvicola,  Jerdon,  Catal.  S.  India. 

2.  T,pelvica:  Tenthaca  pelvica,  Hodgson,  Ind,  Rev,  1837,  p.  447.       { 
Nepal,  Tipperah,  Arracan. 

3.  T.  gularis;  Lanius  gularis.  Raffles  :  L.  virgatus,f  Tem.  Ma- 
lacca, Sumatra. 

These  three  species  are  very  closely  allied.  The  last  is  distinguished 
by  its  small  size,  and  otherwise  resembles  T.  pelvica.  Length  of  wing 
three  inches  and  seven- eighths.     In  the  two  others  the  wing  measures 

*  There  is  a  L.  ferox  deBcrihed  in  the  Diet,  Class.t  from  Java,  which  I  cannot  iden- 
tify ;  probably  a  female  or  young  bird  of  its  species.  Also  L.  vittatus,  Val.,  assigned 
to  India,  but  with  which  I  am  unacquainted;  the  latter  is  probably  not  a  true Lammt: 
L.  collurioides  of  Lesson,  in  Belanger's  Voyage,  is  described  from  Pegu.— Mr.  Strick- 
land suspects  that  L»  tigrinus  (v.  magnirostriSf)  is  probably  a  variety  of  L.  phanieu' 
rus  ;  but  it  is  a  well  marked  distinct  species. 

t  Misprinted  vfi^^a^titf,  in  the  Diet,  Class, 


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1846.]  or  Little  Kmowm  Species  of  Birds.  305 

four  inches  and  a  half:  the  male  of  T.  syhneola  having  the  head  dark  ash- 
colour,  and  that  of  T,  pelviea  light  grey ;  an  invariable  distinction. 

4.  T.  pomUeeriima,  (Gm.) :  Lmuus  keromla.  Gray ;  L.  mMseipetoides, 
Franklin ;  L.  griseus,  Hckell ;  L.  sordidus.  Lesson ;  MusekapaphUippensis 
of  India,  Liatham ;  Tephr.  s^ercUiosus,  Swainson  ;  probably  Tenthaea 
kwmrusy  Hodgson,  Ind.  Rev.  1887,  p.  447.  A  very  common  Indian 
bird  and  generally  diffused. 

5.  T,  grisole,  nobis,  XII,  180  (his).  I  killed  an  adnlt  female  of 
this  bird  with  the  same  shot  that  brought  do^mi  a  young  one  of  the  pre- 
ceding species,  and  I  have  never  since  met  with  it  here :  but  the  Society 
has  recently  received  an  undoubted  specimen  from  Java,  and  another 
from  Penang,  so  that  the  species  has  probably  been  named  by  M.  Tem- 
minck. 

Hemipus,  Hodgson,  Ann.  Mag.  N.  H.  1845,  p.  203.  This  genus 
n  founded  on  a  near  affine  to  the  Musdcapa  picata,  (Sykes) :  but 
a  more  typically  characteristic  species  is 

1.  H.  obseurus;  Musdcapa  obseura,  Horsfield :  M.  hirundinaceus, 
Reinwardt;  Tephrodomis  hirundinaceus,  Swainson.  Common  in  the 
Malay  countries.  This  bird  was  referred  to  Tephrodomis  by  Mr. 
Swainson,  and  subsequently  by  Mr.  Strickland ;  and  there  can  be  no 
doubt  of  its  affinity  for  that  group ;  but  its  generic  relationship  is  with 
H.  pieatus  and  H.  capitalis.  I  observe  that  different  specimens  of  this 
bird  vary  remarkably  in  length  of  bill ;  thus,  of  two  males  before  me,  one 
has  the  bill  fully  a  fourth  longer  than  that  of  the  other ;  but  interme- 
diate specimens  prove  their  identity,  and  there  is  not  the  slightest  differ- 
ence in  other  respects.  In  the  short-billed  specimen,  that  organ  is  in 
form  and  size  absolutely  similar  to  that  of  the  larger-billed  examples  of 
the  Indian  species. 

2.  H.  picaia,  (Sykes):  Musdcapa  tyrannides,  Tickell,  II,  574  ;  Muse, 
hintndinacea  of  Jerdon's  list.*  Common  in  the  hilly  regions  of  Central 
and  Southern  India,  and  in  Arracan. 

3.  H.  capitalis,  (M'Clelland,)  P.  Z.  S.  1839,  p.  157:  H.  picacolor, 
Hodgson.f    Very  closely  allied  to  the  last  (indeed  I  am  not  satisfied 

•  Mr.  JerdoB  Boggetti  that  Muse*  variegata,  Auct.,  is  perhaps  the  female  of  this 
biid.«»l#.  maculaia,  Tickell,  Mr.  Strickland  suspects  to  be  the  European  M.  atrica- 
piUa  (▼.  iuctuosa.  Tern.),  pertaining  to  another  group  of  Flycatchers. 

t  Dr.  McClellond's  coloured  figure  (unpublished)  of  his  Muse.  eapUaUs  is  decided- 
ly Mr.  Hodgson's  bird,  not  very  well  reprssonted. 

2  s 


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306  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  172. 

of  the  propriety  of  its  separation) ;  but  the  back  and  scapularies  appear 
always  to  be  of  a  pitchy- brown  colour  instead  of  green-glossed  black; 
while  the  cap  of  the  male  is  as  black  as  in  the  other,  and  in  the  female 
18  marked  by  a  blackish  tinge:  the  tail,  too,  is,  I  think,  generally  somewhat 
longer,  and  the  scapularies  are  often  more  or  less  brown,  like  the  back. 
Inhabits  Nepal  and  about  Daijeeling,  as  also  Assam. 

A  closely  allied  diminutive  of  these  is  the  Muscicapula  meldnoieues, 
nobis,  XII,  940 :  a  species  common  in  the  Himalaya  and  in  Arracan, 
and  which  the  Society  has  lately  received  from  Java,  so  that  M.  Tern, 
minck  has  probably  named  it.  By  this  and  other  MuscicapuUc,  the 
present  group  would  be  linked  to  the  various  black- billed  blue  Flycatch. 
ers ;  but  I  cannot  pass  conveniently  to  these  just  now. 

Laiage,  Boie.  This  genus  connects  the  preceding  birds  with  the  Gram- 
culince.  I  know  but  of  two  species,  the  L.  orienialis  Gm.,  v.  Turdut 
striga.  Raffles,  and  Sylvia  leucophcsa,  Vieillot, — and  another  nearly 
allied,  but  without  the  white  supercilium,  and  shewing  less  white  on 
the  distal  half  of  the  wing,  from  Australia ;  this  I  take  to  be  Campe- 
phaga  leucomela  of  Vigors  and  Horsfield,  Lin.  Tr,  XV,  215, — those 
authors  describing  only  a  mutilated  female. 

GrauctUus,  Cuv.  The  G.  papuensis,  Cuv.  (v.  Maeei,  Lesson,  and 
nipalensis,  Hodgson,  If^d.  Rev.  1837^  p*  327*)  is  a  tolerably  common 
bird  throughout  India,  as  well  as  eastward  of  the  Bay.  Wing  six 
inches  and  a  half,  and  tail  five  and  a  half.  Cehlepyris  javensis, 
Horsfield^  is  perhaps  distinct,  as  Mr.  Strickland  writes  me  word  that 
its  wing  measures  but  six  inches,  and  total  length  ten  inches  instead 
of  a  foot* 

Campephaga,  Vieillot :  CeblepyriSy  Cuv. 

1 .  Cfimbriata,  (Tern.)  apud  Strickland  (in epistold) : Laniussilens, 
(Tickellt);  Volvocivora  melaschistos,  Hodgson ;  Grauculus  macuhsus, 
M'Clelland  and  Horsfield;  Ceblepyris lugubriSs  SundevaW ;  Blue-grey 
Thrush  of  Latham.  Tolerably  common  in  Bengal,  Nepal,  Assam, 
and  in  Central  India ;  but  has  not  hitherto  been  observed  south  of 
Goomsur. 

*  Mr.  Jerdon  remarks  of  the  ladian  species  —  *'  It  appears  doubtfal  if  this  be 
the  true  papuensis  —  if  not,  it  is  perhaps  the  Or.  Macei  of  Lesson."  Madr.JMm. 
No.  XXXI,  p.  122. 

t  The  South  African  L.  silens  of  Levaillant  is  a  true  Curruca^  of  which  Mr.  Strick- 
land has  lately  favoured  the  Society  with  a  fine  specimen. 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  307 

2.  C.  melanopiera,  nobis,  n.  s.  Nearly  allied  to  the  next,  but  larger, 
and  of  a  deep  ash-grey  colour,  paler  on  the  belly,  and  passing  to  white 
on  the  lower  tail.coverts ;  the  wings  wholly  black ;  and  tail  the  same, 
with  large  white  tips  to  its  outermost  and  penultimate  feathers,  and 
successively  smaller  ones  to  the  rest.  Bill  and  feet  black.  Length 
about  eight  inches,  of  wing  four  and  a  quarter,  and  tail  four  inches, 
its  outermost  feather  an  inch  shorter  than  the  middle  ones.  Discover* 
ed  in  Arracan  (with  so  many  other  new  species)  by  Capt.  Phayre. 

3.  C.  Sykesi,  (Strickland),  Ann.  Mag,  N.  H.  1844,  p.  36:  Cebl. 
fimMatus  apud  Jerdon,  and  probably  C.  canus  apud  Sykes  (the 
young) :  Eastern  Thrush  of  Latham.  Adults  of  either  sex  of  this 
species  have  the  body  light  pure  ashy;  the  head,  neck,  and  breast, 
deep  black;  the  lower  breast  and  abdomen  pale  grey,  passing  gra^ 
dually  to  white  on  the  lower  tail-coverts,  &c.  The  young  (or  appa. 
rently  one-year  old  birds)  have  the  head  grey,  like  the  back;  the 
throat  and  the  entire  under- parts  whitish,  with  dusky  cross-rays,  and 
the  rump  also  rayed  less  distinctly.  It  is  about  equally  common  in 
Lower  Bengal  with  C^fimbriata,  perhaps  rather  less  so;  I  have  never 
seen  it  from  the  Himalaya,  or  the  countries  eastward,  and  it  seems 
to  be  tolerably  common  in  Southern  India. 

A  Ceblepyris  cinereuSy  Lesson,  from  Java,  is  described  in  the  *  Zoo* 
logie  du  Voyage  de  M.  Belanger,'  of  which  I  have  taken  the  follow- 
ing rough  note.  Length  eight  inches.  Bill  robust,  hooked,  toothed, 
dilate  at  borders ;  wings  short,  scarcely  passing  the  croup.  Tail  of 
mean  length,  rounded  as  in  the  others.  Colour  ash-grey  above,  be- 
Death  whitish-grey ;  a  little  brown  spot  before  the  eyes;  wings  brown, 
the  primaries  slightly  edged  with  white,  and  secondaries  tipped  with 
pale  grey*  Approaches  the  Shrikes  in  form  of  wings,  tail,  and  tarse ; 
and  the  Ariami  and  Drongos  in  its  beak. 

There  is  also  a  CebL  culmintUus,  A.  Hay,  from  Malacca,  described 
in  the  Madr,  Journ.  No.  XXXI,  157. 

The  following  species,  from  the  Isle  of  France,  I  presume  to  be  Tanagra 
capensis,  Om.,  referred  to  Campephaga  in  the  Diet.  Class.  The  beak 
is  much  stouter  than  in  the  Indian  species,  also  straighter,  and  more 
strongly  toothed  at  tip,  but  not  very  strongly  hooked :  the  tip  of  the 
lower  mandible  curves  upward,  to  lock  within  the  notch  of  the  upper  one. 
Length  of  an  adult  female  nearly  nine  inches ;  wing  four  and  an  eighth ; 


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308  Notices  and  DescfiptioM  of  various  New  [No.  172. 

and  tail  three  and  a  half:  bill  to  gape  above  an  inch ;  and  tarae  an  indi. 
Upper:-part8  wholly  deep  cinereons,  darker  on  the  crown,  and  paler  on: 
the  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts ;  lores,  and  a  streak  beyond  the  eye, 
blackish-cinereous,  surmounted  by  a  slight  whitish  supereiliam ; 
wings  blackish,  the  feathers  margined  with  grey,  and  two  or  three  of 
the  primaries  slightly  with  whitish ;  winglet  and  coverts  of  the  prima* 
ries  wholly  blackish,  and  anterior  two-thirds  of  the  wing  white  un- 
derneath ;  the  throat  and  lower  tail-ooverts  are  white,  the  breast  light 
ashy,  with  faint  traces  of  cross-rays  in  the  specimen  ;  belly  slightly 
fulvescent  white ;  and  the  tail  is  black,  its  feathers  successively  more 
deeply  tipped  with  white  to  the  outermost ;  form  of  the  tail  slightly 
graduated,  its  outermost  feathers  being  half  an  inch  shorter  than  the 
middle  ones ;  bill  and  feet  dull  black.  A  young  male  differs  in  having 
its  upper-parts  tinged  with  rufous^brown,  deepening  considerably  on 
the  rump ;  breast  and  belly  also  with  ferruginous  patches ;  tibial  fea- 
thers the  same ;  and  I  am  informed  that  the  old  male  has  the  under- 
parts  light  ferruginous.  Gmelin  describes  his  TVina^ra  capenais  to  be 
yellowish,  and  such  is  likely  to  be  the  case  with  a  still  younger  spe- 
cimen than  the  male  here  noticed. 

In  XI,  463, 1  described  a  species  from  the  island  of  Luzon,  by  the 
name  Ceblepyris  ccerulescens.  This  is  a  very  interesting  bird,  from 
its  close  affinity  for  Irena,  which  genus  I  had  considered  to  approxi- 
mate to  the  Grauculinte,  previously  to  remarking  the  affinity  of  this  par- 
ticular species.  In  the  female  and  immature  plumage  of  Irena,  the 
resemblance  to  the  Graueulince  is  seen  more  especially.  Campepka^ 
coerulescens  is  probably  allied  to  C.  cinerea,  (Lesson),  just  noticed; 
having  a  larger  and  stouter  bill  than  the  Indian  species,  more  as  in 
Irena,  only  that  the  tip  is  more  abruptly  hooked  and  emarginated. 
Size  and  general  characters  of  Irena,  but  the  rump-feathers  spinooa 
to  the  feel,  and  the  tail  sub^uadrate,  except  that  its  outermost  fea. 
thers  are  three-eighths  of  an  inch  shorter  than  the  penultimate,  which 
latter  are  also  very  slightly  shorter  than  the  rest.  This  bird  might 
be  regarded  as  the  type  of  a  new  division,  to  which  C  cinerea  should 
also  probably  be  referred. 

Irena,  Horsfield.  A  curious  distinction  between  the  Indian  and 
Malayan  /.  pueHa,  auetorum,  has  been  pointed  out  by  Lord  Arthur 
Hay  ;  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  the  discrimination  of  numerous 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds,  309 

other  closely  allied  species.  In  Ihe  Malayan  bird,  the  under  tail, 
coverts  reach  quite  to  the  end  of  the  tail ;  while  in  L  indica,  A.  Bay, 
they  are  never  less  than  an  inch  and  a  quarter  short  of  the  tail-tip 
in  the  males,  and  generally  an  inch  and  a  half  short  in  the  females. 
I  have  verified  this  observation  upon  so  many  examples  from  both 
regions,  that  there  can  be  no  doubt  of  the  fact ;  and  the  Arracan 
Irena,  and  I  think  also  the  Tenasserim  one,  are  identical  with  that 
of  India.  A  third  beautiful  species  (!>  cganogastra,  VigO>  from  the 
Philippines,  has  been  recently  figured  by  Mr.  O.  R.  Gray, 

Pericrocotus,  Boie :  Phcenicornis,  Swainson ;  Acts,  Lesson.  This 
genus  has  been  approximated  by  Mr.  Swainson  and  others  to  the 
GrauculincB;  but  the  affinity  is  not  particularly  close.  The  follow- 
ing species  are  comprehended — 

1.  P.  miniatMS,  (Tem.)  Malay  countries.  (Non  vidij. 

2.  P.  speeiosus;  Turdus  speciosus.  Lath.:  Muscipeta  princeps, 
Vigors  and  Gould.  Himalaya,  hill  ranges  of  Central  India^  and 
sparingly  those  of  South  India;  common  in  Arracan,  and  extends 
southward  to  the  Malayan  peninsula.  A  few  visit  Lower  Bengal  in 
the  cold  season. 

3.  P.flammetis  ;  Muscicapaflammea,  Forster,  figured  in  Pennant's 
'  Indian  Zoology,'  also  in  Swainson's  Illustrations,  and  more  recently 
by  Mr.  Jerdon :  M,  sub/lava,  Vieillot ;  Phcenicornis  elegans,  (?) 
McClelland  and  Horsfield,  P.  Z.  5. 1839,  p.  156 ;  August  Flycatcher  of 
Latham,  but  the  preceding  species  also  referred  to.  Hab.  South  India 
and  Ceylon.  The  description  and  unpublished  figure  of  P.  elegans, 
from  Assam,  would  seem  to  indicate  this  species  of  Southern  India. 

4.  P.  brevirostris ;  Muscipeta  brevirostriSy  Vigors  and  Gould. 
Himalaya,  and  more  sparingly  the  hill  ranges  of  Central  and  Southern 
India. 

5.  P.  igneus,  nobis :  Malayan  P.  Jiammetis,  auctorum,  and  pro. 
bably  of  Temminck,  p.  c.  263.*  Size  small,  barely  larger  than  P. 
peregrinus,  the  wing  measuring  but  two  inches  and  seven-eighths, 
and  the  rest  in  proportion ;  bill  to  gape  five-eighths,  and  tarse  nine- 
sixteenths  of  an  inch-  Colour  as  in  P.  speeiosus,  except  that  the  outer 
tail-feathers  are  less  deeply  red,  and  the  wing. band  is  proportionally 

*  If  this  be  the  Muse,  jffammea  of  Dr.  Honfield's  Javanese  list,  it  would  account 
for  hia  describing  what  appears  to  be  the  irvtejiammea  from  Assam,  by  another 
name. 


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310  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  172. 

smaller ;  the  fore-part  of  the  wing  underneath,  with  the  band  as  there 
seen,  is  deep  yellow,  and  the  axillaries  are  yellow,  irregularly  tipped 
with  red.  Altogether  the  red  is  of  a  shade  more  igneous  than  in  P. 
speciosus,  but  considerably  less  so  than  in  P,flammeus.  The  female 
I  have  not  seen.  Described  from  Malacca  specimens. 

6.  P.  Solaris,*  nobis,  it.  s.  Length  about  seven  inches  and  a  half,  of 
wing  three  and  three-eighths,  and  tail  four  inches ;  bill  to  gape  five, 
eighths,  and  tarse  nearly  five-eighths.  Male  fuliginous-ashy  above, 
verging  to  black  on  the  wings,  and  quite  black  on  the  tail ;  the  rump, 
wing-spot,  greater  portion  of  the  three  outer  tail-feathers,  and  the 
under,  parts,  bright  reddish  flame-colour  (or  as  in  P.  Jlammeus)  ; 
throat  orange. yellow,  and  the  ear-coverts  pale  grey:  bill  and  feet 
blackish.  The  female  has  the  head  dark  ashy,  like  the  male,  but  the 
back  olive-green,  and  the  flame-colour  of  the  male  is  replaced  by 
yellow ;  sides  of  the  throat  whitish.  The  bill  of  this  species  is  broader 
and  shorter  than  in  the  others.   It  is  common  at  Darjeeling. 

7.  P.  roseus;  Muscicapa  rosea,  Vieillot:  Phcenicornis  affinis, 
McClelland  and  Horsfieldt.  Not  rare  in  Lower  Bengal ;  and  occurs 
also  in  Assam,  Arracan,  and  in  the  forests  of  Malabar. 

8.  P,  peregrinus  ;  Parus  peregrinus,  Lin.  India  generally. 

9.  P.  erythropygius  ;  Muscicapa  erythropygia,  Jerdon :  Cawnpare 
Flycatcher,  and  Turdus  speciosus,  var.  B.,  of  Latham. — South  India, 
Upper  Bengal.  (?)  This  is  a  very  aberrant  species,  and  even  separable 
as  a  subgroup ;  deviating,  as  remarked  by  Mr.  Jerdon,  in  **  its  more 
depressed  bill,  weaker  legs  and  feet,  and  in  the  mode  of  variation  of 
the  female.  In  its  colour,"  he  adds,  *'  the  male  resembles  most  of  the 
species  of  PericrocotuSy  except  in  having  a  white  stripe  on  the  wings, 
and  on  some  of  the  tail-feathers.  The  female  differs  from  the  male 
in  having  ashy.brown  instead  of  glossy-black,  and  cinereous. white 
where  the  male  has  bright  orange-red.  The  irides  also  are  light- 
coloured."  It  seems,  in  fact,  to  be  an  intermediate  form  between 
Pericrocolus  and  Hemipus  of  Hodgson  (p.  305  ante) ;  near  which  latter 
Mr.  Jerdon  formerly  arranged  it,  considering  it  allied  to  H.  picaiusX, 

•  Id  some  collectionB  which  have  gone  to  Europe,  I  have  called  this  speciet  P. 
Aavogularis,  MS, 

t  Identified  from  Dr.  McClelland's  unpublished  figures. 

X  Add»  as  a  doubtful  member  of  the  group,  P/uBnicomist  aureopygia,  A.  Hay,  from 
Hongkong;  Madr,  Joum,  No.  XXXI,  158:  also,  probably,  Lanius  crttentus  of  the 
Diet,  Class,  D'Hist,  NaU^  from  Java. 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  311 

Eurylaimua,  Honfield.  This  group,  the  geographic  limitB  of  which, 
according  to  Mr.  Swainson,  *'  seem  to  be  restricted  to  the  hottest  parts 
of  India/'  is  only  admissible  into  the  Fauna  Indica  from  the  occur- 
rence of  two  Himalayan  species^  the  range  of  both  of  which  extends  to 
Assam,  Sylhet,  and  Arracan.  These  birds  are  the  Raya  sericeogula 
and  R.  rubropygia  of  Mr.  Hodgson,  J.  A,  S.  VIII.  36;  the  former 
standing  as  Psarisomus  Dalhousia,  (Jameson)  Sw.,  and  the  latter 
falling  under  Mr.  Swainson's  Serilophus,  being  very  closely  allied  to  S. 
lunatus,  (Gould),  for  which  it  was  mistaken  in  Proe.  ZooL  Soc.  1839, 
p.  156.  The  differences  are  as  follow : — 5.  lunatus  has  the  whole  upper, 
parts  rufescent,  including  the  crown  and  cheeks ;  and  it  exhibits  a  re- 
markable  structure  of  the  tips  of  its  primaries,  the  third  and  fourth 
especially,  which  terminate  in  acute  points,  as  if  artificially  clipped, 
while  the  secondaries  and  tertiaries  are  truncate,  and  strongly  emar. 
ginate  at  tip;  moreover  the  third  and  fourth  primaries  are  termi- 
nated by  a  large  triangular  white  spot,  and  the  secondaries  and  tertiaries 
have  no  white  bar  near  the  end  of  their  outer  webs:— *5.  rubropygius 
has  the  upper- parts  deep  ash-colour,  with  a  faint  rufescent  tinge  on 
the  back ;  the  primaries  rounded  at  their  tips,  and  narrowly  termi- 
nated  with  white;  the  secondaries  and  tertiaries  slightly  truncate 
and  emarginate  at  tips,  with  a  triangular  white  spot  near  the  end  of 
the  black  outer  web  of  each,  beyond  which  the  colour  is  bluish-grey. 
The  white  lunate  mark  tipping  certain  feathers  of  the  sides  of  the  neck 
is  alike  in  both  species,  and  does  not  seem  to  be  a  sexual  distinction, 
but,  I  suspect,  is  attained  after  two  or  three  moultings  by  both  sexes. 
S.  lunatus  occurs  in  the  Tenasserim  Provinces,  where  also  are  found 
the  Corydon  sumatranus  (which  is  the  species  described  by  Capt 
Hay,  in  X,  575), — Eurylaimus  javanicus  (the  range  of  which  extends 
northward  to  Arracan),— £u.  ochromalus  (v.  cucullatus,  Tem.), — and 
Cymbirhynchus  nasutus  (v.  lemniscatus.  Raffles),  all  common 
Malayan  species,  to  judge  from  their  frequency  in  collections  from  the 
Straits. 

Cymbirhynchus  was  separated  by  Mr.  Vigors  on  account  of  the  for. 
ward  position  of  the  nostrils  and  some  other  particulars;  and  Mr. 
Swainson  lays  much  stress  upon  the  vertical  depth  of  its  bill,  which  cer- 
tainly is  a  marked  feature  in  the  common  Malayan  and  Tenasserim 
species  (C.  nasutus);  but  there  is  a  very  closely  allied  species  in 


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312  Notices  and  Descriptions  of  various  New  [No.  172. 

Arracan,  which,  until  I  had  obtained  a  good  series  of  both,  I  declined 
to  venture  on  distinguishing,  but  which  I  shall  now  designate 

C.  afinis,  nobis.  In  this,  while  the  general  characters  and  colouring 
are  the  same  as  in  C.  nasutus,  the  bill  is  invariably  much  smaller  and 
flatter,  as  in  the  restricted  Eurplaimi,  but  the  nostrils  are  placed  for. 
ward  as  in  the  other.  The  general  dimensions  are  also  less,  the  usual 
length  of  wing  in  C  affinis  being  three  inches  and  a  half,  rarely  thre* 
and  five^^ighths,  and  the  middle  taiU  feathers  three  inches ;  in  C.  namtius 
the  wing  measures  three  and  seven-eighths  to  four  inches,  and  the  tail, 
three  and  five-eighths  to  three  and  three-quarters.  C.  affinis  has  also, 
constantly,  an  obloug  red  spot  margining  the  tip  of  the  outer  web  of 
two  of  its  tertiaries,  and  a  third  margining  the  inner  web  of  the  up. 
permost  tertiary :  in  what  appear  to  be  the  females,  the  latter  spot  is 
red  as  in  the  supposed  males,  while  the  former  are  white :  these  spots 
do  not  occur  in  C.  nasutus.  Lastly,  the  white  upon  the  tail  is  more 
developed  in  C.  ejinis,  and  placed  nearer  the  tips  of  the  feathers:  a 
white  spot  at  the  base  of  the  inner  primaries  is  also  larger  and  more 
conspicuously  shewn. 

If  the  affinity  of  the  Eurytaimi  with  the  South  American  Pipridas 
admit  of  doubt,  the  question  would  seem  to  turn  on  the  relationship  of 
the  former  for  Calyptomena;  for  this  Malayan  genus  appears  truly  to 
approximate  to  Pipra  and  more  especially  to  Rupicola.*  Mr.  Swainson 
distinguishes  two  species  of  Calyptamena  {Lardner's  Cyehpcedia,  *  Me. 
nageries',  p.  296),  as  C.  Rafflesii  and  C.  caudactUa;  and  he  assigns 
India  as  the  habitat  of  the  latter,  erroneously  unless  by  that  word  he 
means  vaguely  '^  the  East  Indies'*,  a  term  now  rapidly  and  properly  fall- 
ing into  disuse.  Notwithstanding,  however,  the  difference  in  the  form  of 
the  tail,  and  which  is  not  so  great  as  Mr.  Swainson  represents  it,  I  feel 
satisfied  that  his  C.  eaudcteuta  is  the  young  of  C.  viridis.  Raffles,  who 
states  that  '*  the  female  does  not  differ  in  appearance  from  the  male." 
The  tail  is  a  little  graduated  in  these  presumed  young  birds,  but  I  have 
never  been  able  to  recognise  the  pointed  form  of  the  feathers  represent, 
ed  by  Swainson,  nor  the  difference  of  size  which  he  indicates ;  indeed 


*  Another  Malayan  genus  with  syndactyle  feet,  and  which  I  have  not  yet  i 
is  the  Crataionyx  of  Eyton,  P.  Z,  S.  1839,  p.  104:  and  to  judge  from  the  brief  Latin 
definitions  of  his  two  species,  Cr,  JIavus  and  O.  ater^  I  think  there  is  every  reason 
to  suppose  them  to  be  the  sexes  mer^y  of  the  same  species. 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  313 

he  adds,  as  a  note,  that  he  had  entertained  saspicions  that  C.  catida- 
cuta  was  merely  the  young  of  the  other ;  but  continues — "  and  yet  the 
different  form  of  its  tail-feathers  is  so  totally  opposed  to  this  supposi- 
tion,  that  until  such  a  similarity"  (meaning  specifical  identity)  ''  is 
established  beyond  all  doubt,  I  must  continue  to  hold  the  opinion 
here  acted  upon."  That  his  C.  caudaeuta  is  a  bird  in  immature 
plumage,  I  feel  no  doubt  whatever ;  and  I  can  only  say,  that  I  have 
again  and  again  seen  it  associated  with  adult  C.  viridis  in  Malacca 
collections,  the  two  being  evidently  intended  by  the  dealers  who 
prepare  these  collections  for  male  and  female  of  the  same.* 

Near  the  Pipridce  of  course  rank  the  AmpelidcB,  to  which  Mr. 
Hodgson  refers  his  genus  Coehoa  (since  called  by  him  Prosorinia), 
V,  359,  XII,  450;  but  this  remarkable  genus  wants  one  noted  charac- 
ter of  the  Ampdidce,  (including  the  Waxwings)  and  Pipridce,  in 
common  with  various  other  South  American  groups,  having  the 
first  primary  but  one  third  of  the  length  of  the  second,  which  again  is 
considerably  shorter  than  the  third.  Of  the  two  species,  C.  purpurea 
seems  common  in  the  S.  £.  Himalaya,  as  at  Darjeeling ;  C.  viridis, 
decidedly  rare.  For  a  specimen  of  this  latter  beautiful  bird,  the 
Society  is  indebted  to  the  lady  of  W.  H.  Oakes,  Esq.,  C.  S. ;  and  the 
late  Mr.  Webb,  of  Darjeeling,  among  numerous  other  specimens  with 
which  he  favoured  the  Society  (including  Alcedo  grandis.  Accentor 
mollis,  Pericrocotus  Solaris,  Troglodytes  punctatus,  Tesia  pusilla, 
Pomatorhinus  ferruginosus,  Certhia  discolor,  Chleuasicus  ruficeps, 
and  other  novelties  yet  to  be  described),  obliged  us  with  what  is 
evidently  a  male,  in  nestling  plumage,  of  C.  purpurea^  which  is 
worthy  of  a  particular  notice.  The  wings  and  tail  are  as  in  the 
adult  male;  but  the  back  is  quite  black,  the  scapularies  and  smaller 
wing-coverts  having  a  central  brown  spot  on  each  feather ;  coronal 
feathers  broadly  tipped  with  white,  having  a  black  margin  at  their 
extreme  tips;  a  portion  of  the  ear-coverts  similarly  marked  with 
white ;  and  the  entire  under.parts  are  light  ferruginous,  with  a  broad 
black  tip  to  each  feather,  less  developed  on  those  of  the  middle  of  the 
throat.  The  plumage  of  the  back,  scapularies,  and  under-parts^  recals 
to  mind  that  of  a  young  male  English  Blackbird. 

*  Since  writing  the  above,  I  have  had  an  opportunity  of  examining  several  dozens; 
and  should  remark  that  I  could  find  no  instance  of  a  transitional  moult,  or  indeed  of 
any  moulting  bird  among  them. 

2    T 


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314  Notices  and  Description  of  various  New  [No.  172. 

Po8T8CBiFT.*»A  farther  collection  of  Cingalese  birds  has  just  been  re- 
ceived from  Dr.  Templeton,  including  some  of  considerable  interest, — ^aa 
the  Gallus  stanleyi  of  Gray,  hitherto  I  believe  only  known  from  Hard- 
wicke's  published  figure  of  the  hen, — and  the  Tetras  bicalcaratus  of  Pen* 
nant,  which  is  quite  distinct  from  the '  Curria  Partridge'  of  Latham  (Per- 
dijf  benulasa,  Val.,  v.  Hardwickii,  Gray,  and  Francolinus  spadiceus.  Ad. 
Delessart),  but  ranks  with  the  latter  and  G,  spadiceus  in  my  genus  GaUo- 
perdix,  which  represents,  in  India^  the  Polyplectrons  of  the  countries 
eastward,  to  which  they  are  much  more  nearly  allied  than  is  generally 
suspected.'*'  Col.  Sykes  thought  he  recognised  the  Gallus  stanleyi  in 
what  he  terms  a  short-legged  variety  of  G.  sonneratii,  occurring  at  an 
elevation  of  4000  feet  above  the  sea  on  the  Malabar  coast ;  but  Mr. 
Jerdon  and  other  subsequent  observers  know  of  but  one  species  of 
jungle-fowl  in  that  part  of  the  country — the  ordinary  G.  sonneratii,  and 
the  females  of  this  bird  have  not  (as  Col.  Sykes  states)  the  "  cartilagin- 
ous spots  on  the  feathers,"  but  young  males  have,  when  in  plumage 
otherwise  resembling  that  of  the  females.  Moreover,  G.  stanleyi  is 
quite  as  high  on  the  legs  as  G,  sonneratii ;  and,  lastly,  Mr.  Jerdon  has 
found  no  indications  whatever  of  G.  sonneratii  having  ever  been  domes- 
ticated, such  as  would  have  appeared  in  the  plumage  of  its  tame  de- 
scendants— or  of  its  having  mingled  its  blood  with  the  ordinary  domes- 
tic stock,  as  Col.  Sykes'  remarks  lead  me  to  suppose. 

It  is  worthy  of  notice  that  specimens  of  Acridotheres  tristis  from 
Ceylon  are  considerably  darker-coloured  than  any  I  have  seen  from  the 
mainland  of  India ;  whence  the  contrast  between  the  vinaceous-brown 
of  the  body  and  the  blackish  hue  of  the  neck  is  very  much  less  decided, 
and  the  white  of  the  vent  and  lower  tail-coverts  is  in  like  proportion 
more  strongly  contrasted  with  the  blackish  vinaceous  colour  of  the 
breast  and  flanks. 

A  similar  relationship  seems  to  hold  between  Dierurus  leueopyyuUit 
(p.  298  ante)  of  Ceylon,  and  D.  aerulescens  of  continental  India :  the 
latter  I  have  never  observed  to  vary ;  but  some  specimens  of  the  Cin- 
galese bird  have  the  corresponding  portion  of  the  abdominal  region  albes- 


*  This  affinity  is  well  exemplified  by  the  general  plumage  of  the  females,  and  by 
the  vertical  carriage  of  the  tail,  as  well  as  by  the  form  of  beak  irregular  number  of 
spurs,  &c.  The  Polyplectron  NorthuB^  of  Hardwicke*s  '  Illustrations'  is  thus  the 
female  of  OaUopercUse  spadiceus.  Ithaginis  of  Wagler,  with  which  Mr.  Q.  B.  Gnj 
confounds  these  birds,  is  an  allied,  but  very  distinct  division. 


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1846.]  or  Little  Known  Species  of  Birds.  315 

cent,  which  in  the  continental  race  is  pure  white ;  the  upper-parts  being 
also  a  shade  blacker ;  and  the  bill  (as  previously  remarked)  seems  always 
to  be  more  strongly  falcate  at  tip  than  in  2>.  carulescens.  The  average 
dimensions,  too,  of  the  continental  race  are  decidedly  greater. 

Pofnatorhinus  horsfieldii  of  South  India  has  an  analogous  representa- 
tion in  P.  melanurus,  nobis,  of  Ceylon,  which  I  shall  describe  with 
other  species  of  this  genus.  Though  approximating  very  closely,  it  is 
as  well  characterized  as  several  admitted  species  of  Malacocercus, 

From  these  and  similar  instances,  it  would  appear  as  if  several  species 
had  a  tendency  to  become  more  intensely  coloured  towards  the  equator ; 
Gallus  bankinus  of  Malacca  is  much  deeper- coloured  than  that  of  India : 
and  the  difference  of  Halcyon  capensis  of  India  and  of  Malacca  (pointed 
out  in  XIV,  190)  is  so  marked  that  Mr.  Jerdon  proposes  to  oall  the 
Indian  bird  H.  brunniceps  (Madr,  Joum.  No.  XXXI,  143 ;)  but  if  con- 
sidered distinct,  it  would"  bear  the  prior  name  of  H,  gurial,  (Lath.) 
Pearson,  X,  633."*"  Our  little  tailor-bird  of  India  (Orthotomus  longi- 
Cauda)  occurs,  but  of  a  considerably  darker  colour,  at  Malacca,  and  to- 
gether with  two  other  species  of  its  genus,  Orth,  edela  and  0.  cinera- 
ceus,  I  could  mention  two  or  three  more  instances ;  but  nevertheless, 
in  the  great  majority  of  cases,  examples  of  the  same  species  from  the 
most  various  localities  are  absolutely  similar.f 
(To  be  continued  J 

Notes,  chiefly  Geological,  from  Seringapatam,  by  the  Hegulla  PasSy  to 
Cannanore.     By  Caft.  Nbwbold. 

The  geology  of  the  country  around  Seringapatam  I  have  already  no- 
ticed, j:  Having  passed  its  walls,  my  route  lay  westward  over  a  strong, 
kunkerous,  uneven,  and  rather  sterile  tract  to  Hussairpore  (eighteen 
miles),  on  the  banks  of  the  Lachmi  Thirth  stream,  a  tributary  to  ihe 
Cauvery,  where  stands  a  ruined  bungalow,  built  by  the  Hon.  Arthur 
Cole. 

Hussairpore,— 'The  formation  is  a  micaceous  gneiss  with  veins  of 
quartz,  and  beds  of  the  same  mineral,  evidently  interstratified  with  the 
layers  of  gneiss.    These  beds,  on  weathering,  leave  the  surface  soil 

*  The  Malacca  H,  capensis  is  also  smaller  than  its  Indian  representative. 
t  On  the  question  of  the  very  close  approximation  of  numerous  allied  species,  tick 
Agassiz,  in  the  Edinburgh  New  Philosophical  Journal,  1842,  p.  97. 
X  Madras  Joamal,  January  1840,  pp.  129—33. 


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316  Noies,  chiefly  Geological,  [No.  172. 

covered  with  their  angular  and  rust-stained  fragments.  Glimmering 
hornblende  rock,  veined  with  milky  quartz,  and  a  pale  flesh-coloured 
felspar  alternate  with  the  gneiss.  The  outgoings  of  two  or  three  dykes 
of  basaltic  greenstone  are  passed  on  the  roadside.  The  surface  of  the 
country  from  Seringapatam  gradually  rises  as  it  approaches  the  ghauts. 

Periapatam. — This  place  is  twenty-five  miles  westerly  from  Hus- 
sairpore,  and  forty-three  miles  from  Seringapatam.  It  stands  on  the 
rise  of  the  western  ghauts  from  the  table  lands  of  Mysore,  on  the 
frontier  of  the  wild  territory  of  Coorg.  To  the  west  the  scenery  is 
mountainous  and  clothed  with  forest ;  fifteen  miles  to  the  north  rises 
Bettadapore  to  the  supposed  height  of  6,000  feet,  one  of  the  loftiest 
summits  of  this  part  of  the  western  ghauts :  the  elevation  of  Periapatam, 
barometrically  calculated,  is  4,000  feet  above  the  sea's  level. 

The  country  between  Hussairpore  and  the  ghauts  is  a  succession  of 
rocky  risings  and  falls  of  the  surface,  covered  for  the  most  part  with 
reddish  alluvial  soil,  over  the  face  of  which  are  scattered  numberless 
angular  fragments  of  the  surrounding  rocks;  especially  white  and 
iron-stained  quartz,  and  occasionally  kunker.  Some  of  these  alluvia 
have  not  travelled  far,  since  we  often  find  the  colour  of  the  surface 
soil  a  true  index  to  the  nature  of  the  rock  beneath  :  viz.  dark-red  or 
coffee-coloured  soil  over  hornblende  rock  and  trap ;  light-red  to  sandy 
soil  over  gneiss  and  granite ;  light  greenish.grey  over  talc-schist,  and 
white,  or  what  is  nearly  white,  over  felspar  and  quartz  rocks. 

The  quartz  beds,  being  usually  harder  than  their  neighbours,  are 
written  in  white  bas-relief  characters  over  the  face  of  the  country. 
They  never  weather — like  the  felspars,  hornblendes,  and  micaceous 
rocks — into  clay,  but  usually  break  up  into  fragments  by  imperceptible 
fissures,  into  which  water,  impregnated  with  iron  from  the  surrounding 
weathered  rocks,  soon  insinuates  itself  and  stains  the  rock.  At  length 
the  particles,  composing  the  fragments  themselves,  lose  their  cohesion, 
and  break  up  into  an  angular  gritty  sand. 

In  the  low  grounds,  intervening  between  the  rocky  swells,  is  a  black 
or  dark-coloured  mould,  which  I  should  hesitate  to  call  regur.  It  ap- 
pears to  me  to  be  the  result,  first  of  vegetation  produced  by  water  rest- 
ing there  (like  the  oases  of  the  desert),  and  finally  of  artificial  culture, 
manuring,  &c. 

In  these  vallies  flourish  groves  of  palms  and  wild  dates ;  and  here 
the  ryot  carries  on  his  simple  process  of  cultivation. 


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1846.]  from  Seringapatam,  to  Cannanare.  317 

At  Periapatam  itself,  basaltic  greenstone  is  seen  in  the  bed  of  a 
nullah  crossing  the  gneiss  and  hornblende  rock,  and  veined  with 
kunker.  Large  blocks  of  fine  red  granite  are  seen  in  the  rained  fort 
walls,  brought  evidently  from  no  great  distance. 

The  ghaut  line  west  of  Periapatam  presents  a  succession  of  round- 
backed  hills  and  smooth  knobs»  which  continue  to  Verajunderpetta  in 
Coorg.  Their  surface  is  covered  with  dark  vegetable  mould,  and 
shaded  by  a  fine  forest,  the  roots  of  which  strike  into  the  red  loam  or 
clay  on  which  the  vegetable  mould  rests.  It  produces  excellent  san. 
dal  wood  for  which  Periapatam  is  a  depot.  It  was  formerly  the  capital 
of  Coorg,  but  fell  under  the  Mysore  Rajas  in  1744,  A.  D.  A  little  to 
the  west,  General  Stewart  in  1799,  with  two  regiments  of  Europeans 
and  three  of  Native  Infiintry,  repulsed  the  Mysorean  army  under  the 
personal  command  of  Tippoo.  The  fort  was  blown  up  during  the 
preceding  campaign  in  1790  by  Tippoo,  in  anticipation  of  General 
Abercrombie's  advance  from  Cannanore. 

Verajunderpetta. — About  eight  miles  from  Periapatam  the  Mysore 
frontier  is  crossed  into  Coorg.  The  soil  is  so  thick  as  to  cover  the 
rocks  of  the  ghauts  from  observation  in  most  part,  and  the  dense  forest 
adds  to  the  difficulty  of  getting  a  good  expos4  of  the  strata.  In  one 
place  I  saw  gneiss  veined  with  a  fine  crystalline  reddish  granite.  Both 
rocks  rapidly  weather  from  the  moisture  and  heat  of  the  climate. 

A  well,  dug  on  the  side  of  the  road,  exhibited  a  stratum  of  red 
clayey  loam,  about  five  feet  thick,  underneath  which  lay  a  bed  of  gra- 
velly local  detritus ;  about  three  feet  below  which,  was  gneiss  with 
much  silvery  mica.  The  gneiss  was  penetrated  by  a  large  granite 
vein  which  appeared  on  the  summit  of  the  hill  in  blocks.  This  gra~ 
nite  passed  into  pigmatite.  Scattered  blocks  of  hornblende  rock,  and 
basaltic  greenstone  also  occur,  the  outgoings  of  dykes  or  beds. 

Laterite. — About  seven  miles  east  of  Verajunderpetta,  I  first  observ. 
ed  laterite  capping,  and  partially  covering,  a  small  round-topped  hill. 
Its  surface  was  bare,  and  cleared  by  the  rains  of  the  ochreous  and 
lithomargic  earths,  which  usually  fill  the  cavities,  and  keep  soft  and 
sectile  the  weather-protected  under-lay ers  of  this  rock.  It  had  almost 
the  dark  scabrous  aspect  of  an  iron  slug  in  some  parts,  but  in  others, 
might  be  seen  distinctly  passing  into  the  sectile  lithomargic  laterite, 
so  much  used  in  building.  Like  sandstones  and  other  rocks,  it  varies 
in  mineral  composition  even  in  the  same  mass— being,  in  one  place, 


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318  Notes,  chiefly  Geological,  [No.  172. 

argillaceous  or  felspathic ;  in  another,  quartzose ;  now^  so  ferruginous 
as  to  pass  into  clay  ironstone ;  and  at  another  time,  presenting  nothing 
but  a  bed  of  compact  iithomarge. 

The  soil  in  the  flats  and  vallies,  where  the  Coorgs  cultivate  rice,  is 
generally  of  a  pale  ochreous  colour  ;  and  is  clayey  from  the  disintegra- 
tion  of  the  felspars  which  prevail  now  in  the  hypogene  rocks.  Frag, 
ments  of  quartzy  iron,  aggregated  garnets,  and  quartz,  mica  slate, 
schorl  and  kaolin  were  picked  up  loose  on  the  road. 

Junction  of  laterite  with  granite. — The  hill  on  which  the  Coorg 
Raja's  palace  stands  at  Verajunderpetta  is  of  granite,  capped  with  late- 
rite.  This  granite  is  composed  of  a  brownish  felspar,  resembling  that 
of  Mount  Horeb,  of  quartz,  black  mica,  and  hornblende.  The  line  of 
superposition  is  seen  on  the  descent  towards  the  Portuguese  Chapel. 
The  granite  is  hard  and  crystalline  at  the  junction,  and  not  in  the 
least  soft  or  friable,  as  it  would  have  been  had  the  mass  of  laterite, 
which  caps  it,  been  nothing  more  than  its  weathered  (in  siid)  upper 
portions ;  as  supposed  by  many  theorists  and  speculators  on  the  origin 
of  this  singular  rock. 

Quarries  of  laterite, — At  a  little  distance  are  the  quarries  whence  the 
blocks  of  laterite  used  for  building  are  excavated.  The  laterite  here 
lies  under  a  thick  layer  of  moist  turfy  earth,  which  keeps  its  surface 
from  hardening  under  the  sun's  rays  or  atmospheric  exposure,  and  is 
80  soft  and  sectile  as  to  be  cut  out  with  the  Indian  spade,  like  turf 
from  a  peat  bog. 

The  /onrn.*— The  palace  of  Verajunderpetta  was  built  only  two 
generations  ba<*k,  by  the  then  Raja  of  Coorg,  whose  name  it  now  bears. 
It  is  a  large  building,  partly  in  the  European  style,  on  the  top  of  a 
hill  or  rising  ground  to  the  west  of  the  Pettah.  The  portico  is  sup- 
ported by  two  elephants,  twelve  or  fourteen  feet  high,  constructed  of 
stucco  and  brick,  over  iron  frames. 

The  woodwork,  glazed  windows,  roof,  and  every  thing  about  the 
palace,  is  finished  in  a  massive  style ;  and  convenient  outhouses  are 
enclosed,  with  the  palace,  within  a  high  and  massive  wall. 

The  town  is  said  to  contain  about  300  houses,  inhabited  princi- 
pally by  the  Coorg  Lingayet  cultivators  of  the  soil,  a  few  Telingas, 
Bengalis,  Mussulmans,  and  a  flock  of  Roman  Catholic  Chrutians 
(about  100),  under  their  Portuguese  pastor.  There  are  two  Jw^m 
maths* 


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1846.]  from  Seringapatam,  to  Cannanore.  319 

The  honses  are  neat,  usually  thatched,  and  shaded  hy  a  small  ve- 
randah in  front :  all  romantically  situated  in  a  sylvan  amphitheatre, 
surrounded  hy  mountain  peaks  and  ridges. 

It  being  market  day,  the  bazar  was  so  crowded  that  I  could  scarcely 
pass.  Here  were  Mapillays  groaning  under  bundles  of  odoriferous 
lalt-fish  from  Malabar  and  Canara,  and  hundreds  of  bullocks  laden  with 
salt  fronoi  Cannanore  and  Tellicherry,  which  is  sold  all  over  Mysore. 
Then  came  the  Coorg  market  people  from  their  sequestered  villages, 
with  bags  of  rice  and  paddy,  baskets  of  eggs,  fruits,  fowls,  dec.  &c. 

The  clean,  neat,  white  dress  of  the  Coorg  females  is  pleasingly  con- 
trasted with  the  gaudy  dark  petticoats  of  the  wandering  Brinjaris, 
who  never  wash  or  change  this  article  of  dress  until  it  drops  off, 
heavy  with  filth  and  vermin. 

The  Coorg  men  generally  wear  a  sort  of  smock-frock,  like  the  Baju  of 
a  Malay  or  Bedouin  woman,  and  usually  go  armed  with  their  peculiar 
knives  which  serve  as  weapons  of  defence,  and  also  to  clear  the  jungles 
they  daily  tread. 

The  larger  of  these  knives  (a  sort  of  hatchet),  is  carried  unsheathed 
in  a  brass  socket,  attached  to  the  btelt  on  the  right  side ;  the  smaller  is 
in  front. 

The  Coorg  does  not  differ  much  in  feature  from  the  Mysorean^  but  is 
invariably  fairer,  from  the  sandy  forest  and  moist  climate  in  which  he 
lives.  He  is  grave  in  manner,  and  in  general  studiously  civil  to  Euro- 
peans. They  are  nearly  all  Lingayets,  and  I  observed  many  of  them 
worshipping  the  numerous  images  of  the  Indian  Apis-Nundi,  set  up  in 
in  the  recesses  of  the  forest. 

Like  the  i\lalays,  they  usually  live  in  separate  campongs,  on  the 
edge  of  the  rising  swells  which  divide  the  rice  fields,  and  which  are 
well  shaded  by  cocoa,  jack,  and  other  fruit  trees. 

The  HeggtUla  Pass — From  Verajunderpetta  to  the  top  of  the  Heg. 
gulla  Pass,  is  about  five  miles  of  forest,  ascent  and  descent,  but  rising 
on  the  whole  to  the  edge  of  the  pass  at  Bokerah. 

Gneiss — in  some  places  overlaid  with  laterite  and  penetrated  by 
dykes  of  basaltic  greenstone — massive  hornblende  rock,  and  glimmering 
hornblende  schist,  are  the  rocks  seen  both  in  detached  blocks,  and  tn 
sUH  at  this  watershed  of  the  great  line  of  elevation.  The  dense  na. 
ture'of  the  jungle  and  the  rain  which  now  began  to  pour  down,  were 
great  obstacles  to  a  full  examination  of  the  geological  features  of  this 


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820  Notes,  chiefly  Geological,  [No  172.  ^ 

chain :  a  few  angular  blocks  of  a  large  grained,  and  a  syenite,  granite 
were  also  seen. 

The  descent  to  the  foot  of  the  pass  is  about  six  miles,  and  extremely 
steep.  At  its  upper  extremity  I  observed  in  a  road  section,  first  a  thin 
layer  of  dark  vegetable  mouldy  then  a  thick  bed  of  red  clay,  under 
which  lay  a  stratum  of  laterite.  Farther  down  in  the  pass,  gneiss  ouu 
cropped.   Some  of  the  cavities,  in  the  laterite,  contained  a  black  bole. 

Fragments  of  white  quartz,  imbedding  large  crystals  of  felspar,  often 
pinkish,  were  picked  up  imbedding  a  silvery- white  mica,  in  large  plates. 

Farther  down  the  pass  I  did  not  see  the  laterite.  Hornblende  schist 
with  garnets  of  a  massive  thick-bedded  structure  was  the  prevalent 
rock.  This  had  often  been  blasted  to  improve  the  road ;  and  the  beds 
of  clay,  which  covered  it,  had  been  removed,  exhibiting  the  different 
stages  of  weathering  which  this  rock  undergoes. 

Blocks  of  this  kind  not  only  often  exhibit  a  concentric  structure 
like  that  of  granite,  but  still  oftener  a  pseudo  internal  structure,  from 
weathering  internally  in  layers  conformable  to  their  exterior  surfaces. 

Fragments,  several  feet  in  diameter,  are  seen  thus  weathered ;  with 
nothing  but  a  dark  crystalline  nucleus  of  the  rock  in  its  original  state 
in  the  centre,  to  tell  us  what  the  variegated  soft  mass  before  us  once 
was.  Even  the  nucleus  disappears  before  the  ravages  of  this  maladie 
dugranit  in  due  time. 

This  decay  does  not  commence  from  the  core,  but  from  the  exterior 
of  the  block,  whence  it  sinks  by  successive  phases  from  the  circam- 
ference  towards  the  centre. 

The  effect  of  these  different  stages  of  decay  is  to  produce,  in  the 
substance  of  the  block,  differently  coloured  bands,  one  within  another, 
(like  the  lines  of  agate)  often  arranged  around  a  nucleus  of  sound 
dark  crystalline  hornblende  rock  in  the  centre.  The  first  band  around 
this  nucleus  is  of  a  grey  colour,  from  the  felspar  whitening,  and  the 
segregation,  &c.  of  the  iron,  which  coloured  it.  The  hornblende 
crystals  are  little  affected,  and  the  felspar  is  often  seen  running  among 
them  in  whitish  reticulation. 

The  next  band  exhibits  the  rock  in  a  state  of  greater  decay.  In 
this  the  hornblende  crystals  have  commenced  to  oxidize;  and,  without 
mingling  with  the  felspar,  assume  an  orange-brown  hue,  still  mottled 
slightly  with  dark  specks  This  band  has  a  mottled  appearance,  and 
resembles  a  w&thered  granite. 


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1846.]  /roM  Seringapatam,  to  Cannanare.  321 

The  third  stage  shows  the  felspar  reduced  to  a  white  clay,  and  the 
oxidated  hornblende  crystals  losing  their  shape,  spreading  their  colour- 
ing matter  in  irregular  patches  through  the  clay.  Where  nests  of 
garnets  occur,  their  disintegration  imparts  a  crimson.mottled  appear- 
ance, often  seen  in  the  white  lilhomargic  earths  of  the  ghauts.  The 
faint  violet,  or  lilac-coloured,  spots  result  from  the  decay  of  amethystine 
qaartx  or  other  minerals,  impregnated  with  manganese  which  imparts 
this  beauttfal  colour :  mica  u^ially  imparts  a  light  bright.red. 

Lastly,  the  whole  of  the  colouring  matter—iron,  titanium,  and  man. 
ganese — become  equally  doused  through  the  day,  which  is  now  either 
of  a  light  ocfareous- brown  colour,  or  reddish-brown,  according  to  the 
greater  or  less  ferruginous  character  of  the  rock.  Where  quartz  prevails 
the  decayed  mass  is  more  friable  and  earthy,  and  the  colours  are  in 
general  lighter  than  in  the  days  resulting  entirely  from  the  disintegnu 
tion  of  felspar  rock ;  a  fact  probably  to  be  attributed  to  the  action  of 
the  alkali,  contained  in  the  latter  mineral,  on  the  metallic  oxides. 

The  red  variety  of  clay  prevails  most  on  the  hornblendic  rocks 
of  the  Heggulla  pass:  near  the  base  of  the  pass  it  lies  in  a  stratum 
twelve  feet  thick,  imbedding  angular  blocks  of  hornblende  rock,  fast 
decaying. 

It  rests  immediately  on  hornblende  rock  in  siitl,  and  is  covered  by 
a  light  brown  earth,  of  mixed  alluvial  and  decayed  vegetable  matter, 
intersected  by  rooto  of  trees,  shrubs  and  grasses,  and  three  or  four  feet 
thick. 

The  roots  of  the  larger  forest  trees  descend  into  the  clay  bed,  which 
is  sometimes  intersected  by  crumbly  veins  of  white  quartz,  which  may 
be  seen  continued  into  the  substance  of  the  clay  from  the  subjacent 
bed  of  rock ;  proving  the  disintegration  to  have  taken  place  in  siiti  ; 
and  that  these  clay  beds  are  not  the  result,  in  general,  of  aqueous 
transportation.  Where  much  iron  and  quartz  prevail,  the  clay  is  apt  to 
become  cellular,  an  appearance  which  must  not  induce  observers  to 
confound  it  with  true  laterite.  The  pass  is  much  steeper  than  those 
of  Devamunni,  Hossamucki,  and  Bisly,  farther  north,  but  is  never- 
theless practicable  for  lightly  laden  bullocks.  The  Bombay  army,  in 
1791,. advanced  towards  Mysore  by  this  route,  and  expended  two  days 
in  dragging  twenty  light  field  guns  up  two  miles,  and  three  weeks 
to  bring  up  fourteen  battering  guns  with  their  tumbrils,  none  heavier 
than  eighteen-pounders.   Near  the  bottom  of  the  pass,  the  true  laterite 

2u 


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322  Notes,  chiefly  Geological,  SfC.  [No.  172. 

18  found,  which,  from  the  base,  coven  the  low  hills  and  knolls  westerly 
to  Vyathoor. 

Siany  River :  /ooi  of  Hegg%dla  pass.-^ln  the  bed  of  this  river  lie 
large  irregular  blocks  of  massive  hornblende  rock  with  garnets,  and  a 
granite  with  both  mica  and  hornblende,  evidently  rolled  down  (like 
those  on  the  slope  of  the  pass«)  from  the  adjacent  heights.  The  horn- 
blende  rock  is  usually  crystalline,  but  there  occur  globular  masses  of 
compact  basaltic  greenstone,  with  needle-shaped  crystals  of  augite 
shooting  irregularly  through  its  substance ;  those  probably  are  from 
some  large  dyke  in  the  vicinity.  The  garnet  occurs  both  massive, 
dodecahedral,  and  semi-foliated ;  the  last  is  the  most  common  variety. 

Fyathoor. -^The  Coorg  frontier  is  crossed  into  Malabar,  close  to  the 
Stony  river,  from  which  the  first  Malabar  village,  Vyathoor,  is  about 
five  and  a  half  miles  distant,  and  about  twenty-nine  and  a  half  miles 
inland  from  Gannanore.  The  adjacent  country  is  rocky,  and  covered 
with  jungle:  laterite  continues  capping  the  granitic  and  hypogene 
rocks,  principally  granitic  hornblende  schist.  The  beds  of  the  mountain- 
streams  abound  with  fragments  of  garnet.  I  found  none  of  the  crystal- 
lized  specimens  of  any  magnitude.  Magnetic  iron-sand  also  is  found 
in  their  beds  in  small  quantities.  The  Moplay  town  of  Ercoor  lies 
about  eleven  miles  farther,  on  a  fine  clear  stream,  called  the  Rokaat, 
which  debouches  near  Mount  Delli  at  Markaree.  The  houses  have 
upper  stories,  are  built  of  laterite,  and  have  a  remarkably  substantial 
and  neat  appearance. 

Cudulfy.^^ThiB  place  is  about  ten  miles  inland  from  Gannanore. 
The  surface  of  the  country  is  rugged  and  uneven,  with  low  hills  and 
clifb  of  laterite,  and  still  covered  with  luxuriant  jungle.  In  many 
places  the  jungle  has  been  fired,  leaving  the  black  precipitous  tabular 
masses  of  laterite,  which  cap  them,  exposed.  The  hornblende  schist  is 
still  seen  in  low  situations.  Black  pepper,  betel  and  rice,  are  exten- 
sively cultivated. 

Caitnanor^.— -Nearer  Gannanore,  passes  are  cut  through  high  diOt  of 
laterite,  and  steps  planed  down  the  sides  of  the  terraces,  which  descend 
towards  the  sea  coast.  Hornblende  schist  veined  with  quarts  is  still 
seen  as  the  underlying  rock.  At  Gannanore,  the  laterite  terminates  in 
high,  sea- washed  cliffs. 


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JOURNAL 


ASIATIC  SOCIETY, 


On  the  Coins  of  the  Independent  Muhammadan  Sovereigns  of  Bengal, 
By  J.  W.  Laidlat,  Esq.*  Co-Secretary  Asiatic  Society, 

Some  months  ago,  as  most  of  the  readers  of  this  Journal  are  perhaps 
aware,  the  greater  part  of  the  collection  of  ancient  coins  belonging  to 
the  Asiatic  Society  was  abstracted  horn  the  Moseom,  and  along  with 
these,  a  valuable  gold  medal,  the  gift  of  the  present  Bmperor  of  Russia. 
About  the  time  when  this  unfortunate  event  occurred,  I  was  engaged  in 
arranging  a  series  of  the  coins  of  the  independent  Muhammadan  sove- 
reigns of  Bengal,  and  had  reason  to  believe,  that  with  the  assistance  of 
the  Society's  cabinet,  which  contaiaed  many  rare  and  unique  specimens 
of  that  type,  I  should  succeed  in  filling  the  gaps  in  my  own  collection, 
and  render  the  series  tolerably  complete.  As  misfortunes,  however, 
rarely  happen  singly,  it  occurred  that  just  about  the  same  time,  my  own 
little  cabinet  sustained  a  similar  loss.  At  a  moment  of  neglect,-— for 
we  have  in  general  but  our  own  negligence  to  blame  for  mishaps  of  this 
nature, — ^nearly  the  whole  of  my  gold  and  silver  coins,  including  many 
nniques,  and  almost  all  of  the  series  now  under  consideration,  a  series 
which  had  employed  many  years  and  much  labour  to  collect,  were 
purloined  from  my  cabinet,  those  of  copper  only  being  spared  to  me, 
as  being  of  too  little  intrinsic  value  to  be  worth  the  labout  of  removal. 

No.  173.     No.  89.  New  Seriis.  2  x 


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324  On  the  Coint  of  the  Independent  [No.  173. 

The  ooins  which  record  the  names  of  the  obscure  Muhammadan 
dynasties  of  Bengal  have,  it  must  be  confessed,  nothing  in  common  with 
the  high  interest  attached  to  the  relics  of  ancient  India  and  Bactria, 
which  bring  us  in  contact  with  times  and  persons  of  classical  renown ; 
or  illustrate  those  dark  but  profoundly  interesting  periods  in  the  world's 
history,  upon  which  the  light  of  tradition  fells  but  dimly.  Yet,  even  in- 
dependently of  their  more  important  use  in  correcting  or  in  confirming 
the  narrative  of  the  historian,  they  have  an  interest  of  their  own  in  their 
very  rarity,  which  is  such,  that  it  is  far  easier  to  procure  the  coins  of 
Alexander  or  his  successors,  than  those  of  the  Sultans  of  Bengal,  of 
whom  indeed  few  other  monuments,  and  scarcely  even  these,  remain.  Of 
Oour,  or  Laknauti,  the  once  vast  and  magnificent  seat  of  their  govern- 
ment, the  capital  whose  wealth  and  splendour  chumed  for  it  the  title  of 
the  '  seat  of  paradise,'  scarce  a  vestige  is  ta  be  seen :  over  its  entire  site, 
once  instinct  with  thronging  multitudes,  nature  has  resumed  her  quiet 
sway,  and  the  last  traces  of  the  mighty  city  are  fast  disappearing  under 
the  peaceful  labours  of  the  husbandman. 

It  is  with  the  view  of  preserving  a  few  authentic  memorials  of  a  dynasty 
of  kings,  of  whose  history  so  little  is  known,  that  I  venture  to  submit 
a  series  of  such  coins  as  escaped  the  disasters  above  alluded  to,  or  were 
happily  figured  before  them.  Some  of  these  are  in  less  perfect  preser- 
vation than  is  desirable ;  but  let  us  hope,  that  such  collectors  as  may  be 
in  possession  of  better  specimens,  will  be  induced  to  supply  impressions 
of  them,  by  means  of  which,  these  defects  may  be  remedied  on  some 
future  occasion. 

The  first  of  the  Muhammadan  rulers  of  Bengal  who  attained  any 
thing  approaching  to  real  independence  was  Iliyas  Shah,  who  success- 
fully resisted  the  arms  of  Feroz  Shah,  and  concluded  a  treaty  of  peace 
with  that  Emperor  at  Akdala,  a.  h.  757.  He  caused  the  coin  of  \m 
kingdom  to  be  struck  in  his  own  name,  the  least  equivocal  sign  of  inde- 
pendent soveieiglity,  without  experiencing  that  immediate  interference 
on  the  part  of  the  Emperor  of  Delhi  which  attended  all  similar  manifes- 
tations of  his  predecessors.  In  this  respect,  as  well  as  in  the  permanence 
of  his  dynasty,  IHyas  Shah  must  be  regarded  as  the  first  independent 
Sultan  of  Bengal ;  for  his  predecessor  Fakhar  ud-din,  who  is  generaily 
considered  so  by  native  historians,  had  scarcely  thrown  off  his  allegiance 
to  Delhi,  when  his  unstable  authority  was  subverted  by  Ali  Mobarik,  an 


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1846.]  Muhammadan  Sovereigns  ef  Bengal.  325 

officer  acknowledging  the  supremacy  of  the  emperor,  who  put  him  to 
death  and  himself  assumed  the  emblems  of  independence.  His  reign, 
however,  if  a  short  usurpation  may  be  so  designated,  was  soon  terminated 
by  lliyas  Shah,  who  assassinated  Fakhar  ud-din,  and  took  possession 
of  the  kingdom,  which  he  governed  with  vigour  for  sixteen  years,  and 
transmitted  to  his  descendants.  The  coins  Nos.  1  and  2  were  struck  by 
this  prince ;  they  bear  no  date,  and  their  execution  is  sufficiently  rude — 

Obvsbsb. 

RSVKBSB. 

He*  died  in  a.  h.  760,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Sekandar  Shah. 

This  prince  reigned,  according  to  Ferishteh,  for  nine  years  and  some 
months,  maintaining  by  the  prudent  adoption  of  his  father's  policy, 
the  independence  and  integrity  of  his  kingdom,  when  the  utmost  efforts 
of  Feroz  Shah  were  once  more  put  forth  to  reduce  him  to  a  state  of 
vassalage.  No.  3,  is  a  coin  of  Sekandar.  It  is  in  good  preservation, 
and  was  procured  at  Santipore,  near  Culna.  It  records  the  titles  and 
paternity  of  this  prince,  but  no  date — 

Obvbbsb. 
Rbvbbsb. 

The  inscription  on  the  margin  is  not  legible.  Sekandar  Shah  died, 
or  according  to  some,  was  killed  in  an  engagement  with  his  son  and 
successor  Gheias  ud-din,  in  a.  b.  76d. 

Nos.  4  and  5,  are  coins  of  the  last  named  Sultan.  As  usual  with  the 
coinage  of  that  period,  they  bear  no  date — 

*  Before  ascending  the  throne  he  was  known  as  Heyi  lliyas ;  he  is  said  to  have 
founded  the  town  of  Hiyypore. 


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326  Oil  the  Coins  of  the  Independent  [No.  173. 

Obvsbsb. 

RsysBSS. 

Gheias  ud-din  seems  to  have  been  a  gay  and  accomplished  prince.  He 
was  in  correspondence  with  the  poet  Hafiz,  who  addressed  an  ode  to 
him.  He  died  according  to  Ferishteh  a.  b.  775,  having  re^ed  six 
years  and  some  months. 

His  son  Seif  ud-din  succeeded  on  the  throne  with  the  pompous  title 
of  Sultan  Assulatin.  I  have  not  been  fortunate  enough  to  procure  any 
coins  of  this  monarch,  but  copy  that  figured  No.  6,  from  Marsden's 
'  Numismata  Orientalia*~^ 

Obvbbsb. 

Rbvbbse. 

Historians  ascribe  to  him  a  reign  of  ten  years.  He  died  in  a.  b.  785, 
and  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Shams  ud-din  Sani,  the  last  of  a  dynasty 
unusually  long  in  those  times.  The  author  of  the  Tabq&t-i-Akbari, 
Nizam  ud-din  Ahmed,  ascribes  a  short  but  prosperous  reign  to  tlus 
prince;  but  Ferishteh  describes  him  as  young  and  inexperienced; 
from  which  we  may  infer,  that  he  was  most  probably  assassinated  by  his 
successor,  a  powerful  Hindu  nobleman,  named  Raja  Kanis,  (Ganesa  ?) 
No  coins  have  been  found  of  Shams  ud-din  Sani,  who  died  in  787. 

As  Raja  Kanis  never  openly  embraced  the  Muhammadan  ftdth,  it  is 
most  probable  that  he  never  issued  the  coin  of  the  realm  in  his  own 
name.  To  have  omitted  the  usual  symbols  of  Muhammadanisin 
would  have  been  a  perilous  experiment  on  the  forbearance  of  the  bigot- 
ed followers  of  the  prophet,  and  to  insert  them  would  have  compro- 
mised the  Raja  with  the  adherents  of  his  own  faith.  Either  alternative 
was,  perhaps,  avoided  by  the  issue  of  no  new  currency  during  his  reigo, 


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1846.]  Bfuhammadan  Sovereigns  of  Bengal.  327 

which  lasted  seven  years.  He  died  in  a.  b.  794,  and  was  succeeded 
by  his  son  Junmnl,  or  Cheitmal.  This  prince  avoided  the  perplexities 
of  his  father's  anomalous  position  by  summoning  the  nobles  on  the 
death  of  Raja  Kanis,  and  publicly  professing  his  conversion  to  Islam, 
which  he  artfully  insinuated  had  taken  place  in  his  early  youth,  but  had 
remained  unavowed  in  deference  to  his  f&ther.  He  assumed  with  the 
emblems  of  sovereignty,  the  title  of  Jellal  ud-din  Muhammad  Shah. 
There  are,  I  believe,  many  of  his  coins  bearing  dates,  according  to  Mars- 
den,  from  819  to  823,  although  the  commencement  of  his  rdgn  is 
fixed  by  historians  in  795  and  its  termination  in  812.  The  specimens 
Nos.  7,  8,  and  9,  are  very  much  defaced,  and  bear  no  date.  The  first 
two  are  taken  from  impressions  presented  to  me  by  the  late  James 
Prinsep.    The  inscription  upon  the  obverse  seems  the  same  in  all — 

and  on  the  reverse  in  Nos.  7  and  9  ^^|  ^\j  &c.  In  No.  8,  apparently 
the  Kalmeh.  This  prince  took  much  pains  to  improve  and  adorn  the 
city  of  Oour,  and  there  may  be  still  some  few  remains  of  public  build- 
ings erected  at  his  expence. 

No.  10,  is  a  coin  of  his  son  and  successor,  Ahmed  Shah,  who  died 
according  to  Ferishteh  and  Nizam  ud-din,  in  a.  h.  830 ;  but  this  coin 
does  him  the  good  service  of  prolonging  his  life  to  836,  which  date  it 
bears.  His  reign,  however,  must  as  to  its  earlier  part  be  curtailed  by  the 
evidence  of  the  dates  on  those  of  Jellal  ud-din — 

Obvsrsb. 

^IkLJI  sU  «>4.flr«  ^.t  sU  «>4^l 
On  the  reverse,  the  Kalmeh  and  date  :— ATI 

After  an  interregnum  of  a  few  days,  during  which,  a  slave  of  the  royal 
household  having  usurped  the  throne,  caused  the  sons  of  Ahmed  Shah 
to  be  murdered,  and  was  afterwards  destroyed  himself.  Nasir  Shah,  a 
remote  descendant  of  Iliyas  Shah,  the  first  of  our  series,  was  summoned 
by  the  nobles  from  the  plough,  to  which  the  adverse  circumstances  of  his 
family  had  driven  him,  to  sit  on  the  throne  of  his  ancestors.     Being 


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328  On  the  Coins  of  the  Independent  [No.  173. 

unable  to  record  a  royal  paternity  on  his  coinage,  he  seems  to  have  con- 
tented himself  with  the  simple  repetition  of  his  name  and  title — ^^UaJL 
sift  yo\i  in  seven  little  circlets,  occupying  the  obverse  of  his  coin 
No.  1 1 .  The  reverse  is  illegible.  I  have  met  with  no  other  coin  of  this 
prince. 

The  next  king  of  Bengal  recorded  by  historians  is  Barbek  Shah, 
whom  they  designate  the  son  of  Nasir  Shah.  But  there  is  reason  to 
reject  this  affiliation  as  incorrect ;  for  Barbek  Shah  describes  himself  on 
his  coinage  as  the  son  of  Mahmud  Shah,  as  does  also  Yusuf,  the  son 
of  Barbek,  as  will  be  seen.  The  same  Mahmud  is  also  recorded  on  a 
subsequent  coin  of  Fatteh  Shah.  But  historians  make  no  mention 
of  such  a  prince.  Can  it  be  that  his  reign  has  been  entirely  overlooked 
by  history  ?  or  did  Nasir  Shah,  at  any  period  of  his  liJFe  subsequent  to 
ascending  the  throne,  change  his  name  for  that  of  Mahmud  ?  There 
are  great  difficulties  in  either  view  of  the  matter,  but  it  does  not  seem 
a  very  bold  conjecture,  considering  the  imperfect  history  of  those  times, 
that  Mahmud  Shah  may  have  been  omitted  in  the  roll  of  princes  that 
has  reached  us.*  The  remarkably  long  reign  ascribed  to  Nasir  Shah 
seems  to  afford  room  enough  for  the  interpolation  of  another  king ;  bat 
on  either  supposition,  I  incline  to  ascribe  to  the  father  of  Barbek  Shah 
the  coin  No.  12  ;  for  an  impression  of  which,  I  was  indebted  to  the  kind- 
ness of  the  late  James  Prinsep.  The  cufic  characters  on  the  reverse  are 
not  usual  upon  the  Bengal  coinage ;  but  the  small  curclets,  with  the 
monarch's  name  on  the  obverse,  seem  to  establish  a  relationship  between 
this  coin  and  the  preceding  one  of  Nasir  Shah.  The  only  words  legible 
on  the  obverse  are — 

On  the  reverse,  the  Kalmeh. 

Of  the  coins  of  Barbek  Shah,  I  have  met  with  none ;  but  to  render  as 
complete  as  possible  the  present  series,  I  borrow  that  figured  in  phte 
No.  13,  from  Marsden's  work — 

*  That  there  is  nothing  very  extravagant  in  this  coigecture  may  be  inferred  from 
the  circumstance  of  the  omission  of  one  entire  reign  (that  of  the  last  Mahmud)  by 
Ferishteh.  The  reign  of  Yusuf  Shah  is  in  like  manner  omitted  in  the  TabqAt-i- 
Akbari ;  but  this  may  possibly  be  the  fault  of  the  transcriber  who  made  the  copy  in  the 
Society's  Library.  Since  the  above  was  printed,  I  have  met  with  a  coin  of  Mahnnd, 
which  bears  a  strong  family  likeness  to  those  of  Fatteh  Shah  in  the  Plate. 


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1846.]  Muhammadan  Sovereigns  of  Bengal.  329 

Obtbbbe. 

Rbvbrbb. 

The  Kalmeh  and  date  873. 

The  next.  No.  14»  is  a  coin  of  his  son  and  successor  Yusuf  Shah. 
For  this  handsome  specimen  I  am  indebted  to  the  kindness  of  my  friend 
Mr.  Maseyk  of  Junghipore,  whose  skill  in  the  acquisition  of  these  re- 
lics is  unrivalled.  This  coin  confirms  the  affiliation  of  Barbek  Shah, 
and  leaves  no  room  to  doubt  that  a  prince  named  Mahmud  Shah  sat  on 
the  throne  of  Bengal;  but  whether  identical  or  not  with  Nasir  Shah, 
we  have  at  present  no  monuments  to  determine.  It  is  most  singular, 
however,  that  no  mention  should  be  made  of  this  name  in  the  history  of 
the  times — 

Obvbrsb. 

Rbvbbsb. 

The  Kalmeh  and  date— MP  iGljaL 

After  the  death  of  Yusuf  Shah,  a  youth  of  the  royal  family  was  raised 
to  the  throne,  with  the  title  of  Sekander  Shah,  but  was,  after  a  few 
weeks,  deposed  for  incapacity,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  uncle  Fatteh 
Shah.  Historians  do  not  mention  the  genealogy  of  this  king ;  but  his 
coins,  Nos.  15  and  16,  which  are,  as  far  as  I  am  aware,  unique,  make  him 
the  son  of  Mahmud  Shah,  and  consequently  the  brother  of  Barbek 
Shah.     The  inscription  on  these  coins  runs  from  reverse  to  obverse — 

Fatteh  Shah  was  killed  according  to  Ferishteh,  in  a.  h.  896,  by 
Barbek,  a  eunuch,  who  usurped  the  throne  under  the  tide  of  Sultan 


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330  On  the  Cains  of  the  Independent  [No.  173. 

Shahzada,  and  reigned  about  eight  months.  He  was,  in  his  turn, 
assassinated  by  an  Abyssinian,  named  Mulk  Andiel,  who  setting  aside 
the  legitimate  heir,  a  son  of  Fatteh  Shah,  assumed  the  royal  authority 
with  the  title  of  Feroz  Shah.  We  must  not  be  surprised  if  there  remain 
but  few  coins  or  other  monuments  of  those  barbarous  and  unsettled 
times,  when,  as  the  Persian  historian  naively  remarks,  "  to  have  killed 
the  murderer  of  the  king  was  deemed  in  Bengal  a  sufficient  title  to  the 
vacant  throne."*  Of  Sultan  Shahzada  there  are  no  coins  extant: 
perhaps  none  were  ever  struck ;  but  Marsden  has  preserved  one  of 
Feroz  Shah,  of  which,  to  continue  the  series,  I  here  give  a  copy — 

Obvbrsb. 

^j3aLJ\  sU  ^^  vsM»^!>  '^•^'s^ 
Rbvbssb. 

♦     *     ♦     ♦     ^LjJJ^  j^l  ^^IfcJUJl 

Date  on  the  margin  of  the  obverse — A^  V>  897. 

At  the  death  of  Feroz  Shah,  he  was  succeeded  on  the  throne  by  Mah- 
mud  Shah,  stated  by  Ferishteh  to  have  been  his  son.  Of  this  prince 
I  have  met  with  no  coins ;  at  least  with  none  that  can  be,  with  certainty, 
ascribed  to  him.  His  reign  was  a  very  short  one,  and  specimens  of  his 
coinage  are  not  likely  therefore  to  be  numerous.  Amongst  the  coins 
figured  by  Marsden,  as  those  of  the  Patau  dynasty  of  Hindoostan,  is  one 
of  Mahmood  Shah,  so  palpably  that  of  a  Bengal  king,  that  it  is  difficnlt 
to  imagine  how  it  could  be  ascribed  to  any  other.  There  is  no  date 
upon  it  to  enable  us  to  fix  it  with  certainty  upon  the  son  of  Feroz  Shah; 
but  the  execution  of  the  coin  and  the  locale  of  coinage,  ^tiUf^ 
of  which  several  letters  are  legible,  leave  no  doubt  of  the  class  to  which 
it  belongs :  and  as  there  is  no  other  Mahmud  with  whom  he  can  be 
confounded,  unless  it  be  the  apocryphal  father  of  Barbek  (for  the  coins 
of  Mahmud,  the  son  of  Husein,  are  very  distinct  from  this),  I  have  little 
doubt  that  this  is  the  appropriate  place  for  it — 

\j  3^  ^  U  \^>l£^  9^y>  ^  A^  rilio  j^j  ^\  oJL^  ^U  ♦ 
FerUteh,  jJL^  C^  ji  ^J  j^lsrf  »^  «3^b  ull^y  ^  aSj!  j  ^J^. 


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1846.]  Muhammadan  Sovereigns  of  Bengal,  331 

No.  18.  Obybhsb. 

sl^      Ay^S^  JJ^JS!^1yJ}      ^Si\^      l-JjJf  jJ^^     JaWI   vj;lkJUJI 

Rbvbbss. 

The  reign  of  Mahmud  Shah  was  a  short  one.  In  a.  h.  900,  he 
was  murdered  by  Seddee  Badr  Dewaneh,  who  ascended  the  throne  with 
the  title  of  Moza£fer  Shah.  No.  19  is  a  coin  of  this  execrable  prince, 
which  Marsden  has  erroneously  ascribed,  as  the  foregoing,  to  the  Patan 
sovereigns  of  Hindoostan.  In  execution  and  other  respects,  it  is  so  per- 
fectly coincident  with  other  Bengal  coins,  that  there  need  be  no  hesita- 
tion in  appropriating  it  to  the  present  king,  the  only  one  of  the  name 
among  those  of  Bengal-— 

Obvbrsb. 

Rbvbrsb. 

The  Kalmeh. 

M ozaffer  Shah  reigned  about  three  years,  during  which  he  rendered 
himself  hateful  to  his  subjects  by  his  many  atrocities.  He  suffered  in 
turn  the  same  fate  which  he  had  inflicted  on  his  predecessor;  and 
Ala  ud-din  Husein  Shah,  a  nobleman  of  distinguished  but  not  royal 
rank,  ascended  the  throne  by  the  usual  path  of  blood.  This  prince 
enjoyed  a  degree  of  authority  and  safety,  which  had  not  fallen  to  the  lot 
of  any  of  his  recent  predecessors.  Of  his  coins  numerous  specimens 
are  extant,  bearing  testimony  by  their  number  and  variety,  to  his  peace- 
ful and  prosperous  government.  Nos.  20  and  21,  are  two  out  of  many 
that  have  passed  through  my  hands.  The  inscription  continues  from  * 
the  reverse  to  the  obverse — 

2  Y 


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332  On  the  CoinB  of  the  Independent  [No.  173. 

Husein  Shah  reigned  twenty-four  years,  and  notwithstanding  some 
unjustifiable  proceedings  in  the  early  part  of  his  career,  was  deserredly 
beloyed  by  his  subjects,  and  respected  by  surrounding  governments. 
The  emperor  Sekandar,  who  had  subdued  the  proyince  of  Behar, 
marched  against  Husein  Shah ;  but  found  it  conyenient  to  arrange  a 
treaty  of  peace  with  so  vigorous  a  prinee,  and  withdraw  towards  Delhi, 
ere  the  commission  of  aggression  on  either  side  rendered  a  friendly 
adjustment  impracticable.  Ala  ud-din  died  in  927  at  Oour,  where  his 
tomb  still  exists.  Many  monuments  of  this  reign  are  scattered  oyer  the 
country. 

Husein  Shah  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Nasrat  Shah,  or,  as  he  ii 
improperly  styled  by  historians,  Naaib  Shalu  From  the  accession  of 
this  prinee  may  be  dated  the  decline  of  the  independent  kingdom  of  Ben« 
gal.  The  chronology  of  his  reign  is  inyolved  in  much  perplexity,  which 
unfortunately  the  dates  upon  the  coinage  of  the  times,  do  not  assist  in 
unravelling.  Historians  seem  to  have  fused  the  events  of  two  reigns, 
those  of  Nasrat  Shah  and  his  successor,  into  one  ;  and  notwithstanding 
their  comparative  recency,  there  is  more  uncertainty  and  confusion  in 
the  history  of  those  times,  than  in  that  of  the  earlier  periods  of  the 
kingdom.  The  coins  Nos.  22  and  23.  are  two  of  several  that  have  pasted 
through  my  hands.  They  have  no  date,  but  their  legend  and  the  locale 
of  their  coinage  leave  no  doubt  as  to  the  propriety  of  their  ascription  to 
this  prince.     The  inscription  reads  from  reverse  to  obverse — 

Nasrat  Shah  came  to  the  throne  under  the  most  favourable  auspices, 
as  far  at  least  as  regarded  the  internal  condition  of  his  government  as 
bequeathed  by  his  wise  and  vigorous  father ;  but  from  his  cruel  and 
tyrannical  disposition  gave  great  disgust  to  his  subjects  and  dependents. 
He  was  assassinated  by  his  own  servants  after  a  reign,  (according  to 
historians)  of  eleven  years.  This  would  make  the  date  of  his  death  938, 
(according  to  others  it  was  940  or  943.)  but  this  does  not  agree  with 
the  date  inscribed  upon  the  next  coin. 

Nasrat  Shah  was  succeeded  by  Mahmud  Shah.  This  king  is  altoge- 
ther omitted  by  the  author  of  the  Tabqftt-i-Akbari,  who  ascribes  all 


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